Main Article Content
Background: Lavender oil, Eruca sativa oil and Aloe vera oil contain different types of fatty acids in addition to minerals, vitamins and other compounds which have anti-tumour action and antioxidant properties also it has cure properties against many other diseases. Sodium carbonate is alkaline material that affecting tissue PH and somewhat affecting on breast cancer through changing PH of the tissue making the medium not appropriate for breast cancer induction.
Aim: Is studying the effect of Eruca sativa oil, Sodium carbonate, Lavender oil and Aloe vera oil on lipid profile, Tumor markers of breast cancer and thyroid hormones.
Materials and Methods: Six groups of animals, five rats in each were used for this experiment and divided into negative control, positive control, sodium carbonate group, Eruca sativa oil group, lavender oil group and Aloe vera oil group. We induced cancer in all rats by MCF7 breast cancer cell line except negative control. Then all groups (Except positive and negative controls) were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 2 mg /rat of adryadox (adryamycin chemotherapy), the remaining three groups except sodium carbonate group are supplemented with 1 ml. of the oil. Then rats are sacrificed and blood is centrifuged to obtain serum and analysis of lipid profile and breast cancer tumour markers.
Results: Eruca sativa oil and Aloe vera decrease cholesterol and triglycerides, where Eruca s. oil, Lavender oil and Aloe vera oil increase HDL more than sodium carbonate, Erucas. oil, Lavender oil and Aloe vera oil decrease LDL. Eruca s. oil decrease VLDL, sodium carbonate decreases alpha-fetoprotein and Ca15-3.
Conclusion and Recommendation: Based on the findings of this study, we recommend the use of lavender oil, Eruca sativa oil, Aloe vera oil and sodium carbonate administered at low doses as a helper in cure chemotherapy in treatment of breast cancer because it has useful effect in decreasing tumor markers and lipids and improve heart properties.
Kim SJ, Kawaharada C, Jin S, Hashimoto M, Ishi G, Yamauchi H. Structural elucidation of 4- (cysteinyl-S-yl) butyl glucosinolate from the leaves of Eruca sativa. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2007; 71:114-21.
Weckerle B, Michel K, Balazs B, Schreier P, Toth G. Quercetin 3,30,40 Tri-o-b-d-glucopyranosides from leaves of Eruca sativa (Mill). Phytochemistry. 2001;57:547-51.
Michael HN, Shafik RE, Rasmy GE. Studies on the chemical constituents of fresh leave of Eruca sativa extract and its biological activity as anticancer agent in vitro. J. Med. plant. Res. 2011;5:1184-91.
El-Missiry MA, El Gindy AM. Amelioration of alloxan induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by oil of Eruca sativa seeds. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 2000;44: 97-100.
Morton JF. Folk uses and commercial exploitation of aloe leaf pulp. Economic Botany. 1961;15 (4):311-19.
Laus CA. Ethno medicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus. J. ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 2006;2:45.
Cavanagh HMA, Wilkinson J M. Biological activities of lavender essential oil. Phyto. Therapy Research. 2002;16(4):301-308 .
Setzer WN. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy. Natural Product Communications. 2009;4(9):1305-1316.
Morris N. The effects of lavender (Lavendula angustifolium) bathson psychological well-being: Two exploratory randomized controls. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2002;10(4):223-228.
Sebai H, Selmi S, Rtibi K, et al. Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oils attenuate hyperglycemia and protect against oxidative stress in all oxan-induced diabetic rats lipids in health and disease. 2013;12:189.
Lee IS, Lee GJ. Effects of lavender aromatherapy on insomnia and depression in women college students. Taehan. Kanho. Hakhoe. Chi. 2006;36(1):36-43.
Huang MY. Liao MH, Wang YK, et al. Effect of lavender essential oil on lps stimulated inflammation. American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2012;40(4):845-59.
DOI: 10.1142/S019 2415X 12500632
Lee BH, Lee JS, Kim YC. Hair growth - promoting effects of lavender oil in C57 Bl 16 mice. Toxicological Research. 2016; 32(2):103-108.
Washington DC: NIH publication No.01-3670, National institutes of Health. Third report of the national cholesterol Education program Expert panel on detection, Evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult treatment panel III), Executive summary; 2001.
