Evaluation of Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of Cirrhinus mrigala among the Different Freshwater Rivers of Pakistan Using Molecular Marker: Study Implications and Its Importance in Aquaculture

Main Article Content

Muhammad Naeem
Samrah Masud
Zara Naeem
Ammar Danyal Naeem
Muhammad Khalid
Shoaib Hassan

Abstract

Cirrhinus mrigala (Family Cyprinidae) have vast presence in different studied rivers of Pakistan. Present study was designed to formulate the genetic diversity of desired sites in Cirrhinus mrigala populations using nine Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Total hundred individuals were used to conduct this study and were collected from three distinct rivers (River Indus, Chenab and Ravi) with four specified sites with wild of Pakistan were used to study. A random Amplified Polymorphic DNA primer analyzes various bands of polymorphic loci. Mean genetic diversity within and between populations found 81.53% and 2.27% respectively by using analysis of molecular variance. Fixation index was found variably and Pairwise Fst analysis showed significant difference between different sites of studied populations. Genetic divergence information would mark essential in order to improve genetic programming its management and conservation of natural inhabitation. In order to quantify the study of population divergence by using these molecular markers is an efficient way to pin point the genetic diversity within and among population.

Keywords:
Genetic diversity, freshwater, fishes, rivers, molecular markers

Article Details

How to Cite
Naeem, M., Masud, S., Naeem, Z., Naeem, A. D., Khalid, M., & Hassan, S. (2020). Evaluation of Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of Cirrhinus mrigala among the Different Freshwater Rivers of Pakistan Using Molecular Marker: Study Implications and Its Importance in Aquaculture. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 35(7), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730242
Section
Original Research Article

References

Cooke SJLapointe NWR, Martins EG, Thiem JD, Raby GD. Failure to engage the public in issues related to inland fishes and fisheries: Strategies for building public and political will to promote meaningful conservation. Journal of Fish Biology. 2013;83:997–1018.

FAO. Fishstat plus: Universal software for fish statistics time series, version 2.3 2000. FAO; Fisheries department, Fisheries information, data and satistical unit [Internet]; 2006.

Payne AI, Sinha R, Singh HR, Huq SA. Review of Ganges basin: Its fish and fisheries. In: Welcomme R, Petr T, editors. Proceedings of the second International Symposium on the Management of Large Rivers for Fisheries. Sustaining Livelihoods and Biodiversity in the New Millennium. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. 2004;16(1).

Reddy PVGK. Carp genetic resources of India, carp genetic resources for aquaculture in Asia. Malaysia: World Fish Center publishing Inc. 2005;39–53.

Liu ZJ, Cordes JF. DNA marker technologies and their applications in aquaculture genetics. Aquaculture. 2004; 238:1–37.

Rez Â, Bautista AM, Almodo ANA, Machordom A. Evolution of the mitochondrial control region in Palaearctic brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations. 2001;87:198–206.

Saad YM, Ali SF, Hanafi MS, Ezza MA, Guerges AA. Genetic signature of some Egyptian Clarias gariepinus Populations. Global Vet. 2009;3:503-508.

Nandani K, Thakur SK. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA a brief review. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2014;9:6-13.

Wasko AP, Martins C, Oliveira C, Senhorini JA, Foresti F. Genetic monitoring of the Amazonian fish matrincha (Bryconcephalus) using RAPD markers: Insights into supportive breeding and conservation programmes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 2004; 20:48-52.

Zohar Y, Hines AH, Zmora O, Johnson EG, Lipcius RN, Seitz RD, Eggleston DB, Place AR, Schot TEJ, Stubblefield JD, Chung JS. The Chesapeake Bay Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus): A Multi-disciplinary Approach to Responsible Stock Replenishment. Reviews in Fisheries Science. 2008;16:24–34.

Nei M. Genetic distance between populations. Am Natural. 1973;106:283-292.

Nei M. Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals, Genetics. 1978;89:583–590.

McKinnon JS, Mori S, Blackman BK, Lior D. Evidence for ecology's role in speciation. Nature. 2004;429:294–298.

Schneider S, Roessli D, Excoffier L. Arlequin: A software for population genetics data analysis. Geneva, Switzerland: Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, Department of Anthropology, University of Geneva; 2000.

Rice WR. Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution. 1989;43:223–225.

