Efficacy of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Hyptis suaveolens and Moringa oleifera in the Control of Soil-Borne Pathogens

Main Article Content

Okoro, Chisom Augusta
Onaebi, Chiemeka Nwakaego

Abstract

Aim: Soil-borne diseases are difficult to control because they are caused by pathogens that can survive for long periods in the absence of the normal crop host and often have a wide host range including weeds. This present study was design to assess the antifungal assay dependent effect of methanolic extracts of Hyptis suaveolens and Moringa oleifera on Phytophthora colocasiae and Fusarium oxysporum.

Methods: The presence of biologically active ingredients (alkaloid, saponin, tannins, flavonoid, terpenoids, tannins, steroids, hydrogen cyanides, phenols and glycoside) in the leaf extracts was investigated using standard procedures. The antifungal activities of the plant extract were tested against Phytophthora colocasiae and Fusarium oxysporum using disc and well diffusion assays.

Results: The results of the phytochemical evaluated showed that H. suaveolens, contained significantly higher alkaloids, saponins, hydrogen cyanide, flavonoids and phenols than M. oleifera, while on the other hand, M. oleifera contained significantly higher terpenoids, tannins, steroids and glycosides. Consequently, H. suaveolens extract similarly recorded significantly (P < 0.05) higher inhibition on the organisms as compared to M. oleifera. The disc diffusion assay method was more sensitive than the well diffusion assay. H. suaveolens at 100 mg/ml using disc diffusion assay method showed higher inhibition on both P. colocasiae and F. oxysporum. While M. oleifera recorded higher inhibition on F. oxysporum at 50 mg/ml and P. colocasiae at 100 mg/ml using the disc diffusion assay method. MIC was lowest with H. suaveolens (12.5 mg/ml) against F. oxysporum.

Conclusion: These results promote the identification of actives substances from these plants for use as lead molecules in the development of new fungicides for the control of Phytophthora colocasiae and Fusarium oxysporum.

Keywords:
Biological control, biological efficacy, fungicides, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora colocasiae.

Article Details

How to Cite
Augusta, O. C., & Nwakaego, O. C. (2020). Efficacy of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Hyptis suaveolens and Moringa oleifera in the Control of Soil-Borne Pathogens. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 35(7), 56-63. https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730246
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ma LJ, Geiser DM, Proctor RH, Rooney AJ, O’Donnell K, Trail F, Gardiner DM, Manners JM, Kazan K. Fusarium pathogenomics. Annual Review of Microbiology. 2013;67:399-416.

Joshi M, Srivastava R, Sharma AK, Prakash A. Isolation and characterization of Fusarium oxysporum, a wilt causing fungus, for its pathogenic and non-pathogenic nature in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 2013;5:108-117.

Dervis S, Soylu S, Serce CU. Corm and root rot of Colocasia esculenta caused by Ovatisporangium vexans and Rhizoctonia solani. Romanian Biotechnological Letters. 2014;19:9868–9874.

Deo PC, Anand PT, Taylor M, Douglas KB, Harding RM. Improving taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) production using biotechnological approaches. South Pacific Journal of Natural Science. 2009;27:6- 13.

Tsopmbeng GR, Fontem DA, Yamde KF. Evaluation of culture media for growth and sporulation of Phytophthora colocasiae Racib., causal agent of taro leaf blight. International Journal of Biology and Chemistry Sciences. 2012;6:1566–1573.

Yulia E. Antifungal activity of plant extracts and oils against fungal pathogens of pepper, cinnamon and tumeric. M.Sc Thesis (Unpublished). School of Topical Biology and the School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Australia. 2005;140.

Dellavalle D, Cabrera A, Alem D, Larrañaga P, Ferreira F, Rizza MD. Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. 2011;7:231–239.

Mohana DC, Raveesha KA. Anti-fungal evaluation of some plant extracts against some plant pathogenic field and storage fungi. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2007;4(1):119-137.

Bajpai VK, Kim HR, Hou CT, Kang SC. Microbial conversion and in vitro and in vivo antifungal assessment of bioconverted docosahexaenoic acid (bDHA) used against agricultural plant pathogenic fungi. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2009;36:695–704.

Rani VD, Sudini H. Management of soil-borne diseases in crop plants: An overview. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences. 2013;3:156–164.

Ramaiah AK, Garampalli RKH. In vitro antifungal activity of some plant extracts against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research. 2015;5(1):22–27.

Mahdizadehnaraghi R, Heydari A, Zamanizadeh HR, Rezaee S, Nikan J. Biological control of garlic (Allium) white rot disease using antagonistic fungi-based bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 2015;55:136–141.

