Role of Prevalent Weeds and Cultivated Crops in the Epidemiology of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Major Maize Growing Agroecological Zones of Uganda

Main Article Content

Barnabas Mudde
Dora C. Kilalo
Florence M’mogi Olubayo
Godfrey Asea
Andrew Kiggundu
Daniel Bomet Kwemoi
Douglas Watuku Miano

Abstract

In Uganda, the severe Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease, which threatens subsistence maize production is caused by co-infection of maize plants with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). However, there is no information about natural hosts of MLN causing viruses and their role in epidemiology of MLN in Uganda. The aim of this study was to determine existence of natural alternative weed and cultivated crop hosts of MLN causing viruses. Three seasonal surveys between 2014 and 2015 were carried out in five major maize growing agroecological zones of Uganda. Weeds and cultivated crops growing in proximity to maize were observed for virus symptoms and tested for MLN causing viruses using Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Data was collected on frequency of occurrence of weeds and cultivated crop species and MLN virus disease incidence. Digitaria abyssinica, Bidens pilosa and Commelina benghalensis were the most common weed species while Phaseolus vulgaris, Manihot esculenta, Arachis hypogaea), Musa sp, Glycine max and Ipomoea batatas were most common cultivated crops. Pennisetum purpureum, Digitaria abyssinica, Cyperus rotundus, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis and Eleusine indica weeds species are natural hosts of Maize chlorotic mottle virus. Among the cultivated crops, Phaseolus vulgaris, Manihot esculenta and Sesamum indicum are natural hosts of MCMV. Only Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tested positive for SCMV. MCMV incidence in weeds ranged from 2% to 63%% and 2% to 29% in cultivated crops. MLN causing viruses were prevalent in weeds and cultivated crops located in known hotspots for MLN in Uganda. The study has revealed that alternative hosts of MLN-causing viruses are present in major maize growing agroecological zones of Uganda and act as sources of inoculum to sustain MLN epidemics.

Keywords:
Alternative weed hosts, epidemiology, maize lethal necrosis, Uganda

Article Details

How to Cite
Mudde, B., Kilalo, D. C., Olubayo, F. M., Asea, G., Kiggundu, A., Kwemoi, D. B., & Miano, D. W. (2019). Role of Prevalent Weeds and Cultivated Crops in the Epidemiology of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Major Maize Growing Agroecological Zones of Uganda. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 32(3), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i330084
Section
Review Article

References

Adams IP, Harju VA, Hodges T, Hany U, Skelton A, Rai S, Deka MK, Smith J, Fox A, Uzayisenga B, Ngaboyisonga C, Uwumukiza B, Rutikanga A, Rutherford M, Ricthis B, Phiri N, Boonham N. First Report of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Rwanda. New Dis. Rep. 2014;29(22).
Avilable:http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2014.029.022

Kitenge K. Current status of maize lethal necrosis disease in Tanzania. Paper Presented during Regional Workshop on Maize Lethal Necrosis and Its Management, Nairobi Safari Club, Kenya, February 12-14th, 2013; 2012.

Wangai AW, Redinbaugh MG, Kinyua ZM, Miano DW, Leley PK, Kasina M, Mahuku G, Scheets K, Jeffers D. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize lethal necrosis in Kenya. Plant Dis. 2012;96(10):1582-1583.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-12-0576-PDN

IPPC. New pest of maize: Maize lethal necrosis in Uganda. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. UGA-01/2, No.UGA-01/2. Rome, Italy: FAO; 2014.
Available:https://www.ippc.int/

Asea G. MLN in Uganda: A disease on the move. A Paper Presented during Workshop on Maize Lethal Necrosis and Its Management, February 12-14th 2013, Nairobi Safari Club; 2013.

Lukanda M, Owati A, Ogunsanya P, Valimunzigha K, Katsongo K, Ndemere H, Kumar PL. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus infecting maize in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Plant Dis. 2014;98(10):1448-1449.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0484-PDN

Scheets K. Maize chlorotic mottle virus. In Viruses and Virus Diseases of Poaceae (Gramineae), H. Lapierre and P.A. Signoret, Eds. 2004;642-644.

