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Aim: To investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on serum biochemistry and histomorphology of liver, kidneys and uterus of pregnant Albino Wistar rats.
Study Design: An experimental study which lasted for six weeks was conducted in the Animal house of the Department of Physiology, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus.
Methodology: Twenty (20) female albino Wistar rats were used in this study. They were divided into five groups (n=4): Three experimental groups (A - C) and two control groups (pregnant and non-pregnant). Groups A, B and C were treated with 0.3 g/kg, 0.8 g/kg and 2 g/kg Ethanol respectively via oral gavage, once daily for 30 days. Blood samples were collected from the female rats via retro orbital puncture and the sera obtained were used for the determination of serum Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Urea and Creatinine levels. Liver, kidney and uterus were excised after animal sacrifice for histopathological studies.
Results: A statistically significant increase in ALT, AST and ALP levels was observed only in rats treated with 0.3 g/kg/day of ethanol when compared with the controls (P=.000). Serum creatinine and urea levels in all groups showed no difference when compared with the controls. However, varying degrees of micro-architectural changes were observed in the liver, kidneys and uterus of rats in all treatment groups.
Conclusion: The present data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes histological lesions that may be responsible for the tissue alterations observed in the experimental animals.
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