Neela FA, Sonia IA, Shamsi S. Antifungal activity of selected medicinal plant extract on Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2014;5:2665-2671.

Al-Rahmah ANI, Mostafa AA, Abdel-Megeed A, Yakout SM, Hussein SA. Fungicidal activities of certain methanolic plant extracts against tomato phytopathogenic fungi. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2013;7:517-524.

Doherty VF, Olaniran OO, Kanife UC. Antimicrobial activities of Aframomum melegueta (Alligator pepper). International Journal of Biology. 2010;2(2):126-131.

Anukworji CA, Ramesh RU, Okigbo RN. Isolation of fungi causing rot of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schot) and control with plant extracts: Allium sativum, Garcinia kola, Hekel, Azadirachta indica (L.) and Carica papaya (L.). Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science. 2012;1:33-47.

Eze CS, Ezejiofor AJ. Phytochemial screening of Acanthus montanus (Nees) T. Anderson and Crinium jagus (Thomps) extracts and their potential for controlling rot fungi of stored cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. International Journal of Engineering Sciences and Research Technology. 2014;3:659-665.

Kalpana S, Moorthi S, Kumara S. Antimicrobial activity of different extracts of leaf of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2013;2(12):514–518.

Chiejina NV. Mycoflora of some salad vegetables. Bio-Research. 2008;6(2):392-395.

Barnett HL, Hunter BB. Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi (4th Ed.). The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnessota, USA. 1999;218.

Watanabe T. Pictorial atlas of soil and seed fungi: Morphologies of cultured fungi and key to species (2nd Edition). CRC Press LLC. Boca Raton, Florida USA. 2000;235.

Agrios GN. Plant pathology. Academic Press, New York. 2005;922.

Ohikhena FU, Wintola OA, Afolayan AJ. Evaluation of the antibacterial and antifungal properties of Phragmanthera capitata (Sprengel) Balle (Loranthaceae), a mistletoe growing on rubber tree, using the dilution techniques. The Scientific World Journal. 2017;1–8.

Bukar A, Uba A, Oyeyi TI. Antimicrobial profile of Moringa oleifera Lam. extracts against some food-borne microorganisms. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2010;3(1):43-48.

Pachkore GL, Dhale DA, Dharasurkar AN. Antimicrobial and phytochemical screening of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (Lamiaceae). International Multidisciplinary Research Journal. 2011;1:01-03.

Mbajiuka CC, Obeagu EI, Chude CN, Ihezie OE. Antimicrobial effects of Chromolaena odorata on some human pathogens. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2014;3(3):1006–1012.

Gurjar MS, Ali S, Akhtar M, Singh KS. Efficacy of plant extracts in plant disease management. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2012;3:425-433.

Hayek SA, Gyawali R, Ibrahim SA. Antimicrobial natural products. In: Microbial Pathogens and Strategies for Combating them: Science, Technology and Education, ed A.Méndez-Vilas (Badajoz: FORMATEX), 2013;910–921.

Silva AP, Nascimento da Silva LC, Martins da Fonseca CS, Araújo JM, Correia MT, Cavalcanti MS, Lima VL. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of organic extracts from Cleome spinosa Jaqc. Front. Microbiol. 2016;7:963.

Ajuziogu GC, Ugwu LU, Ojua EO. Termicidal properties of wood extractive partitions as a prospective eco-friendly wood preservatives. Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science. 2019;16(1): 67–72.

Hounsome N, Hounsome B, Tomos D, Edwards-Jones D. Plant metabolites and nutritional quality of vegetables. Journal of Food Science. 2008;73:R48–R65.

King T, Dykes G. Comparative evaluation of methods commonly used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility to plant extracts and phenolic compounds. Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemist International. 2008;91:1423–1429.

Mandal SM, Mondal KC, Dey S, Pati BR. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2007;69:568-569.

Witayapan NT, Sombat CP. Antioxidant and anti-microbial activities of Hyptis suaveolens essential oil. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2007;75:35-46.

Ijato JY, Oyeyemi SD, Ijadunola JA, Ademuyiwa JA. Allelopathic effect of leaf extract of Azardirachta indica and Chromolaena odorata against post harvest and transit rot of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L). Journal of American Science. 2010;6:1595-1599.

Okigbo RN, Okorie RE, Ramesh P. In vitro effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and African basil (O. gratissimum L.) on pathogens isolated from rotten cassava roots. Intercienia Journal. 2009;4:742- 747.