Main Article Content
Introduction: Maize downy mildew (MDM) is considered as a major problem in all maize growing areas in Indonesia including the Province of Lampung.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were (i) to identify the species of Peronosclerospora causing maize downy mildew (MDM) in Lampung, (ii) to determine the influence of varieties on the intensity of downy mildew and (iii) to determine the efficacy of metalaxyl to control MDM on some maize varieties.
Methodology: To identify Peronosclerospora causing MDM, the pathogens were observed under light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Maize varieties response against pathogens and efficacy metalaxyl were studied in the field with the test plants exposed to plants showing MDM symptoms as the sources of inocula to mimic natural conditions.
Results: Peronosclerospora sorghi, P. maydis, and P. philippinensis were found to cause MDM in Lampung. On both varieties Pioneer 27 (P-27) and NK-22, AUDPC on F1 plants was greater than that on F2 plants. On P-27, the production of F2 was higher than that of F1 plants, but there was not significant difference in production between F1 and F2 of NK-22 variety. Seed treatment using metalaxyl was not effective to control downy mildew of maize.
Conclusion: Three species of Peronosclerospora were identified as disease-causing pathogen of MDM in Lampung, but these results were tentatively pending for further studies through molecular techniques. F1 plants were more susceptible than F2 plants to MDM in both P-27 and NK-22. Metalaxyl was not effective in controlling MDM.
Rashid Z, Zaidi PH, Vinayan MT, Sharma SS, Setty TAS. Downy mildew resistance in maize (Zea mays L.) across Peronosclerospora species in lowland tropical Asia. Crop Protection. 2013:43: 183-191.
Sireesha Y, Velazhahan R. Biological control of downy mildew of maize caused by Peronosclerospora sorghi under environmentally controlled conditions. J. Appl. & Nat. Sci. 2016;8(1):279-283.
Muis A, Nonci N, Pabendon MB. Geographical distribution of Perenosclerospora spp., the causal organism of maize downy mildew, in Indonesia. AAB Bioflux. 2016;8(3):143-155.
Widiantini F, Yulia E, Purnama T. Morphological variation of Peronosclerospora maydis, the causal agent of maize downy mildew from different locations in Java-Indonesia. J Agricultural Engineeringand Biotechnology. 2015;3(2):58-62.
Hikmahwati H, Kuswinanti T, Melina, Pabendon BP. Karakterisasi morfologi Peronosclerospora spp., penyebab bulai pada tanaman jagung dari beberapa daerah di Indonesia [In Indonesian: Morphological characterization of Peronosclerospora spp., the causal agent of maize downy mildew from several regions in Indonesia]. J Fitomedika. 2011;7(3):159-1961.
Janruang P, Unartngam J. Morphological and molecular based identification of corn downy mildew distributed in Thailand. International Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2018;14(6):845-860.
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. Downy mildew (Extended information); 2012.
Accessed 11February 2017.
Muis M, Pabendon MB, Nonci N, Waskoti PS. Keragaman genetik Peronosclerospora maydis penyebab bulai pada jagung berdasarkan analisis marka SSR. [In Indonesian: Genetic diversity of Peronosclerospora maydis causing downy mildew on maize based on SSR marker analysis]. Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan. 2013;32(3):139-147.
Surtikanti. Cendawan Peronosclerospora sp. penyebab penyakit bulai di Jawa Timur [In Indonesian: Peronosclerospora sp. fungus the causal agent of maize downy mildew in East Java]. In A. Hasbianto (Ed.), Proceeding of National Seminar onAgricultural Tectnology Inovation. Banjar Baru, Indonesia: BPTP Kalimantan Selatan. 2013;57-67.
Isakeit T, Jaster J. Texas has a new pathotype of Peronosclerospora sorghi, the cause of sorghum downy mildew. Plant Disease. 2005;89(5):529-529.
Aav A, Skrabule I, Bimšteine G, Kaart T, Williams IH, Runno-Paurson E. The structure of mating type, metalaxyl resistance and virulence of Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from Latvia. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture. 2015;102(3):335-342.
Rustiani US, Sinaga MS, Hidayat SH, Wiyono S. Tiga spesies Peronoslerospora penyebab penyakit bulai jagung di Indonesia.Berita Biologi [In Indonesian: Three species of Peronosclerospora cause maize downy mildew in Indonesia]. 2015;14(1):29-37.
Ahmad IB, Lopez DO, Mahir AM. Biology of the downy mildew pathogen of corn in Malaysia. Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science). 1994;28:483-488.
Pataky JK, Raid RN, du Toit L.J, Schueneman TJ. Disease severity and yield of sweet corn hybrids with resistance to northern leaf blight. Plant Disease. 1998;82(1):57-63.
Shaner G, Finney RE. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the expression of slow-mildewing resistance in Knox wheat. Phytopathology. 1977;67(8):1051-1056.
Van der Plank JE. Plant diseases: Epidemic and control. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1963
Shivas RG, Ryley MJ, Telle S, Liberato JR, Thines M. Peronosclerospora australiensis sp. nov. and Peronosclerospora sargae sp. nov., two newly recognized downy mildews in Northern Australia, andtheir biosecurity implications. Australasian Plant Pathology. 2012;41(2):125-130.
Bock CH, Jeger MJ, Mughogho LK, Cardwell KF, Mtisi E, Kaula G, Mukansabimana D. Variability of Peronosclerospora sorghi isolates from different geographic locations and hosts in Africa. Mycological Research. 2000;104(1):61-68.
Pudjiwati EH, Kuswanto, Basuki N, Sugiharto AN. Path analysis of some leaf characters related to downy mildew resistance in maize. Agrivita. 2013;35(2):167-173.
Wisser RJ, Balint-Kurti PJ, Nelson RJ. The genetic architecture of disease resistance in maize: A synthesis of published studies. Phytopathology. 2006;96(2):120-129.
Ishii H. Impact of fungicide resistance in plant pathogens on crop disease control and agricultural environment. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly. 2006;40(3):205-211.
Gisi U, Sierotzki H. Fungicide modes of action and resistance in downy mildews. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 2008;122(1):157-167.
Pakki S, Jainuddin N. The effectiveness combination of resistant varieties and metalaxyl fungicide in controlling downy mildew disease (Peronosclerospora maydis) in maize plant. J. HPT Tropika. 2019;19(1):42–51.
Pakki S, Aminah, Saenong S, Musi A. Pengaruh kombinasi varietas tahan dan fungisida metalaksil terhadap insidensi penyakit bulai Peronosclerospora philippinensis pada jagung [In Indonesian: The effect of combination of resistant variety and metallaxyl fungicide on the incidence of Peronosclerospora philippinensis downy mildew on maize]. Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan. 2019;3(2):91-99.