Main Article Content
Aim: The study investigated the possible risks associated with gastrointestinal ulcer disease by evaluating the biochemical response of three body organs; heart, kidney and liver, in gastric ulcerated rats.
Methodology: Twenty male wistar albino rats were used in the study. Gastric ulcer was induced in rats with single oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) aspirin, 80 mg/kg b.w. indomethacin and 5 ml/kg b.w. acidified ethanol (40:60 v/v). Blood samples were collected into heparinized bottle and centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 10 mins to obtain the plasma. Gastric tissue, liver, kidney and heart were also collected.
Results: Oral administration of 400 mg/kg b.w. aspirin, 80 mg/kg b.w. indomethacin and 5 ml/kg b.w. acidified ethanol caused a remarkable increase in ulcer index. There was observed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in AST and ALT activities in gastric ulceration caused by aspirin (Asp), with no significant (p<0.05) change in total protein (TP) concentration, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activity. However, there was increase in creatinine and urea concentration. Acidified ethanol and Indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats showed significant (p<0.05) reduction in all other parameters except ALT and lactate dehydrogenase activities which did not show any significant (p<0.05) change. There was also observed a significant (p<0.05) increase in creatine kinase activity in indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats.
Conclusion: Overall, the result indicates a link between gastric ulcer and organ toxicity. The use of NSAIDs above the therapeutic doses in the treatment of pains and related illness as well as excess consumption of alcohol is shown to negatively impact the stomach and cause serious damage to different body organs of wistar rats.
Ineu RP, Pereira ME, Aschner M, Nogeueira CW, Zeni G, Rocha JB. Diphenyl diselenide reverses gastric lesions in rats: Involvement of oxidative stress. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3023-9.
Guillermo G, Carlos S, Angel L. Aspirin and omeprazole for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients at risk for aspirin-associated gastric ulcers. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017;10(8):789-797.
Rodríguez G, Hernández-Díaz S. Risk of uncomplicated peptic ulcer among users of aspirin and nonaspirin nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159:23-31.
Malfertheiner P, Chan F, Mc Coll K. Peptic ulcer disease. Lancet. 2009;374:1449-61.
Kumar V, Abbas A, Fausto N. Robbin’s basic pathology. Philadelphia. Elsevier Saunders; 2007.
Sabbineni J. A note on peptic ulcers; Research and reviews. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2016;4(1):47-53.
Choudhary MK, Bodakhe SH, Gupta SK. Assessment of the antiulcer potential of Moringa oleifera root-bark extract in rats. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies. 2013;6(4):214-220.
Cherkas A, Zarkovic N. 4-Hydroxynonenal in redox homeostasis of gastrointestinal mucosa: Implications for the stomach in health and diseases. Antioxidants. 2018;7(118):2-14.
Mentis A, Lehours P, Mégraud F. Epidemiology and diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter. 2015;20(1):1–7.
Kanner J, Lapidot T. The stomach as a bioreactor: Dietary lipid peroxidation in the gastric ﬂuid and the effects of plant-derived antioxidants. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2001;31:1388-1395.
Lanas A, Chan F. Peptic ulcer disease. Lancet. 2017;390:613-624.
Somasundaram S, Hayllar H, Rafi S, Wrigglesworth J, Macpherson A, Bjarnason I. The biochemical basis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced damage to the gastrointestinal tract: A review and a hypothesis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1995;30:289-299.
Liu Y, Tian X, Gou L, Fu X, Li S, Lan N. Protective effect of L -citrulline against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;34:280-7.
Mota CS, Freitas RB, Athayde ML, Boligon AA, Augusti P, Somacal S. Effect of Vernonia cognata on oxidative damage induced by ethanol in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011;30:675-84.
Inas ZA, Abdallah-Hala AH, Khattab H, Gehan HH. Gastroprotective effect of Cordia myxa L. fruit extract against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats. Life Sci J. 2011;8(3):433- 445.
Lüllmann H, Mohr K, Ziegler A, Bieger D. Color atlas of pharmacology. 2nd Ed. Thieme Stuttgart. New York. 2000;166.
Simon JP, Prince SE. Natural remedies for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced toxicity. J. Appl. Toxicol. 2017;37: 71-83.
Wallace J. NSAID gastropathy and enteropathy: Distinct pathogenesis likely necessitates distinct prevention strategies. Br J Pharmacol. 2015;165:67–74.
Ige JO, Tijani A. Gastroprotective effect of methanolic extract of Gomphrena celosioides on indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in Wistar albino rats. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2015;5(1):41- 45.
Halter F, Tarnawski A, Schmassmann A, Peskar B. Cyclooxygenase 2- implications on maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity and ulcer healing, controversial issues and perspectives. Gut. 2001;49: 443-453.
Pérez S, Taléns-Visconti R, Rius-Pérez S, Finamor I, Sastre J. Redox signaling in the gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2017;104:75-103.
Singh D, William C, Upadhyay G. Drug-induced liver toxicity and prevention by herbal antioxidants: An overview. Frontiers in Physiology. 2016;6:1-18.
Sies H, Berndt C, Jones D. Oxidative stress. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2017;86:715-748.
Oloyede OB, Sunmonu TO. Decrease in activities of selected rat liver enzymes following consumption of chemical effluent. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 2008;12(2): 95-100.
Luedde T, Kaplowitz N, Schwabe R. Cell death and cell death responses in liver disease: Mechanisms and clinical relevance. Gastroenterology. 2014;147(4): 765-83.
Bayir Y, Odabasoglu F, Cakir A, Aslan A, Svleyman H, Halici M, et al. The inhibition of gastric mucosal lesion, oxidative stress and neutrophil-infiltration in rats by the lichen constituent diffractaic acid. Phytomedicine. 2006;13:584-590.
Agyigra IA, Ejiofor JI, Magaji MG. Acute and subchronic toxicity evaluation of methanol stem-bark extract of Ximenia americana Linn (Olacaceae) in Wistar rats. Bull Fac Pharm Cairo Univ. 2017;55(2): 263-267.
Carls AB, Edward EA. Fundamental of clinical chemistry. In: Teitz, Copyright by Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Inc; 2003.
Ejaz P, Bhojani K, Joshi V. NSAIDs and kidney. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004;52:632-40.
Aprioku JS, Uche FI. Renal effects of non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs in albino rats. Br J Pharm Res. 2013;3(3):314-325.
Fenton RA, Knepper MA. Urea and renal function in the 21st Century: Insights from knockout mice. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:679–688.
Crook D, Collins A. Comparison of effects of aspirin and indomethacin on human platelet prostaglandin synthetase. Ann Rheum Dis. 1977;36:459-463.
Mukherjee S. Alcohol metabolism and generation of free radicals: A deep insight. Alcohol. 2014;2(1):1-5.
Ndem JI, David IK. Biochemical indices of cardaic function of albino wistar rats exposed to Hippocratea africana root bark extract. J Biotechnol Biochem. 2017;3(1): 101-106.