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Background: Spondias mombin is one of the tropical plants used locally to treat various kinds of ailment, its use as an anti-conceptive remedy in our locality had been reported.
Objective: The aim of this study was to establish a dose-dependent or duration effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin on the anterior pituitary cells, testes and epididymides of Wistar rats of Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: A total of thirty (30) matured male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=5). Group 1 animals served as control and received vehicle (distilled water). Groups 2 and 3 were administered with 250 mgkg-1 body weight of extract for 4 and 6 weeks respectively, while groups 4 and 5 received 500 mgkg-1 body weight of extract for 4 and 6 weeks also. Animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and sacrificed at the end of the administration. Body weight, weights of reproductive organs and vital organs were evaluated. Blood was taken from the animals for haematological and biochemical analysis. The pituitary gland, male reproductive and accessory glands were excised and fixed in 10% formalin for routine histological examination.
Results: The influence of ethanolic extract of Spondias mombin leaves on the pituitary cells and reproductive organs of male Wistar rats given 250 and 500 mgkg-1 body weight for 4 and 6 weeks showed loss of cytoplasmic contents and free spaces of pituitary cells, desquamation of seminiferous epithelial cells, degradation of seminiferous tubules and reduction in cells. The epididymis of the test groups showed abundant immature cells and cell debris in their lumen. The accessory glands showed homogenous pinkish fluid, glandular degeneration of the prostate and seminal vesicles with decreased structural integrity. The organ weights of the experimental animals were not significantly affected, however, a significant (P<0.05) decrease in reproductive organ weights was recorded. Ethanolic extract of Spondias mombin on liver enzymes showed significant protection against hepatobiliary damage.
Conclusion: These results suggest that Spondias mombin has a dose-dependent and duration deleterious effect on the pituitary and reproductive organs at their cellular levels rather than on the tissue as a whole.