Paillasse MR, De Medina P, Amouroux G, Mhamdi L, Poikot M, Silvente-poirot S. Signaling through cholesterol esterification: A new pathway for the cholecystokinin2 receptor involved in cell growth and invasion . J. lipid Res. 2009;50:2203-11.
Araujo F, Gouvinhas C, Fontes F, La Vecchia C, Azevedo A, Lunet N. Trends incardiovascular diseases and cancer mortality in 45 contries from five continents (1980-2010). Eur. J. Pre. V. Cardiol. 2013; 21:1004-1017.
Smith GI, Jeukendrup AE, Ball D. Sodium acetate induces a metabolic alkalosis but not the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed following bicarbonate ingestion. J. Nutr. 2007;137(7):1750-1756.
Danilo C, Frank, PG. Cholesterol and breast cancer development. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 2012;12:677-682.
Eliassen AH, Hankinson SE. Endogenous hormone levels and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers: prospective studies. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2007;63:148-165.
Ray G, Husain SA. Role of lipids, lipoproteins and vitamins in women with breast cancer. Clin. Biochem. 2001;34:71-76.
Boyd N, MC Guire V. The possible role of lipid peroxidation in breast cancer risk. Free Radical boil. Med. 1991;10185-190.
Esteve E, Ricart W. Fernande 2- Real J M.Dyslipidemia and inflammation: An evolutionary conserved mechanism. Clin. Nutr. 2005;24:16-31.
Hidalgo M, Garrett-Mayer E, Clendenin N, Eckhardt'S G. Principles of Anticancer Drug Development. Humana Press. New York; 2011.
El Shahat BE. MSC. Thesis Effect of bee venom on some physiological parameters and tumor markers in cancer infected rats. Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. 2013;47.
Rodak FP. Routin Laboratory evaluation of blood cells and bone marrow. Diagnostic Hematology. 1995;125-129
Allain, CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmond WFPC, Fu PC. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clinical Chemistry. 1974;20(4):470-475.
Fassati P, Prencipe L. Clin.Chem. 1982; 28:2077.
Lopes-Virella MF, Stone P, Ellis S, Colwell JA. Cholesterol determination in high-density lipoproteins separated by three different methods. Clinical Chemistry. 1977;23(5):882-884.
Wleland H, Seldel D. J. Lipid Res. 1983;24:904.
Zou X, Kwon SH, Jiang K, Ferguson CM, Puranik AS, Zhu X, Lerman LO. Renal scattered tubular-like cells confer protective effects in the stenotic murine kidney mediated by release of extracellular vesicles. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1): 1263.
Tietz NW. Text book of clinical chemistry, CA Burtis, ER Ashwood. 1999;798.
Luptak, et al. Decreased ATP production and myocardial contractile reserve in metabolic heart disease. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 2018;116:106-114.
Smith CJP, Kelleher PC. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 1980;650:1-32.
Luftner D, et al. Int. J. Biol. Markers. 2004;19(3):175-182.
Jaafar NS, Jaafar IS. Eruca sativa Linn.: Pharmacognostical and pharmacological properties and pharmaceutical prepara-tions. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2019;12(3): 39-45.
Nawfal AJ, Tafash HT, Mahmood AS. Protective effect of roket leaves (Eruca Sativa) extract against lead induced oxidative damage in liver and kidney of male rats. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development. 2019;10(5):365-370.
Cvetkovic Z, Cvetkovic B, Petrovic M, Ranic M, Debeljak-Martarcic J, Vucic V. et al. Lipid profile as a prognostic factor in cancer patients. J. BUON. 2009;14(13): 501-506.
Singh S, Ramesh V, Premalatha B, Prashad KV, Ramadoss K. Alterations in serum lipid profile patterns in oral cancer. J.Nat. Sci. Biol. Med., 2013;4(2):374- 378.
Risch HA, Jain M, Marrett LD, Howe GR. Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1994;86(18):1409-1415.
Fueberg AS, Veierod MB, Wilsgaard T, Bernstein L, Thune I. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, metabolic profile, and breast cancer risk. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2004;96(15):1152-1160.
