Economic, Social, and Environmental Aspects of Dairy Farming in Sub-saharan Africa: A Literature Review

S. Tagba *

Department of Agriculture & Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mauritius, Mauritius.

D. Puchooa

Department of Agriculture & Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mauritius, Mauritius.

H. Sina

Department of Biochemistry, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

This literature review on dairy cattle rearing in sub-Saharan Africa aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the current situation of this activity in the region. It examines the various dimensions of dairy farming, such as its economic importance, its impact on food security and its role in poverty reduction. The review also looks at existing farming systems, factors influencing dairy cow productivity, constraints and challenges faced by farmers, good practices and innovations, environmental impacts, and policies and programmes to support dairy cow farming. The aim of this review is to provide valuable information for improving this activity in the region.

Keywords: Dairy cows, sub-saharan Africa, farming practices, constraints, challenges


How to Cite

Tagba, S., D. Puchooa, and H. Sina. 2024. “Economic, Social, and Environmental Aspects of Dairy Farming in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review”. Annual Research & Review in Biology 39 (7):1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2024/v39i72092.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

FAO. Status and prospects for smallholder milk production. A global perspective, by T. Hemme and J. Otte. Rome; 2010.

Bett JK, Munyiri SW, Nkari IM. Effect of mineral mix and concentrate feeds on milk revenue of smallholder dairy farmers in Kapseret Sub County, Kenya. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture. 2021; 13(4):24-34.

Available :https://doi.org/10.9734/arja/2020/v13i430110.

Budruk, Vikas. Repeat Breeding Syndrome: Prime Challenge for the Success of One Calf a Year. Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2023;6(3):283-94. Available :https://doi.org/10.9734/ajravs/2023/v6i3255.

Wagner K, Seitner D, Barth K, Palme R, Futschik A, Waiblinger S. Effects of mother versus artificial rearing during the first 12 weeks of life on challenge responses of dairy cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 2015, Mar 1;164:1-1.

Nor NM, Steeneveld W, Mourits MC, Hogeveen H. Estimating the costs of rearing young dairy cattle in the Netherlands using a simulation model that accounts for uncertainty related to diseases. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2012, Oct 1;106(3-4):214-24.

OECD/FAO. Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prospects and challenges for the next decade’, in OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016-2025. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2016.

Tadesse M, Fentahun M, Tadesse G. Dairy farming and its economic importance in Ethiopia: A review. World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences. 2017;12(1):42-51.

Land O. The next stage in dairy development for Ethiopia. Dairy Value Chains, End Markets and Food Security Cooperative Agreement 663-A-00-05-00431-00, November, 2010. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2010.

Otte J, Upton M. Poverty and livestock agriculture. FAO Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative, Working Paper No. 27; 2005.

Yilma Z, Emannuelle GB, GB Ameha S. A review of the Ethiopian dairy sector. Ed. Rudolf Fombad, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Sub Regional Office for Eastern Africa (FAO/SFE), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2011.

Haile G. The impact of global economic and financial crisis on the Ethiopian dairy industry. Impact of the global economic crisis on least developed countries’ (LDCs) productive capacities and trade prospects: Threats and opportunities, Least Developed Countries Ministerial Conference, UNIDO, UN-OHRLLS, 3-4 December 2009. Vienna International Center: Austria ; 2009.

Staal S, Delgado CC, Nicholsin C. Smallholder dairying under transaction costs in East Africa. Livestock Policy Analyses Brief, No.6; 1998.

Wambugu C, Kirimi L, Opiyo J. Productivity trends and performance of dairy farming in Kenya. Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, Working Paper 43; 2011.

Thornton PK, Herrero M. Potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2010;107(46):19667-19672.

Duteurtre G, Corniaux C. Dynamique des filières laitières en Afrique de l'Ouest. Cahiers Agricultures. 2013;22(1):40-48.

Staal SJ, Pratt AN, Jabbar M. Dairy development for the resource poor. Part 1: A comparison of dairy policies and development in South Asia and East Africa. *FAO Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative*, Working Paper No. 44; 2008.

Kristjanson P, Mango N, Krishna A, Radeny M, Johnson N. Understanding poverty dynamics in Kenya. Journal of International Development. 2010;22(7): 978-996.

Thornton PK, Herrero M. The Inter-linkages between Rapid Growth in Livestock Production, Climate Change, and the Impacts on Water Resources, Land Use, and Deforestation. *Poverty Reduction and Shifting Cultivation: Special Issue, Journal of Agricultural Economics. 2010;61(3):457-472.

Njarui DMG, Kabirizi JM, Itabari JK, Gatheru M, Nakiganda A, Mugerwa S. Production characteristics and gender roles in dairy farming in peri-urban areas of Eastern and Central Africa. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2011;14(1): 75-83.

Duteurtre G, Corniaux C. Les systèmes laitiers en Afrique de l’Ouest : entre filières marchandes et logiques paysannes. Cahiers Agricultures. 2013;22(1):21-27.

Moll HAJ, Kaganzi E. Dairy development in Uganda: A review of Uganda’s smallholder dairy sub-sector. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI); 2008.

Bebe BO, Udo HMJ, Rowlands GJ, Thorpe W. Smallholder dairy systems in the Kenya highlands: Cattle population dynamics under increasing intensification. Livestock Production Science. 2003;82(2-3):211-221.

Thornton PK, Kruska RL, Henninger N, Kristjanson PM, Reid RS, Atieno F, Ndegwa T. 'Mapping climate vulnerability and poverty in Africa'. International Livestock Research Institute; 2011.

Herrero M, Thornton PK, Gerber P. 'Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions: Mitigation options and opportunities'. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2010;107(44):19661-19662.