Baradakci F, Skibinski DOF. Application of the RAPD technique in Tilapia fish: species and subspecies identification. Herditary. 1984;73:117-123.

Naish KA, Warren M, Bardacki F, Skibinski DOF, Carvalho GR, Mair GC. Multilocus DNA fingerprinting and RAPD reveal similar genetic relationships between strains of Orechromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Molecular Ecology. 1994;4:71-274.

Elmqvist T, Folke C, Nystrom M, Peterson G, Bengtsson J, Walker B, Jon N. Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. Frontiers in Ecological Environment. 2003;9:488–494.

Agnisto A, Thomas S, Gomes L. Conservation of the biodiversity of Brazil’s inland waters. Conservation Biology. 2005; 19:646-652.
DOI:http://dx.doi. org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00701.x

Li SF, Cai WQ, Zhou BY. Morphology and biochemical genetic variations among populations of blunt snout bream (Mega lobramaamblycephala). Journal of China Fisheries. 2009.15;204–211.
Available:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28535200.

Wolf JBW, Bayer T, Haubold B, Schilhabel M. Nucleotide divergence vs gene expression differentiation : Comparative transcriptome sequencing in natural isolates from the carrion crow and its hybrid zone with the hooded crow. 2010; 19:162–175.

Suresh E, Tiwari VK, Sekar M, Sankar M, Kathirvelpandian A. Genetic structure of populations of Mugilcephalus using RAPD markers. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2013;12(44):6262–6266.

WangJT, Li JT, Zhang XF, Sun XW. Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinu scarpio). BMC genomics. 2012;13(1):96.

Parveen JE, Thangaraj M, Kumar TTA, Bhimba BV, Rajasekar M. RAPD Probe on Genetic Variation in Damselfishes (Family Pomacentridae) in Gulf of Mannar Region. Asian Journal of Experimental Biology Science. 2011;2(4):687–690.

Chiu T, Su Y, Lin H, Hsu C. Molecular Electrophoretic Technique for Authentication of the Fish Genetic Diversity, 2009.
ISBN978-953-51-0457-5
Available:http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/34913/InTech

Gjedrem T, Baranski M. Selective Breeding in Aquaculture: An Introduction. In Reviews: Methods and Technologies in Fish Bio and Fish; 2009.
Available:https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9789048127726

Chauhan T, Lal KK, Mohindra Singh VRK, Punia P, Gopalakrishnan A, Sharma PC, Lakra WS. Evaluating genetic differentiation in wild populations of the Indian major carp, Cirhinus mrigala (Hamilton-Buchanan, 182): Evidence from alozyme and microsatellite markers. Aquaculture. 2007;269:135– 149.

Sanches A, Gelleti PM, Galzerani JRF, Derazo J, Cutilak-bianchi B, Hatanaka T. Genetic population structure of two migratory fresh water ish species (Bryconorthotaenia and Prochilodus argenteus) from the São Francisco River in Brazil. 2012;40(1):177–186.

Welsh J, McClelland M. Finger printing genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acids: Research. 1990;18:7213–7218.

Hatanaka TPM, Galletti JR. RAPD markers indicate the occurrence of structured population in a migratory fresh water fish species, Sao Paulo. Genetic and Molecular Biology. 2003;26(1).

Liang SX, Sun XW, Bai JJ, Gao JS. Genetic analysis for cultured largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in China with microsatellites. Acta Hydrobiol Sin. 2008; 32:694–700.

Ariki H, Schmid C.Is hatchery stocking a help or harm? Evidence, limitations and future directions in ecological and genetic surveys. Aquaculture. 2010;308:2–11.

Holsinger KE, Weir BS. Genetics in geographically structured populations: Defining, estimating and interpreting FST. Natural Review of Genetics. 2009;10(9): 639–650.
Available:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4687486/

Wright S. Evolution and the genetics of populations, Vol. 4: variability within and among natural populations. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; 1978.

Esa Y, Rahim KAA. Genetic structure and preliminary findings of cryptic diversity of the Malaysian Mahseer (Tor tambroides Valenciennes: Cyprinidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Analyses. BioMedical Research International. 2013;14.

Chatta AM, Ayub M. Growth performance of hatchery reared Golden mahseer (Tor macrolepis) at Sialkot, Pakistan. 2010; 56:1–8.