Mc Keown-Eyssen G. Epidemiologyof colo-rectal cancer revisited: Are serum triglycerides and/or plasma glucose associated with risk. Cancer epidemiology Biomarkers Prev. 1994;3(8):687-695.
Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics CA: A cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2011;61:69-90
Pein F, Sakiroglu O, Dahan M, Lebidois J, Merlet P, Shamsaldin A, et al. Cardia abnormalities 15 years and more after Adriamycin therapy in 229 childhood survivors of a solid tumor at the institute Gustave Roussy. Br. J. Cancer. 2009;91: 37-44.
Octavia Y, Tochetti CG, Gabrielson KL, Janssens S, Crijns HJ, Moens AL. Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic strategies-J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 2012;52: 1213-25.
Shenoy C, Klem I, Crowley AL, Patel MR, Winchester MA, Owusu C. and Kimmick GG. Cardiovascular complications of breast cancer therapy in older adults. The Oncologist. 2011;16(8):1138-1143.
Alexopoulos CG, Pournaras S, Vaslama T, Zis M, Avgerinos A, Raptis S. Changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins in cancer patients during chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1992;30:412-6.
Schaefer EJ, Lamon-Fava S, Cohn SD, Schaefer MM, ordovas JM, Castelli WP. Et al. Effects of age, gender and menopausal status on plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoproteinB levels in the Framingham offspring. Stud. J. Lipid. Res. 1994;35:779-92.
Arcamone F, Cassinelli G, Fantini G, Grein A, Orezzi P, Pol C, et al. Adriamycin, 14-hydroxydaunomycin: A new antitumor antibiotic from S. peucetius Var. Caesius. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 1969;11: 1101-1110.
GeD A. Acritical evaluation of the mechanisms of action proposed for the antitumor effects of the anthracycline antibiotics Adriamycin and daunorubicin. Biochem pharmacol. 1999;57(7):7-741.
Doroshow JH. Role of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical formation in the killing of Erlich tumor cells by anticancer quinones. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1986;83:4514-4518.
Minotti G, Recalcati S, Menna P, Salvatorelli E, Corna G, Cairo G. Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity and the control of iron metabolism:quinone- dependent and independent mechanisms. Methods Enzymol. 2004;378:340-361.
Moro R, Gulyaeva-Tcherkassova J, Stieber P. Increased alpha-fetoprotein receptor in the serum of patients with early-stage breast cancer. Curr. Oncol. 2012;19(1):e1-e8 .
Abelev GI, Perova SD, Khramkova, NI, Poatnikova ZA, Irlin IS. Production of embryonal alpha-globulin transplantable mouse hepatomas. Transplant. 1963;1: 174-80.
Trojan J, Uriel J. Immmmunocyto chemical localization of alphafetoprotein (AFP) and serum albumin (ALB) in ecto-, meso- and endodermal tissue derivatives of the developing rat. Oncodev. Biol. Med. 1982; 3:13-22.
Deutsch HF. Chemistry and biology of alpha-fetoprotein. Adv Cancer. Res. 1991; 56:253-312.
Jacobsen M, Lassen LC, Mollgard K. Immunohistochemical evidence for intracellular localization of plasma proteins in CNS and some neural crest derivatives in human embryos. Tumor. Biol. 1984;5: 53-60.
Vidal RM. Selective localization of alpha-fetoprotein and serum albumin within the sensory ganglia cells of developing chicken. Neurosci. Lett. 1983;41:253-7.
DOI: 10.1016/0304-3940 (83)90459-7
Von Hoff DD, Layard MW, Basa P. Risk factors for doxorubicin induced congestive heart failure. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1979;91(5):710-717.
Billingham M E, Mason JW, Bristow MR, Daniels JR. Anthracycline cardiomyopathy monitored by morphologic changes. Cancer treatment Reports. 1978;62(6): 865-872.
Juan L, Julia M, Teresa P, Maria A, Lvarez AH, Roberto-Pazo-Cid, Angel A, Antonio AT. Liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of breast cancer patients: A review. Journal of Drug Delivery. 2013;456409: 12.
Antonietta M, Maria HT. Biological profile of Erucin: A new promising Anticancer Agent from Cruciferous vegetables. Toxins. 2010;2(4):593-612.