FAO. Africa Sustainable Livestock 2050: Livestock production systems spotlight. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2018.

Nyariki DM, Amwata DA. The value of pastoralism in Kenya: Application of total economic value approach. Pastoralism. 2019;9(1):9.

Tesfaye A. Livestock development in the peasant sector of highland of Ethiopia. Some policy issues and implications. In : African Livestock Policy Analysis Network (ALPAN), Network paper No 24, June, 1990, ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 1990.

Moll HAJ. Costs and benefits of livestock systems and the role of market and nonmarket relationships. Agricultural Economics. 2005;32(2):181-193.

Grace D, Mutua F, Ochungo P, Kruska R, Jones K, Brierley L, Lindahl J. Mapping of poverty and likely zoonoses hotspots. Zoonoses Project 4. Report to the UK Department for International Development; 2012.

Gebremedhin B, Ahmed MM, Ehui SK. Determinants of adoption of improved forage technologies in crop-livestock mixed systems: Evidence from the highlands of Ethiopia. Tropical Grasslands. 2007;41: 199-210.

Gerber PJ, Steinfeld H, Henderson B, Mottet A, Opio C, Dijkman J, Tempio G. Tackling climate change through livestock: A global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) ; 2013.

Hakuzimana J, Divin JP, Munyambonera JP, Jean de Dieu Habimana J. The Carbon Footprint Of Smallholder Dairy Farming In Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. International Journals of Sciences and High Technologies. 2021;25(1): 476-506. Available:http://ijpsat.ijsht‐journals.org

Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar T, Castel V, Rosales M, de Haan C. Livestock’s long shadow: Environmental issues and options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO); 2006.

FAO. Livestock, environment and development (LEAD) initiative. Livestock and Environment Toolbox; 1999. Available:http://www.fao.org/lead/toolbox/homepage.htm.

Ahmed MM, Ehui S, Yemesrach A. Dairy development in Ethiopia. International Food Policy Research Institute, EPTD Discussion Paper No. 123; 2004.

Ahuja V. (Ed.). Livestock and Livelihoods: Challenges and Opportunities for Asia in the Emerging Market Environment. National Dairy Development Board of India; 2004.

Banque africaine de développement (BAD). Programme de soutien au secteur agricole en Afrique subsaharienne; 2018.

Ben Salem H, Smith T. Feeding strategies to increase small ruminant production in dry environments. Small Ruminant Research. 2008;77(2-3):174-194.

Chagwiza C, Muradian R, Ruben R, Tessema W. Cooperative membership and dairy performance among smallholders in Ethiopia. Food Policy. 2016;59:165-173.

Davis K, Nkonya E, Kato E, Mekonnen DA, Odendo M, Miiro R, Nkuba J. Impact of farmer field schools on agricultural productivity and poverty in East Africa. World Development. 2012;40(2):402-413.

Dovie DBK, Shackleton CM, Witkowski ETF. Direct-use value of smallholder crop and livestock production in a semi-arid rural South African village. Agricultural Systems. 2013;76(3):141-157.

FAO. Milk and dairy products in human nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2013.

Hemme T, Garcia O Saha A. Milk production systems in Central America: A comparative study. Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics. 2007;4(3): 77-94.

Herrero M, Thornton PK, Gerber P, Reid RS. Livestock, livelihoods and the environment: Understanding the trade-offs. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 2009;1(2):111-120.

Jabbar MA, Negassa A, Gidyelew T. Geographic distribution of cattle and shoat populations and their market supply sheds in Ethiopia. International Livestock Research Institute; 2010.

Kassa T, Bekele J, Tegegne A. Constraints and opportunities of dairy cattle production in Chencha and Kucha districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Livestock Science. 2020;11:16-23.

Klapper L, Singer D. The role of informal financial services in Africa. Journal of African Economies. 2015;24(Supplement_1):i12-i30.

Ministère de l'Agriculture et des Ressources en Eau d'Ethiopie (MoALR). National Livestock Development Plan (2015-2020) ; 2015.

Moyo S, Ncube P, Tshuma M. Livestock production and water use in semi-arid regions of Zimbabwe: A case study of Nkayi District. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Parts A/B/C. 2012;47-48:21-28.

Mugambi JM, Kibet S, Kirui R. Challenges and opportunities in dairy farming in Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;10(2):45-56.

Ngigi SN. Climate change adaptation strategies: Water resources management options for smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa. New York: The MDG Centre, East and Southern Africa, The Earth Institute at Columbia University; 2009.

Ngongoni NT, Mapiye C, Mwale M, Mupeta B. Factors affecting milk production in the smallholder dairy sector of Zimbabwe. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2006;18(5).

Notenbaert AMO, Herrero M, Kruska RL, You L, Wood S, Thornton PK, Omolo A. Classifying livestock production systems for targeting agricultural research and development in a rapidly changing world. Plos One. 2013;8(8): e77679.

Omore A, Muriuki H, Kenyanjui, Owango M, Staal S. The Kenyan dairy sub-sector: A rapid appraisal. *Smallholder Dairy Project Research Report. 2004;1.

Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture (FAO). Programme de formation pour le développement durable de l'élevage laitier ; 2021.

Perry BD, Randolph TF. The economic impact of foot-and-mouth disease and its control in developing countries: A review. Revue Scientifique et Technique de l'OIE. 2004;23(3):685-698.

Rothschild MF, Ruvuna F. Recent advances in dairy cattle breeding in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Dairy Science. 2001;84(E. Suppl.):E160-E167.

Swai ES, Schoonman L, Daborn CJ. Knowledge and attitude towards zoonoses among animal health workers and livestock keepers in Arusha and Tanga, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2013;12(4):272-277.