Growth, Photosynthesis and Quality of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) as Influenced by Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNP) Application

Main Article Content

Rukhsar- E- Rashim Mohammed Yusufirashim
Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim
Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah
Ayu Azera Izad


Aims: To characterize the growth, carbon assimilation and quality of Ipomoea aquatica as influenced by magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) application as well as to determine the best rates of iron oxide nanoparticles that give high growth, carbon assimilation and quality of Ipomoea aquatica.

Study Design: Ipomoea aquatica plants were exposed to four different treatments of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4) (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg L-1). The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. One unit of experiment consisted of 8 plants and there were 96 plants used in the experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, between March 2018 and July 2018.

Methodology: The growth parameters measured included: plant height, basal diameter, total leaf number, leaf temperature, total chlorophyll content and plant biomass. The carbon assimilation parameters were measured using IRGA (Infrared Gas Analyzer, LICOR 6400 XT Portable Photosynthesis System). i.e. transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance and water use efficiency (WUE). The chlorophyll fluorescence were measured by using Pocket PEA that measured maximum efficiency of photosystem ii, (fv/fm), maximum quantum yield of phytochemical and non-photochemical process in photosystem II (fv/fo), minimal fluorescence (fo), performance index (PI) and Density of Reaction Centers Per PSII Antenna Chlorophyll (RC/ABS). Total phenolics and flavonoids contents in leaves were measured using Folin-Ciocalteu method.

Results: It was observed that plant height, shoot length, plant temperature, total biomass, and total chlorophyll content were significantly influenced (p≤0.05) by the different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles. The net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/fm), maximum quantum yield of phytochemical and non-photochemical process in photosystem II (Fv/fo), performance index and the density of reaction centers per PSII antenna chlorophyll of Ipomoea aquatica were significantly reduced at higher concentration of magnetic nanoparticles. However, water use efficiency and minimal fluorescence value (Fo) of Ipomoea aquatica increased with increase of MNP concentration. In addition, the application of magnetic nanoparticles significantly influenced (P≤0.05) the total flavonoids and total phenolics content in water spinach. Both of these parameters were increased when higher concentration of magnetic nanoparticles was applied to Ipomoea aquatica. This study showed that MNP affected the growth, carbon assimilation and secondary metabolites production of Ipomoea aquatica.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the higher concentration of magnetic nanoparticles reduced the growth rate and carbon assimilation of water spinach and enhanced the production of secondary metabolites.

Vegetables, nanoparticles, growth, photosynthesis, biometabolites

Article Details

How to Cite
Yusufirashim, R.- E.- R., Ibrahim, M., Abdullah, C. A., & Izad, A. (2019). Growth, Photosynthesis and Quality of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) as Influenced by Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNP) Application. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 31(6), 1-15.
Original Research Article


Salaries T. Department of Statistics Malaysia Press Release. 2016;1–4.

Department of Statistics Malaysia Press Release. Press Release Supply and Utilization Accounts Selected Agricultural Commodities, Malaysia 2012-2016. 2017;1–4.

Department of Statistics Malaysia Press Release. 2018;4–6.
(Retrieved from on September 15, 2018)

Ibrahim MH, Yasmin N, Rahman A, Amalina N, Zain M. Effect of nitrogen rates on growth and quality of water spinach (Ipomea aquatica). Annual Research & Review in Biology. 2018;26(1):1–12.

Dua TK, Dewanjee S, Gangopadhyay M, Khanra R, Zia-Ul-Haq M, De Feo V. Ameliorative effect of water spinach, Ipomea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2015;13(1):1–17.

Xiao Q, Wong MH, Huang L, Ye Z. Effects of cultivars and water management on cadmium accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk.). Plant and Soil. 2015;391(1–2):33–49. DOI:

Markides H, Rotherham M, El Haj AJ. Biocompatibility and toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles in regenerative medicine. Journal of Nanomaterials. 2012;13–15.

Lu AH, Salabas EL, Schüth F. Magnetic nanoparticles: Synthesis, protection, functionalization, and application. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition. 2007;46(8):1222–1244.

Nair R, Varghese SH, Nair BG, Maekawa T, Yoshida Y, Kumar DS. Nanoparticulate material delivery to plants. Plant Science. 2010;179(3):154–163.

Da Silva LC, Oliva MA, Azevedo AA, De Araujo JM. Responses of resting a plant species to pollution from an iron pelletization factory. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2006;175:241–256.

Lin C, Fugetsu B, Su Y, Watari F. Studies on toxicity of multi walled carbon nanotubes on Arabidopsis T87 suspension cells. J. Hazard. Mat. 2009;170:578-583.

Tiwari DK, Dasgupta-Schubert N, Villasenor LM, Tripathi D, Villegas J. Interaction of carbon nanotubes with mineral nutrients for the promotion of growth of tomato seedlings. Nano Stud. 2013;7:87–96.

Zhao J, Davis LC, Verpoorte R. Elicitor signal transduction leading to production of plant secondary metabolites. Biotechnology Advances. 2005;23:283–333. DOI:

Izad AI, Ibrahim MH, Azurahanim C, Abdullah C, Amalina N, Zain M. Growth, leaf gas exchange and secondary metabolites of Orthosiphon stamineus as affected by multiwall carbon nanotubes application. Annual Research & Review in Biology. 2018;23:1–13.

Karlsson HL, Cronholm P, Gustafsson J, Möller L. Copper oxide nanoparticles are highly toxic: A comparison between metal oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21(9):1726-32.

