Publication of high quality, high impact, peer-reviewed research papers and books.
We are available for any assistance 24X7.
Fast and Transparent
We process all manuscripts fast and transparently, without compromising the peer-review standard.
High quality and lowest price are our USPs.
Prevalence of Ectoparasitic Infection of Rodents Captured near Student’s Hostels: Zoonotic Implications
Annual Research & Review in Biology,
Background and Aims: Rodents constitute more than 42% of the known mammalian species, with 1700 species which belongs to three different families, include Muridae, Microtidae, and Sigmodontidae. Rodents species such as R. r. diardii and R. norvegicus play an important role as hosts for ectoparasites and reservoirs for various types of viruses, bacteria, rickettsia, protozoa, and helminths which are responsible for causing zoonotic diseases to humans and other vertebrate animals. The aim of this work is to identify the species of mites, ticks, and fleas causing diseases to humans and determined the prevalence of infestation in relation to gender, age, and habitat of the rodents.
Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Malaysia, Between September 2018 and March 2019.
Methodology: Wild rats were captured using live traps from garbage areas, and places near the cafeteria in the student’s residential colleges at University Putra Malaysia. The rats were humanely euthanised and identified. They were classified as adult or juveniles. Their sex was also determined. Ectoparasites were collected by combing the fur the rodents on to a white plan sheet paper. The ectoparasites collected were washed and mounted with Hoyer’s media on a glass slide. Parasites were identified using a key morphological feature.
Results: A total of 89 wild rats were trapped and examined for ectoparasites. Eight different species of ectoparasites that comprised of L. echidnanus, L. nuttalli, O. bacoti, I. granulatus, Heamaphysalis sp., P. spinoluso, H. pacifica, X. cheopis) were identified from the rodents examined. About 55% of the rodents trapped were positive for at least one species of ectoparasite parasites, and about 45.8% of the male rats and 30.8% of female were positive for ectoparasites. Meanwhile, in the adult, 42.9% are positive for at least one species of ectoparasites, whereas 32.2% of the juvenile rodent was also found positive for at least one species of ectoparasites.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that rodents trapped from the student’s colleges in University Putra Malaysia are infected with various ectoparasites species that might play an important role in the transmission of certain zoonotic diseases to humans. Therefore, we conclude that there is potential risk of rodent-borne zoonotic diseases transmission to humans in the study area. Awareness of prevention and control of rodent-borne diseases should be introduced to educate the students on the importance of zoonotic diseases associated with rodents.
How to Cite
(Accessed 3 September 2018)
Gholamhossein M, Hamidi K, Nourani L. Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods (Siphonaptera, Acarina, and Anoplura) on rodents of Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast of Iran. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2015;18(8):7-12.
Paramasvaran S, Sani RA, Hassan L, Krishnasamy M, Jeffery J, Oothuman P, et al. Ectoparasite fauna of rodents and shrews from four habitats in Kuala Lumpur and the states of Selangor and Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia and its public health significance. Tropical Biomedicine. 2009; 26(3):303-311.
Kohls GM. Malaysian Parasites-XVIII. Ticks (Ixodoidea) of Borneo and Malaya. Studies from the Institute for Medical Research, Federated Malay States. 1957;28.
Sumangali RP, Rajapakse RS. Ecto and Endo parasites of rodents from two selected sites in Kandy district. Ceylon Journal of Science. 2012;41(1):71-77.
Yang P, Oshiro S, Warashina, W. Ectoparasitic Arthropods occurring on Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus collected from two properties on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii (Acarina, Siphonaptera, and Anoplura). Proceeding of Hawaiian Entomological Society. 2009;41:53-56.
Fuehrer HP, Igel P, Treiber M, Baumann TA, Riedl J, Swoboda P, Noedl H. Ectoparasites of livestock, dogs, and wild rodents in the Chittagong hill tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh. Parasitology Research. 2012;111(4):1867-1870.
Rahdar M, Vazirianzadeh B. Identification of collected ectoparasites of rodents in the west of Khuzestan Province (Ahvaz and Hovizeh), Southwest of Iran. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2015;1808(4):1-6.
Harrison A, Robb GN, Alagaili AN, Hastriter MW, Apanaskevich DA, Ueckermann EA, et al. Ectoparasite fauna of rodents collected from two wildlife research centres in Saudi Arabia with discussion on the implications for disease transmission. Acta Tropica. 2015;147(3):1-5.
Okorafor KA, Odaibo AB, Eleng I, Okete JA. Occurrence and prevalence of ecto and gastrointestinal parasites in Wild cane Rats (Tryonomys swinderianus) from Oyo State, South-Western Nigeria. European Journal of Zoological Research. 2012;1(3): 70-76.
Stanko M, Miklisova D, De Bellocq JG, Morand S. Mammal density and patterns of ectoparasite species richness and abundance. Oecologia. 2002;131(2):289-295.
Frye MJ, Firth C, Bhat M, Firth M, Che X, Lee D, Williams SH. Preliminary survey of ectoparasites and associated pathogens from Norway rats in New York City. Journal of Medical Entomology. 2015; 52(2):253-259.
