Epidemiology of Zoonoses Geared by Domestication with Reference to COVID-19 during Anthropocene; India

Main Article Content

Siba Prasad Mishra
Saswat Mishra

Abstract

COV-19, HIV/AIDS, Flu H1N1 and many other zoonotic diseases are emergent during Anthropocene epoch due to climatic anomalies. Bacteria’s, viruses, pathogens are associated with human cause zoonoses mainly resulting from domestication. Minimum 61% of human pathogens are zoonotic comprising 75% of all emerging apocalyptic pathogens in 21st century. The scope of present study is investigating the domestication in time scale and finding the causes and consequences the virulent invasion of the present 21st century zoonotic diseases due to the climatic, biologic, socio-economic causes and the governing laws during the Anthropocene. The Holocene hominids were strong enough to adapt the harsh, frigid climate to sustain life during extreme conditions. Later the food habits, sedentary life and the changing agro-climate made then incapable to sustain with the bacterial, viral and microbial attacks for lack of immunity and adaptability by invoking domestication. The National Health Profile, India; has reported fall in rate of communicable diseases that has out broken from 61% to 33% from 1990 to 2016 resulting from health education, care and vaccines but the pandemicCOVID-19 has challenged the scenario. Demand of one health practices and stringent laws is essential to overcome the risk. Present pandemic COVID-19 has forced the globe away for sustenance of life and livelihood for want of vaccine, it is essential to practice five ‘T’ (Test, Trace, treat, train and trade) to restore the  normal life.

Keywords:
COVID-19, domestication, virus, bacteria, Zoonoses, Anthropocene, one health.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mishra, S. P., & Mishra, S. (2020). Epidemiology of Zoonoses Geared by Domestication with Reference to COVID-19 during Anthropocene; India. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 35(9), 55-75. https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i930271
Section
Review Article

References

Swain S, Ku S, GSP, Singh BS, Aggarwal D. Zoonotic diseases in India. Indian Journal of Community Medicine: Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. 2020;45(1): S1–S2.

Available:https://doi.org/10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_360_19

Dubal ZB, Barbuddhe SB, Singh NP. Important zoonotic diseases: Prevention and control. Technical Bulletin No. 39. ICAR Research Complex for Goa (ICAR), Old Goa 403 402, Goa, India.

CBHI, DGHS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Government of India. National Health Profile: 2018. CBHI, DGHS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Government of India; 2018.

Nath B. The role of the animals in early prehistoric culture of India. Ind Museum Bulletin. 1969;4(2):102-110.

Thomas PK. Zoological evidences from pre-historic India; with special reference to domestication, Bul. of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Inst. 1974;1(4):195-210.

Darwin CR. The variation of animals and plants under domestication. London: John Murray. 1868;1(2):411- 486.

Clutton-Brock J. A natural history of domesticated mammals. Cambridge Univ. Press. 1987;208.

Francis RC. Domesticated evolution in a man-made evolution. New-York: WW Norton & Company. 2015;484.

Alves RRN, Albuquerque UP. Ethnozoology: Animals in our lives. London: Academic Press; 2018;540.

Teletchea F. Animal domestication: A brief overview; Fabrice Teletchea; Teletchea, Intech Open; 2019.

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.86783

Available:https://wwwintechopen.com/books/animal-domestication/animal-domestication-a-brief-overview

Ahmad HI, Ahmad MJ, Jabbir F, Ahmar S, Ahmad N, Elokil AA, Chen J. The domestication makeup: Evolution, survival, and challenges. Ecol. Evol; 2020.

Available:https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2020.00103

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fevo.2020.00103/full

Mishra Siba Prasad. Human evolution/extermination up to present anthropocene: India. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University; JSJ.U-2222.14-F (1).pdf. 2020;16(7):115-133.

Sehgal S, Bhatia R. Zoonoses in India. Journal Communication Diseases. 1990;22(4):227-235.

Dhiman RC, Tiwari A. Emergence of zoonotic diseases in India: A systematic review. Med Rep Case Stud. 2018;3: 163.

DOI: 10.4172/2572-5130.1000163

Chinchwadkar P, Panda P. An assessment of knowledge regarding the risk of zoonoses and hygiene practices among females with livestock in South-West Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Community Med. 2020;45:S1:38-42.

Bhatia BB. Current status of food-borne parasitic zoonosis in India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991;22: 36-41.

