Annual Research & Review in Biology 2020-04-09T10:44:30+00:00 Annual Research & Review in Biology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB)</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 2347-565X)</strong> <strong>(Previous name:</strong> <strong>Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776</strong>) is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Screening of Mungbean Genotypes under Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Induced Drought Stress Condition 2020-04-07T06:32:11+00:00 Abdullah All Imtiaz Saleh Ahmed Shahriar Md. Abdullahil Baque Most. Nurjahan Khatun Eaty Maliha Rahman Falguni <p>Sixteen advance genotypes of mungbeans under 5 different concentrations of Polyethylene Glycol<strong> (</strong>PEG) were studied to find out the better cultivar against drought stress condition. The experiment results revealed that germination, seedling production and water-related behavior of mungbean genotypes differed significantly under different PEG (drought inducer) concentrations. The mungbean genotype BINA Mung-6 (V<sub>8</sub>) is proved as highly tolerant against drought stress condition among all other tested genotypes. The results of the investigation revealed that BINA Mung-6 (V<sub>8</sub>) genotype consistently scored the highest value for all parameters except for the root shoot ratio and water retention capacity that was statistically comparable to genotypes BARI Mung-4 (V<sub>2</sub>) and BINA Mung-5 (V<sub>7</sub>). Consistently poor performance were recorded from IPM-02-03 (V<sub>16</sub>) genotype which is statistically similar as genotypes BMXK1-09015-2 (V<sub>13</sub>) and BMXK1-09015-6 (V<sub>10</sub>). The maximum percentage of germination (98.12%), shoot length (139.40 mm), root length (99.07 mm), shoot dry weight (22.32 mg), root dry weight (6.88 mg), relative water content (94.78), water retention capacity (24.98), germination co-efficient (22.27) and vigor index (233.90) were reported from BINA Mung-6 (V<sub>8</sub>) at a concentration of 0 percent PEG. The minimum percentage of germination (28.22 percent), shoot length (31.17 mm), root length (16.50 mm), shoot dry weight (2.21 mg), root dry weight (0.97 mg), relative water content (25.55), water retention capacity (3.08), germination co-efficient (6.06) and vigor index (13.45) were reported from IPM-02-03 (V<sub>16</sub>) mungbean advance lines at 0 percent PEG. Maximum (0.92) root shoot ratio was recorded from both BARI Mung-8 (V<sub>6</sub>) and BMX-08011-2 (V<sub>11</sub>) mungbean genotypes at 20 percent PEG concentration and minimum (0.22) at 0 percent PEG concentration from BARI Mung-5 (V<sub>3</sub>) genotype. Maximum water retention capacity (74.45) was recorded at 20 per cent PEG concentration from IPM-02-03 (V<sub>16</sub>) genotype and minimum (5.22) was at 0 per cent PEG concentration from BINA Mung-6 (V<sub>8</sub>) genotype.</p> 2020-04-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Molecular Characterization of Two Catfish Species (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Chrysichthys auratus) from the Cross River, Nigeria, Using Ribosomal RNA and Internal Transcribed Spacers 2020-04-07T12:42:04+00:00 Edak Aniedi Uyoh Valentine Otang Ntui Oju Richard Ibor Chioma Marylyn Adilieje Mfon Udo Charles Opara Godwin M. Ubi Daniel Ama-Abasi <p>Studies were conducted on <em>Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and C. auratus </em>from the Cross River, Nigeria. The objective was to document intra- and inter-specific variations in molecular structure among four populations of the genus in the river. DNA was extracted from caudal fin and primers designed for the ribosomal RNA and Internal Transcribed Spacer Region were used for amplification. Molecular characterization yielded a fragment containing partial sequences of 18S rRNA, ITS-1, ITS-2 and 28S rRNA genes and a complete sequence of 5.8S rRNA. The 5.8S rRNA was the only gene amplified consistently in all samples indicating that it is more conserved among the samples studied. The percentage of GC contents fall within the range observed in other catfish species. They were generally higher in <em>C. auratus </em>than in <em>C. nigrodigitatus</em> and also higher than the AT contents in both species. The high GC content could be an adaptation to warmer climates. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences of the two species from the two regions showed that the rRNA and ITS genes are highly conserved with &gt;99% nucleotide identity<em>.</em> However, a total of 284 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in these genes in the two species, made up of deletions (0.35%), single base insertions (11.27%), multiple base insertions (14.39%), single base transition substitutions (29.93%), single base transversion substitutions (33.8%) and multiple base substitutions (11.27%)<em>.</em> The overall ratio of transition to transversion polymorphisms was approximately 1: 1 indicating a low level of genetic instability in <em>Chrysichthys</em> spp. The indels were responsible for length variations in the sequences. Sequence information for the ITS region of these fishes is reported for the first time. This study has provided an insight into polymorphism patterns of these genes in <em>Chrysichthys</em> spp across the four populations studied which could form the basis for further genomic characterization and mapping of these species.</p> 2020-04-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Selection Criteria and Selection Environment for Drought Tolerance of Egyptian Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Landraces 2020-04-08T09:25:47+00:00 Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar Mohamed Abd El-Maboud Abd El-Shafi Mohamed Helmy El-Shal Ali Hassan Anany <p>Strong correlations between wheat traits and drought tolerance (DT) associated with high heritability and high genetic advance from selection would allow plant breeder to use such traits as selection criteria. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the optimum selection criteria and selection environment for drought tolerance via estimation of correlation coefficients (r) among 13 agronomic, grain yield and quality traits and DT of 20 wheat landraces, broad-sense heritability (h<sup>2</sup><sub>b</sub>) and genetic advance (GA) from selection for such traits under well-watered (WW) and water stressed (WS) environments. A two-year experiment was carried out using a split-plot design with four replications. Results concluded that the best selection criterion for drought tolerance in our study was grain yield/plant (GYPP), followed by a number of grains/spike (GPS), grain filling period (GFP), grain starch (GSC) and protein (GPC) content, plant height (PH) and days to maturity (DTM), since they showed high (r), high h<sup>2</sup><sub>b </sub>and high GA estimates. The best selection environment was WW for days to anthesis, PH, spikes/plant, GPS, spikelets/spike, GYPP, GPC and WS for DTM, GFP, GSC and thousand-grain weight traits. This information could help future breeding programs in selection for improving drought tolerance of wheat.</p> 2020-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anti-mutagenic Action of Ruta chalepensis against Rat Sperm Cell Abnormalities-induced by Potassium Bromate 2020-04-08T10:35:25+00:00 Nagat S. Elhaddad Eman M. Efkerine Hoda A. Khatab Ibrahim S. Eldurssi Eman M. Belkasem <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The aim of current study was to investigate the genotoxic damage of potassium bromate on sperm cell morphology and the potential defense role of <em>Ruta chalepensis (Rue) </em>against the potassium bromate effects.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Fifty rats (Strain: <em>Rattus norvegicus</em>) were randomly divided into five groups (10 rats/group) as follows: (Control group) received distilled water daily for 4 weeks, (KBrO<sub>3</sub> group) treated with KBrO<sub>3</sub> (100 mg/kg/b.w) for 4 weeks, (Rue group) received Rue orally in a daily dose (0.5 g/animal) for 4 weeks, (treatment group) were first provided with oral doses of KBrO<sub>3</sub> daily for 2 weeks and then treated orally with KBrO<sub>3</sub> in association with Rue for an additional 2 weeks Finally (protective group) was administered with Rue orally for 2 weeks and then administered oral doses of Rue in association with KBrO<sub>3</sub> for an additional 2 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Zoology and Department of Botany, University of Omar Almukhtar, between July 2018 and September 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> Sperm suspensions, filtered and smears were made according to the standard protocol for sperm morphology assay. The smears were fixed, allow to dry and stained with hematoxylin and then washed under slow running water until the excess stain is removed and were putted in eosin dye.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results were showed that potassium bromate has the ability to cause mutations in the morphology of sperm cells. The highest mutation rates of head, tail and neck reached 16.60, 5.200 and 3.200 respectively in animals. Several types of sperm abnormalities such as hock free, banana type, amorphous, hummer shape after the administration of potassium bromate comparing with the negative control animals that treated only with potassium bromate. On the other hand, the oil extract of <em>Ruta chalepensis </em>significantly inhibited the mutations by declining the abnormality rates of head, tail and neck to 2.600, 1.600 and 0.400 in protective group. Thus, potassium bromate has to be considered as a conceivable line regarding human health.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Potassium bromate clearly caused a wide range of sperm cell abnormalities and Rue oil extracts have a good anti-mutagenic effects against potassium bromate by decreasing the sperm cell abnormalities.</p> 2020-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of the Cariogenic and Erosive Potential of Some Beverages Consumed in Enugu Metropolis, South East Nigeria 2020-04-09T10:44:30+00:00 C. Uzoamaka Maduakor F. Ngozi Onyemelukwe N. Innocent Okonkwo C. Nkiruka Azubuike O. Cornelius Ogu I. Paul John Chukwu N. Sam Maduakor <p>Dental caries is a global infectious disease and the most common oral cavity disease. Among the theories which explain caries is the activity of acids produced by bacteria resulting from dietary fermentation of carbohydrates (sugars). Modernization has led to change in our diet and life style and the beverage industries are having a field day. Though people are aware of the harm caused by these beverages and fruit juices on the dental hard tissues, they still choose to guzzle them. The study was an <em>in vitro</em> analysis of cariogenic and erosive potential of different beverages mostly consumed in Enugu metropolis, South Nigeria. Seventeen samples were analyzed physically and chemically using the following parameters, pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid content (TSSC), reducing sugars (RS), non-reducing sugars (NRS) and total sugars (TS). Standard analytical techniques were used including potentiometry for endogenous pH, Association of Official Analytical Chemists approved method for titratable acidity, Brix refractometry using Abbe refractometer for TSSC and Fehling’s method for sugars. Coke pressented the highest pH (2.83) followed by La casara 2.92 and the least was Bobo strawberry 4.6. California and Holladia recorded the least and highest TA values of 0.04% and 0.26% respectively. Bobo strawberry had the least TSSC (6.81<sup>o</sup>Brix) and the highest was Hollandia yogurt (16.34<sup>o</sup>Brix). Seven Up presented the highest reducing sugar 20.45g/100ml. Mirinda and Bobo strawberry had the highest total sugars 68.90g/100ml each. For non-reducing sugars, the values ranged from 0g/100ml (Chivita apple) to 65.45g/100ml (Bobo strawberry). There were significant differences among the samples for reducing sugars (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). These beverages showed low endogenous pH that were below the critical value for enamel demineralization (pH&lt;5.5). They are potentially hazardous to the teeth and should not be consumed regularly because of their low pH and high sugar content.</p> 2020-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##