Ferlay J, Soerjamataram I, Eric M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, et al. GLOBOCAN V10. Cancer induce and mortality world wide: IARC. Cancer Base No.11.Lyon, France IARC; 2012.
Bonnesen C, Eggleston IM, Hayes JD. Dietary indoles and isothiocyanates that are generated from cruciferous vegetables can both stimulate apoptosis and confer protection against DNA damage in human colon cell lines. Cancer Research. 2001; 61(16):6120-6130.
Bogani P, Visioli F. Antioxidants in the Mediterranean diets: An update. In More on Mediterranean Diets. Karger Publishers. 2007;97:162-179.
D’Antuono LF, Elementi S, Neri R. Glucosinolates in Diplotaxis and Eruca leaves: Diversity, taxonomic relations and applied aspects. Phytochemistry. 2008; 69(1):187-199.
Melchini A, Costa C, Traka M, Miceli N, Mithen R, De pasquale R, Trovato A. Erucin, a new promising cancer chemo-preventive agent from rocket salad, shows anti-proliferative activity on human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009;47:1430-1436.
Uphof JCT. Dictionary of Economic plants; Velgar Von J. Cramer Publ. New York, NY, USA; 1968.
Sarwar Alam M, Kaur G, Jabbar Z, Javed K, Athar M. Eruca sativa seeds possess antioxidant activity and exert a protective effect on mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007;45: 910-920.
Alqasoumi S, Al-Sohaibani M, Al-Howiriny T, Al-Yahya M, Rafatullah S. Rocket Eruca sativa: A salad herb with potential gastric anti-ulcer activity. World J. Gastroenterol. 2009;15:1958-1965.
Lamy E, Mersch-Sundermann V. MTBITC mediates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in human HepG2 cells despite its rapid degradation kinetics in the vitro model. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2009; 50(3):190-200.
Zhang Y, Talalay P, Cho CG, Posner GH. A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: Isolation and elucidation of structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1992;89:2399-2403.
Hanlon N, Coldham N, Sauer MJ, Ioannides C. Up-regulation of the CYP1 family in rat and human liver by the aliphatic isothiocyanates erucin and sulforaphane. Toxicology. 2008;252:92-98.
Kim SH, Singh SVD. L-Sulforaphane causes transcriptional repression of androgen receptor in human prostate cancer cells. Mol. Cancer Ther. 2009;8: 1946-1954.
Fimognari C, Nusse M, Iori R, Cantelli-Forti G, Hrelia P. The new isothiocyanate 4-(methylthio)butylisothiocyanate selectively affects cell-cycle progression and apoptosis induction of human leukemia cells. Invest. New Drugs. 2004;22:119- 129.
Jakubikova J, Sedlak J, Mithen R, Bao Y. (B). Role of P13K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways in sulforaphane- and erucin-induced phase II enzymes and MMRP2 transcription, G2/M arrest and cell death in Caco-2 cells. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2005;69:1543-1552.
Okuda M, Li K, Beard MR, Showalter LA, Scholle F, Lemon SM, and Weinman SA. Mitochondrial injury, oxidative stress, and antioxidant gene expression are induced by hepatitis C virus core protein. Gastroenterology. 2002;122(2):366-375.
Wang W, Wang S, Howie AF, Beckett GJ, Mithen R, Bao Y. Sulforaphane, erucin, and iberin up-regulate thiredoxin reductase 1 expression in human MCF-7 cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005;53:1417-1421.
Trachootham D, Zhou Y, Zhang H, Demizu Y, Chen Z, pelicano H, Chiao PJ, Achanta G, Arlinghaus RB, Liu J, Huang P. Selective killing of oncogenically trans-formed cells through a ROS- mediated mechanism by beta-phenylethyl isothio-cyanate. Cancer cell. 2006;10:241-252.
Jing J, Koroleva OA, Gibson T, Swanston J, Magan J, Zhang Y, Rowland IR, Wagstaff C. Analysis of phytochemical composition and chemoprotective capacity of rocket (Eruca sativa and Diplotaxis tenuifolia) Leafy salad following cultivation different environments. J. Agric. Food Ch. 2009;57:5227-5234.
Henderson IC. Chemotherapy for metastatic disease, in harris JR, Hellman S, Henderson IC, et al. eds: Breast Diseases. 2nd ed, J.B Lippincott Company, Philadelphia. 1991;604-665.
