Main Article Content
Silver nano particles (AgNPs) were green synthesized using Adansonia digitata leaf extract. The synthesized silver nano particles were characterized in terms of synthesis, size, shape, morphology and capping functionalities by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Antimicrobial activity of the synthesized silver nano particles was investigated by well diffusion method. The antibacterial activity of the nano particle was studied against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeurigunosa, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumonae while the antifungal activity was studied against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum notatum and Rhizopus stolomifer. The synthesized AgNPs was active against all the studied microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible bacterium (inhibition zones ranging from 12.00 to 28.00 mm, MIC: 30 µl, MBC: 50 µl) while Aspergillus niger was the most susceptible fungi (inhibition zones ranging from 10.00 to 18.00 mm, MIC: 90 µl, MFC: 120 µl. In conclusion the synthesized silver nanoparticles was found to have antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic bacteria and fungi tested and hence has a great potential in biomedical application for the treatment of microbial infections.
Jones KE, Patel NG, Levy MA, Storeygard A, Balik D, Gultterron JL, Daszak P. Global trends in emerging infections diseases. Nature. 2008;45(718):990–993.
Erick Taylor, Thomas Webster. Reducing infections through nanotechnology and nano particles. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2011;6:1463–1473.
Xi Zhu, Aleksandar F, Radovic Moreno, Jun Wu, Robert Langer, Jinjin Shi. Nanomedicine in the management of microbial infection – overview and perspectives. Nanotoday. 2013;9(4):478-498.
Saxena A, Tripathi RM, Singh RP. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using onion (Allium cepa) extract and their antibacterial activity. Digital Journal of Nanometer Bioscience. 2010;5(2):1427.
Elumalai EK, Prasad TNVKV, Hemachandran J, Theresa SV, Thirumalai TDE. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Euphorbia hirta and their antibacterial activities. Journal of Pharmacology Science and Research. 2010;2(9):549–554.
Khan Z, Al Thabati SA, Oband AY, Al-Youbi. Preparation and characterization of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction methods. Colloids and Surfaces B. Biointerfaces. 2011;82:513–517.
Chen P, Song LY, Linn YK. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by gamma-ray irradiation in acetic water solution containing chitosain. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 2007;76:1165–1168.
Zhang WZ, Qiao XL, Chen JG. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles in AOT micro emulsion system. Chemical Physics. 2006;30:495–500.
Reicha FM, Sarhan A, Abdul-Hamid MI, El-sherbiny IM. Preparation of silver nanoparticles in the presence of chitosan by electrochemical method. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2012;89:236–244.
Abid JP, Wark AW, Brevertim DF, Girault HH. Preparation of silver nanoparticles in solution from a silver salt by laser irradiation. Chemical Communications. 2002;7:792–793.
Yang J, Pan J. Hydrothermal synthesis of silver nanoparticles by sodium alginate and their application in surface enhanced Raman scattering and catalysis. Acta Materialia. 2012;60:4753–4758.
Khan A, El-Toni AM, Alrokayan S, Alsalhi M, Allhasan M, Aldiva Yan AS. Microwave assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles using poly-N-isopropylacrylamide /acrylic acid microgel particles. Colloids and Surfaces A. Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2011;377–360.
Alarcin EI, Udekwu K, Skog M, Pacioni NL, StamplecosKic KG, Gonzalez Bejar. The biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of collagen-stabilised photo chemically prepared silver nanoparticles. Biomaterials. 2012;33:4947–4956.
Esumi K, Hosoya T, Suzuki A, Torigoe K. Formation of gold and silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution of sugar – substituted poly (amidoamine) dendrimers. J Colloid InterfSci. 2000;226:346–352.
Bakshi MS, Possmayer F, Peterson NO. Aqueous phase room temperature synthesis of gold nanaribbons: Soft templat effect of a Gemini surfactant. J. PhyChemC. 2008;112:8259–8265.
Sharma VK, RA, Linn YY. Silver nanoparticles: Green synthesis and their antimicrobial activities. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 2009;145:83.
Huang H, Yang X. Synthesis of polysaccharide – stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles. A green method carbohydrate research. 2004;330:2627–2631.
Lateef A, Azeez MA, Asafa TB, Yekeen TA, Akinboro A, Oladipo IC, Ajetomobi FE, Gueguim – Kana, Beukes LS. Cola nitida mediated biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed and seed shell extracts and evaluation of antibacterial activities. BioNano Science. 2015;5:196-205.
Rajeshkumar S, Ponnanikajamideen M, Malarkodi C, Malini M, Annadurai G. Microbe mediated synthesis of antimicrobial semiconductor nanoparticles by marine bacteria. Journal of Nanostructure and Chemistry. 2014;4:96-102.
Simon Jackson. Baobab: The tree of life. An ethnopharmacological review. Herbal Gram. The Journal of the American Botanical Council. 2015;108:42–53.