Martínez-Fernández D, Barroso D, Komárek M. Root water transport of Helianthus annuus L. under iron oxide nanoparticle exposure. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016;23(2):1732–1741.

Liu R, Zhang H, Lal R. Effects of stabilized nanoparticles of copper, zinc, manganese, and iron oxides in low concentrations on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination: Nanotoxicants or nanonutrients? Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2016;227(1):42.

Ruttkay-Nedecky B, Krystofova O, Nejdl L, Adam V. Nanoparticles based on essential metals and their phytotoxicity. Journal of Nanobiotechnology. 2017;15(1):119.

Singh S, Singh BK, Yadav SM, Gupta AK. Applications of nanotechnology in agricultural and their role in disease management. Research Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 2015;5(1):1-5.

Mahdavi M, Ahmad MB, Haron MJ, Namvar F, Nadi B, Rahman MZA, Amin J. Synthesis, surface modification and characterisation of biocompatible magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Molecules. 2013;18(7):7533-7548.

Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A, Rahman ZA. The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids production with total non structural carbohydrate and photosynthetic rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under high CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. Molecules. 2011;16(1):162-174.

Becker M, Asch F. Iron toxicity in rice conditions and management concepts. Journal of Plant Nutrition Soil Science. 2005;168:558–573.

Rui M, Ma C, Hao Y, Guo J, Rui Y, Tang X, Zhu S. Iron oxide nanoparticles as a potential iron fertilizer for peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016;7(6):1–10.

Dhoke SK, Mahajan P, Kamble R, Khanna A. Effect of nanoparticles suspension on the growth of mung (Vigna radiata) seedlings by foliar spray method. Nanotechnology Development. 2013;3(1).

Chrispeels MJ, Agre P. Aquaporins: Water channel proteins of plant and animal cells. Elsevier Science. 1994;8073–8077.

Pressure T, Kirkham MB, Gardner WR, Gerloff GC. Regulation of cell division and cell enlargement. Plant Physiology. 1972;49:961–962.

Sheykhbaglou R, Sedghi M. Effects of nano-iron oxide particles on agronomic traits of soybean. Not Sci Biol. 2010;2(2): 112–113.

Jeyasubramanian K, Gopalakrishnan Thoppey UU, Hikku GS, Selvakumar N, Subramania A, Krishnamoorthy K. Enhancement in growth rate and productivity of spinach grown in hydroponics with iron oxide nanoparticles. RSC Advances. 2016;6(19):15451–15459. DOI:

Du W, Tan W, Peralta-videa JR, Gardea-torresdey JL. University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry; 2016.

Gates DM. Transpiration and leaf temperature. Plant Physiology. 1968;19: 211-238.

Racuciu M, Creanga D, Olteanu Z. Water based magnetic fluid impact on young plants growing. Rom. Rep. Phys. 2009;61(2):259-268.

Britt DW, Johnson WP, Boyanov MI, Anderson AJ. CuO and ZnO nano-particles : Phytotoxicity, metal speciation, and induction of oxidative stress in sand-grown wheat. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2012;14:1125.

Li J, Chang PR, Huang J, Wang Y, Yuan H, Ren H. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 2013;13(8):5561–5567. DOI:

Shweta, Tripathi DK, Shweta S, Swati S, Dubey NK, Chauhan DK. Impact of nanoparticles on photosynthesis: Challenges and opportunities. American Scientific Publishers. 2016;5(5):404-411.


Rizwan M, Ali S, Farooq M, Sik Y, Adrees M, Ibrahim M, Abbas F. Effect of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on growth and physiology of globally important food crops: A critical review. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2017;322(2):16.

Blum A. Field crops research effective use of water (EUW) and not water-use efficiency (WUE) is the target of crop yield improvement under drought stress. Field Crop Research. 2009;112:119– 123.

Nurfarahin S. Growth, leaf gas exchange and secondary metabolites of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) as affected by carbon nanotubes application. Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia; 2017.

Maxwell K, Johnson GN. Chlorophyll fluorescence -a practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2000;51(345):659–668.

Gao J, Xu G, Qian H, Liu P, Zhao P, Hu Y. Effects of nano-TiO2 on photosynthetic characteristics of Ulmus elongata seedlings. Environmental Pollution. 2013;176:63-70.

Qi M, Liu Y, Li T. Nano-TiO 2 Improve the photosynthesis of tomato leaves under mild heat stress. Biology Trace Element Research. 2013;156:323–328.

Mehta P, Jajoo A, Mathur S, Bharti S. Plant physiology and biochemistry chlorophyll a fluorescence study revealing effects of high salt stress on photosystem II in wheat leaves. Plant Physiology et Biochemistry. 2010;48(1):16–20.

Živčák M, Brestič M, Olšovská K, Slamka P. Performance index as a sensitive indicator of water stress in Triticum aestivum L. Plant Soil Environment. 2008;54(4):133–139.

Appenroth K, Sto J. Multiple effects of chromate on the photosynthetic apparatus of Spirodela polyrhiza as probed by OJIP chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Environmental Pollution. 2001;115:49-64.

Kim D, Weon S, Lee CY. Antioxidant capacity of phenolic phytochemicals from various cultivars of plums. Food Chemistry. 2003;81:321–326.

Subbiah R, Veerapandian M, Yun KS. Nanoparticles: Functionalization and multifunctional applications in biomedical sciences. Curr. Med. Chem. 2010;17: 4559–4577.