Wang Q, Zhou XP, Wu JX. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus infecting sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). Plant Dis. 2014;98(4):572-572.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0727-PDN

Kusia ES, Subramanian S, Nyasani JO, Khamis F, Villinger J, Ateka EM, Pappu HR. First report of lethal necrosis disease associated with co-infection of finger millet with Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus in Kenya. Plant Dis. 2015;99(6):899-900.
Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1048-PDN

Bockelman DL, Claflin LE, Uyemoto JK. Host range and seed-transmission studies of Maize chlorotic mottle virus in grasses and corn. Plant Dis. 1982;66(3):216-218.
DOI: 10.1094/PD-66-216

Nelson S, Brewbaker J, Hu J. Maize chlorotic mottle virus. Plant Dis. 2011;79:1-6.

Rao GP, Jain RK, Varma A. Occurrence of maize dwarf mosaic virus on maize and Sudan grass in India. Plant Dis. 1996;80(6):711.

Brunt A, Crabtree K, Gibbs A. Viruses of tropical plants. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International. 1990;707.

Toler RW. Maize dwarf mosaic, the most important virus disease of sorghum. Plant Dis. 1985;69(11):1011-1015.

Kusia Elizabeth Siago. Characterization of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and sugarcane mosaic virus causing maize lethal necrosis disease and spatial distribution of their alternative hosts in Kenya. Msc. Thesis; 2014.

Mahuku G, Lockhart BE, Wanjala B, Jones MW, Kimunye JN, Stewart LR, Cassone BJ, Sevgan S, Nyasani JO, Kusia E, Kumar PL, Niblett CL, Kiggundu A, Asea G, Pappu HR, Wangai A, Prasanna BM, Redinbaugh M. Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN), an emerging threat to maize-based food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. Phytopathology. 2015;105(7):956-965.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-12-14-0367-FI

Wottman CS, Eledu CA. Uganda’s agroecological zones. A guide to planners and policy makers. Centro Internationale due Agricultural Tropical CIAT, Kawanda, Uganda; 1999.

Phillips S, Namaganda M, Lye KA. Ugandan Grasses. Department of Botany, Makerere University. 2003;115.

Mudde B, Olubayo FMM, Miano DW, Asea G, Kilalo DC, Kiggundu A, Bomet DK, Adriko J. Distribution, incidence and severity of maize lethal necrosis disease in major maize growing agro-ecological zones of Uganda. J. Agric. Sci. 2018;10(6): 72.

Clark MF, Adams AN. Characteristics of the microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 1977;34:475-483.
DOI: 10.1099/0022-1317-34-3-475

Biswanath Das, Daniel Jeffers, George Mahuku, Yoseph Beyene, Dan Makumbi, Anne Wangai. Standardized screening protocols for MLN. A Paper Presented during a Regional Workshop on Maize Lethal Necrosis and Its Management Strategies, February 12-14th 2013, Nairobi Safari Club; 2013.

Terry PJ, Webb M. Weed problems in Uganda: Report of Visit 5-7 May. NRI International Document; 1992.

Persley DM, Thomas JE, Sharman M. Tospoviruses – an Australian perspective. Australas Plant Path. 2006;35:161–180.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1071/AP06015

Wilson CR. Incidence of weed reservoirs and vectors of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus on southern Tasmanian lettuce farms. Plant Path. 1998;47:171–176.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.1998.00227.x

Huang J, Wen GS, Li MJ, Sun CC, Sun Y, Zhao MF, He YQ. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus naturally infecting sorghum and coix seed in China. Plant Dis. 2016;100(9):1955-1955.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-16-0251-PDN

Achon MA, Serrano L, Clemente-Orta G, Sossai S. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus on a Perennial Host, Sorghum halepense, and Maize in Spain. Plant Dis. 2017;101(2):393-393.

Louie R. Sugarcane mosaic virus in Kenya. Plant Dis. 1980;64:944.

Purseglove JW. Tropical crops. Monocotyledons, 1. Longman, London; 1972.

Pursglove JW. Tropical crops dicotyledons I. longamans. Green & Co. Ltd. London & Harlow; 1969.

Castillo J, Herbert TT. New virus disease affecting maize in Peru. Phytopathology. 1974;38(4):184-189.

Niblett CL, Claflin LE. Corn lethal necrosis - a new virus disease of corn in Kansas. Plant Dis. Rep. 1978;62:15-19.

Jiang XQ, Meinke LJ, Wright RJ, Wilkinson DR, Campbell JE. Maize chlorotic mottle virus in Hawaiian-grown maize: Vector relations, host range and associated viruses. Crop Prot. 1992;11(3):248-254.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(92)90045-7