Food Standards Agency, McCance, Widdowson’s. The composition of foods. Royal Society of Chemistry: 6th Ed. Cambridge, UK; 2002.
Sidibe M, Williams JT. Baobab. Adansonia digitata. International Centre for Underutilised Crops: Southampton, UK; 2002.
Chadare F, Linneman A, Hounhouigan J, Nout M, Van Boekel MA. Baobab food products: A review on their composition and nutritional value. Critical Review of Food Science Nutrition. 2009;49(3):254–274.
Hussain HSN, Deeni YY. Plants in Kano ethnomedicine: Screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1991;29(1):51–56.
Vertuani S, Braccioli E, Buzzoni V, Manfredini S. Antioxidant capacity of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp and leaves. Acta Physiotherapeutica. 2002;2.
Vimalanathan S, Hudson J. Multiple inflammatory and antiviral activities in Adansonia digitata (Baobab) leaves, fruits and seeds. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2009;3(8):576–582.
Kabore D, Sawadogo – Lingani H, Diawara B, Compaore CS, Dicko MH, Jakobsen M. A review of baobab (Adansonia digitata) products: Effect of processing techniques, medicinal properties and uses. African Journal of Food Science. 2011;5(16):833–844.
Banso A, Ngbede. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antifungal properties of Fagara zanthoxyloides. Journal of Food and Agric. 2006;3,41:8–9.
Ngbede J, Yakubu RA, Nyam DA. Phytochemical screening for active compounds in Camarium schl vein furthil (Atile) leaves from Jos North, Plateau State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Biological Science. 2008;3(9):1076–1078.
Lateef A, Ojo SA, Azeez MA, Asafa TB, Yekeen TA, Akinboro A, Oladipo IC. Cobweb as novel biomaterial for the green and ecofriendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Applied Nanoscience. 2016;6(6):863–874.
Lino A, Deogracious O. The In-vitro antibacterial activity of Annona senegalensis, Securidacca longipendiculata and Steanotaeniaaralliacea Uganda medicinal plants. African Health Sciences. 2006;6(1):31–35.
Oyeleke SB, Dauda BEN, Boye OA. Antibacterial activity of Ficus capensis. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;7(10):1414–1417.
Chennareddy M, Kesava K, Pulicherla Y, Nataru S. Adansonia digitalia leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles; characterization and antimicrobial studies. Journals of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2015;5(08):082-089.
Kaushik R, Sarkar CK, Ghosh CK. Plant – mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Parsely (Petroselinum crispum) leaf extract: Spectral analysis of the particles and antibacterial study. Applied Nanoscience. 2015;5:945–941.
Wael Mahmoud, Ahmed M, Elazzazy, Enas ND. In vitro evaluation, biochemical antimicrobial properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against multidrug – resistant bacteria pathogens. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment. 2009;31(2):373–379.
Klasen HJ. A historical review of the use of silver in the treatment of burns. Burns. 2000;26(2):117–130.
Feng QL, Wu J, Chen GO, Cui FZ, Kim TN, Kim JO. A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Straphylococcus aureus. J. Biomed. Mater Res. 2000;52(4):662–668.
Chen CW, Hsu CY, Lai SM. Metal nano bullets for multidrug resistant bacteria and biofilms. Advance Drug Delivery Review; 2014.
Pal Sukdeb, Tak Yukyung, Song JoonMyong. Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2007;73(6):1712–1720.
Danilclauk M, Lund A, Saldo J, Yamada H, Michalik J. Conduction electron spin resonance of small silver particles. Spectrochimata Acta Part A. 2006;63:189–191.
Kim J, Kuk E, Yu K, Kim JH, Park SJ, Lee HJ, Kim SH, Park YK, Park YH, Hwang CY, Kim YK, Lee YS, Jeong DH, Cho MH. Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine. 2007;3:95–101.
Feng QL, Wu J, Chen GO, Cui FZ, Kim TN, Kim JO. A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 2008;52:662–668.
Matsumura Y, Yoshikata, Kunisaki S, Tsuchido T. Mode of bacterial action of silver zeolite and its comparison with that of silver nitrate. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2003;69:4278–4281.
Morones JR, Elechignerra JL, Camacho A, Holt K, Kouri JB, Ramirez JT, Yacaman MJ. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology. 2005;16: 2346–2353.
Shahverdi Ahmad R, Fakhimi Ali, Shahverdi Hamid Q, Minaicin Sara. Synthesis and effect of silver nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Nanomedicine. 2007;3(2):168–171.
Kee Jo Yur, Hyun SeoJeong, Choi Bong-Hyuk, Jin Kim Bum, Hui Shin Hwa, Hee Hwang Byeong, Joon Cha Hyung. Surface independent antibacterial coating using silver nanoparticles generating engineered mussel glue. Acs Applied Materials and Interface. 2014;6:20242–20253.