Fagir DM, El-Rayah EA. Parasites of the Nile rat in rural and urban regions of Sudan. Integrative Zoology. 2009;4(2):179-187.
Herbreteau V, Jittapalapong S, Rerkamnuaychoke W, Chaval Y, Cosson JF, Morand S, Editors. Protocols for field and laboratory rodent studies. 2nd Ed. Kasetsart University Press; 2011.
Lim Boo Liat. The house rodents and house shrew in Malaysia and Southeast Asia. Utar Agriculture Science Journal. 2015;1(4):43-50.
Leary S, Underwood W, Anthony R, Cartner S. Guidelines for the euthanasia of animals: 2nd Ed. American Veterinary Medical Association; 2013.
Mathison BA, Pritt S. Laboratory identification of arthropod ectoparasites. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2014;27(1): 48-67.
Anne M. Zajac, Gary A. Conboy. Veterinary clinical parasitology. 8th Ed. UK: Wiley Blackwell; 2012.
Kourosh A, Mitra S, Iraj M, Amir A, Hamid H, Mohammad A, et al. Intestinal helminths in different species of rodents in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2017;12(2):267-273.
Meerburg BG, Singleton GR, Kijlstra A. Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 2009;35(3):221-270.
Madinah A, Fatimah A, Mariana A, Abdullah MT. Ectoparasites of small mammals in four localities of wildlife reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 2011;42(4): 803-813.
Nursheena S, Mohd-Zain SN, Arnez S, Khalil S, Braima KA, Abdulaziz NM, et al. Ectoparasites of murids in Peninsular Malaysia and their associated diseases. Parasites and Vectors. 2015;8(2):1-10.
Premaalatha B, Nurulaini R, Zawida Z, Norakmar I, Zaini CM, Ramlan M. A survey of bacterial and parasitic infections of rats caught in the veterinary research institute, Ipoh. Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2010;6(7):45-50.
United State Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Public Health Service Communicable Disease Center. Fleas of public health importance and their control. Public Health Service Publication. 1962;772(5):1-10.
Ogunniyi T, Balogun H, Shasanya B. Ectoparasites and endoparasites of peridomestic house-rats in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and implication on human health. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2014;9(1):134-140.
Hadi TR, Sarbini SD. Survey of small mammal ectoparasites in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 1981;12(2):7-27.
Turner RW, Martoprawiro S. Dynamics of the plague transmission cycle in central Java (ecology of potential flea vectors). Health Studies in Indonesia. 1974;11(2).
Elbel RE, Thaineua MA. Flea and rodent control program for plague prevention in Thailand. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1957;6(2): 280-293.
Olson WP. Rat-flea indices, rainfall, and plague outbreaks in Vietnam, with emphasis on the Pleiku area. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1969;18(4):621-628.
Brooks JE. Plague in small mammals and humans in Rangoon, Burma. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 1977;8(3):335-344.
Milne JC. A brief review of fifty years of medical history in Selangor, Federation of Malaya. Medical Journal of Malaya. 1948;2(3):161-173.
Beck W, Folster-holst R. Tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti) serious ectoparasites. Journal of German Society of Dermatology. 2009;7:667-670.
Nadchatram M, Ramalingam S. Dermatitis caused by Ornithonyssus bacoti. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 1974;5(1):15.
Louis AM. Global importance of ticks and associated infectious disease agents. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter. 2009; 31(5):33-36.
Smith CE. A virus resembling Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus from an ixodid tick in Malaya. Nature. 1956;4:581-582.
Marchette. Rickettsioses (tick typhus, q-fever, urban typhus) in Malaya. Journal of Medical Entomology. 1966;2(4):339-371.
Chuluun B, Mariana A, Ho T, Mohd K. A preliminary survey of ectoparasites of small mammals in Kuala Selangor Nature Park. Tropical Biomedicine. 2005;22(2): 243-247.
Kim CM, Yi YH, Yu DH, Lee MJ, Cho MR, Desai AR, Chae JS. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in ticks and small mammals in Korea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006;72(9):5766-5776.
Mariana Z, Zuraidawati TM, Mohd KI, Saleh MS. A survey of ectoparasites in Gunung Stong forest reserve, Kelantan, Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 2005;36(5):1125-1131.
Shahi M, Pakari A. A study on rodent ectoparasites in Bandar Abbas: The main economic southern seaport of Iran. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering. 2007;4(1):173-176.
Easterbrook JD, Kaplan JB, Glass GE, Watson J, Klein SL. A survey of rodent-borne pathogens carried by wild-caught Norway rats: A potential threat to laboratory rodent colonies. Laboratory Animals. 2007;42(1):92-98.
Kowalski K, Bogdziewicz M. Sex differences in flea infections among rodent hosts: Is there a male bias? Parasitol Res. 2015;114(9):337-341.
David E, John T, Emlem JR. Studies on home range of brown rats. Journal of Mammalogy. 1948;29(4):207-225.
Krasnov BR, Stanko M, Matthee S, Laudisoit A, Leirs H, Khokhlova IS, Serge V. Male hosts drive infracommunity structure of ectoparasites. Oecologia. 2011;166:1099-1110.
Abstract View: 1883 times
PDF Download: 699 times