Traub RJ, Robertson ID, Irwin PJ, Mencke N, Thompson RC. Canine gastrointestinal parasitic zoonoses in India. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21(1):42-48.

DOI: 10.1016/j.pt.2004.10.011.

Andresiuk V, Sardella N, Denegri G. Seasonal fluctuations in prevalence of dog intestinal parasites in public squares of Mar del Plata city, Argentina and its risk for humans. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2007;39(4): 221-224.

Deplazes P, van Knapen F, Schweiger A, Overgaauw PA. Role of pet dogs and cats in the transmission of helminthic zoonoses in Europe, with a focus on echinococcosis and toxocarosis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;182(1):41-53.

DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.014

Singh BB, Gajadhar AA. Role of India's wildlife in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, risk factors and public health implications. Acta Trop. 2014;138:67-77.

DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.06.009

Crutzen PJ, Stoermer EF. The anthropocene. Global Change News. 2020;41:17–18.

Zalasiewicz J, Williams M, Steffen W, Crutzen P. The new world of the Anthropocene. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010;44:2228–2231.

DOI: 10.1021/es903118j

Mishra SP. The apocalyptic anthropocene epoch and its management in India. Int. Jour. Adv. Research. 2017;5(3):645-663.

DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/3555

Lewis SL, Maslin MA. Defining the anthropocene. Nature. 2015;519:171–180.

LeCain Timothy James. Against the anthropocene; A neo-materialist perspective. International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity; HCM. 2015;3(1).

DOI: 10.18352/hcm.474

Ellis E, Maslin M, Boivin N. Involve social scientists in defining the Anthropocene. Nature. 2016;540:192–193.

Zeder MA. Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: Origins, diffusion and impact. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2008;105(33):11597-11604.

Zeder MA. Pathways to animal domestication. In: Gepts P, Famula TR, Bettinger RL, et al. Editors. Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2012.

Larson G, Fuller DQ. The evolution of animal domestication. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 2014;66:115-136.

Scherf BD, Pilling D. The Second Report on the state of the world’s animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. Rome: FAO; 2015.

Leroy G, Baumung R, Boettcher P, Besbes B, From T, Hoffmann I. Animal genetic resources diversity and ecosystem services. Glob. Food Securi. 2018;17:84–91.

Teletchea F. Wildlife conservation: Is domestication a solution? In: Lameed GA; 2017.

Available:https://www.intechopen.com/books/global-exposition-of-wildlife-management/

DOI: 10.5772/65660

Teletchea F. Animal domestication: A brief overview; In: Lameed GA; 2019.

Available:https://www.intechopen.com/books/animal-domestication/animal-domestication

DOI: 10.5772/65660

Mishra SP. Human evolution/extermination up to present anthropocene: India. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University; JSJ.U-2222.14-F (1).pdf. 2020;16(7):115-133.

Joshi RV. Late Mesolithic culture in central India, F. Bordes& D. de SonnvilleBordes, (Eds.), La Prehistorise: Problems et Teudences Paris, France. 1968;245-254.

Alur KR, GR, Mishra VD, Mandal D, Mishra BB, Pal JN. Faunal remains from the Vindhyas and the Ganga valley. Sharma Beginnings of Agriculture. 1980;201-27.

Gupta Anil K. Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene: Climate amelioration; review article; Current Science. 2004;87(1):54-59.

McHugo Gillian P, Dover Michael J, Machugh David E. Unlocking the origins and biology of domestic animals using ancient DNA and paleogenomics. BMC Biology. 2019;17(1):98.

DOI: 10.1186/s12915-019-0724-7

PMC: 6889691

PMID: 31791340

Day MJ, Breitschwerdt E, Cleaveland S, Karkare U, Khanna C, Kirpensteijn J, Kuiken T, et al. A surveillance of zoonotic infectious disease transmitted by small companion animals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(12):1.

DOI: 10.3201/eid1812.120664

PMCID: PMC3557867

Carol Rubin, Cleaveland S, Karkare U, Khanna Chand, Thiermann A. People Can catch diseases from their pets; Based on the article Surveillance of Zoonotic Infectious Disease Transmitted by Small Companion Animals Day MJ, Reitschwerdt E; 2012,

Rist CL, Arriola CS, Rubin C. Prioritizing zoonoses: A proposed one health tool for collaborative decision-making. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10).

Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109986

Mishra Siba Prasad, Mishra Durga Prasad. Anthropocene-Bio-geography need reverse gearing in India: Beyond domestication and farming. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology. 2018;8(6):1500-1518,

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14741/ijcet/v.8.6.1

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version. 2020;1.

Available:http://www.iucnredlist.org

Rao SS, Mehra B, Narang R. The spectrum of hydatid disease in rural central India: An 11-year experience. Ann Trop Med Public Health. 2012;5:225-30.

McMichael AJ. Insights from past millennia into climatic impacts on human health and survival. PNAS. 2011;109(13):4730-4737.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1120177109

Naicker Preneshni R. The impact of climate change and other factors on zoonotic diseases. Archives of Clinical Microbiology, Pubmed. 2011;2(2):4.

DOI: 10:3823/226

Gupta ML, Sharma A. Pneumonic plague, Northern India, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(4):664-666.

DOI: 10.3201/eid1304.051105

Parida M, Dash PK, Tripathi NK, Ambuj Sannarangaiah S, Saxena P, Agarwal S, Sahni AK, Singh SP, Rathi AK, Bhargava R, Abhyankar A, Verma SK, Rao PV, Sekhar K. Japanese Encephalitis Outbreak, India, 2005. Emerging infectious diseases. 2006;12(9):1427–1430.

Available:https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1209.060200

Mavalankar D, Shastri P, Bandyopadhyay T, Parmar J, Ramani KV. Increased mortality rate associated with chikungunya epidemic, Ahmedabad, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(3):412-415.

DOI: 10.3201/eid1403.070720

Suri JC, Sen MK. Pandemic influenza - Indian experience. Lung India: Official organ of Indian Chest Society. 2011;28(1):2–4.

Available:https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-2113.76292

Sharma RB, Husain M. Reemergence of Swine Flu H1N1 in India: First outbreak; Review Article; Austin J Infect Dis. 2015;2(1):1015.

Hu B, Ge X, Wang LF, Shi Z. Bat origin of human coronaviruses. Virol J. 2015;12: 221.

Hu B, Zeng LP, Yang XL, Ge XY, Zhang W, Li B, Xie JZ, Shen XR, Zhang YZ, Wang N, Luo DS, et al. Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13(11):e1006698.

Ji W, Wang W, Zhao X, Zai J, Li X. Cross-species transmission of the newly identified coronavirus 2019-n; CoV. J Med Virol. 2020;92(4):433–440.

Salata C, Calistri A, Parolin C, Palù G. Coronaviruses: A paradigm of new emerging zoonotic diseases. Pathogens and Disease. 2020;77(9):006.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftaa006

Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan China: The mystery and the miracle. J Med Virol. 2020;92(4):401–402.

Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, Wang W, Song H, Huang B, Zhu N, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: Implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet. 2020;395(10224):565–574.

Patel A, Jernigan DB, 2019-nCoV CDC Response Team. Initial Public Health Response and Interim Clinical Guidance for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak - United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(5):140–146.

Chkma D, Chakma P. COVID-19 in India: Reverse migration could destroy indigenous communities; IWIGA; 2020.

Available:https://www.iwgia.org/en/india/3550-covid-19-india-reverse-migration.html

Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Annual Report; 2018-19.

Available:https://tribal.nic.in/writereaddata /Annual Report/AREnglish1819.pdf

Coronavirus outbreak: Andaman’s indigenous tribes face extinction threat, livemint; 2020.

Available:https://www.livemint.com/news/india/coronavirus-outbreak-andaman-s-indigenous-tribes-face-extinction-threat-11585681835563.html

Kelly TR, Machalaba C, Karesh WB, Crook PZ, Gilardi K, Nziza J, et al. Implementing one health approaches to confront emerging and re-emerging zoonotic disease threats: Lessons from predict, one health outlook. 2020;2(1):1-7.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s42522-019- 0007-9

CBHI, DGHS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Government of India. National Health Profile: CBHI, DGHS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Government of India; 2019.

Worldometer for COVID-19.

Available:https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/ on date 01.08.2020

Sinha A, Cannariato KG, Stott LD, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Yadava MG, Ramesh R, Singh IB. A 900-year (600 to 1500 A.D.) record of the Indian summer monsoon precipitation from the core monsoon zone of India. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2007;34: L16707.

DOI: 10.1029/2007GL030431