Toriola AT, Colditz GA. Trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in the United States: Implications for prevention. Breast cancer research and treatment. 2013;138(3):665-673.
Wike- Hooley JL, Haveman J, Reinhold HS. The relevance of tumor pH to the treatment of malignant disease. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 1984;2(4): 343-336.
Martinez-Zaguilan R, Seftor EA, Sefter REB, Chuy Gillies RJ, Hendrix MJC. Acidic pH enhances the invasive behavior of human melanoma cells. Clinical and experimental metastasis. 1996;14(2):176-186 .
Raghunand N, He X, Van Sluis R, et al. Enhancement of chemotherapy by manipulation of tumor pH. The British Journal of Cancer. 1999;80(7):1005-1011.
Zhang Y, Talalay P. Anti-carcinogenic activities of organic isothiocyanates– chemistry and mechanisms. Cancer Res. 1994;54:1976-815.
Hecht SS. Chemoprevention by isothio-cyanates. J. cell Biochem. 1995;22:195-209 .
Wildwood C. The encyclopedia of Aroma-therapy, Rochester, Vt : Healing Arts Press; 1996.
Thigpen JI. Innovations in authracycline therapy: Overview. Commun. Oncol. 2005; 2:3-7.
Balmer C, Valley AW. Basic principles cancer treatment and cancer themotherapy in Dipiro JI, Talbert Rl, Yee Gc Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM editors. Pharmaco-therapy: A path physiologic approach. 3rd ed Stamford, conn, Appleton and Lamge. 1997;2403-65.
Maluf FC. Spriggs D. Anthracyclines the treatment of gynecologic malignancies. Gynecol. Oncol. 2002;85:18-31.
Leake DS. Does an acidic pH explain why low density lipoprotein is oxidized in atherosclerotic lesions. Atherosclerosis. 1997;129(2):149-157.
Hood VL. Systemic pH modifies ketone body production rates and lipolysis in humans. Am. J. physiol. 1990;259(3):E 327.
Narla SN, et al. Critical care glucose point-of-care testing. In: Advances in clinical chemistry. Elsevier. 2016;97-121.
Davis JA. Anaerobic threshold: Review of the concept and directions for future research. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc. 1985; 17(1):6-21.
Kilding AE, Overton C, Gleave J. Effects of caffeine, sodium bicarbonate and their combined ingestion on high-intensity cycling performance. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 2012;22(3):175-183.
Nielsen HB. Bicarbonate attenuates intracellular acidosis. Acta. Anaesthesiol. Scand. 2002;46(5):579-584.
Poole DC. Contribution of exercising legs to the slow component of oxygen uptake kinetics in humans J. Appl. Physiol. 1991; 71(4):1245-1260.
Berger NJ. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion alters the slow but not the fast phase of vo2 kinetics. Med. Sci. sports Exerc; 2006.
Kim SJ, Ishii G. Glucosinolate profiles in the seeds, leaves and roots of rocket salad (Eruca sativa Mill.) and anti-oxidative activities of intact plant powder and purified 4-methoxyglucobrassicin. Soil science and plant nutrition. 2006;52(3):394-400.
Holtan SG, Dronca RS, Nevala WK, Porrata LF, Mansfield AS, Block MS, Markovic SN. The dynamic human immune response to cancer: It might just be rocket science. Immunotherapy. 2011;3(9):1021-1024.
Saad B, Said O. Greco-Arab and Islamic herbal medicine: Traditional system, ethics, safety, efficacy and regulatory issues. John Wiley & Sons; 2011.
Lu H, Li H, Lu H, Li X, Zhou AG. Chemical composition of Lavender essential oil and its antioxidant activity and inhibition against rhinitis-related bacteria. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2010;4(4):309-313.
Grant W, Zerihun D, Mark R, Soheil M. Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of lavandula essential oil constituents. Planta Med. 2011;77(1):7-15.
Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Sharif B. Anti-inflamatory and analgesic properties of leaf extracts and essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 89:67-71.
Asgary S, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Najafi S, Heidarian E, Sahebkar A. Antihyper-lipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat diet. Sci. World J. 2013;5:1-3.