Physicochemical, Microbial and Sensory Characteristics of Yoghurt Processed by Adding Various Formulations of Gum Arabic and Guar Gum

Main Article Content

Zakaria A. Salih
Azhari Siddeeg
Ammar Al- Farga
Rasha M. A. Mousa
S. A. Husam
A. S. Al Zubair


Yoghurt is one of the most popular fermented dairy products widely consumed all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of yoghurt produced by added various levels of Gum Arabic and Guar gum (stabilizers). Physicochemical characteristics, microbial characteristics and sensory evaluation of processed yoghurt samples were conducted under laboratory conditions by standard methods. The results showed that yoghurt produced by the addition of Gum Arabic at concentrations (0.2, 0.35, and 0.5%) had less serum separation (1.6, 1.4, and 3.3 ml/l) after 9 days compared with that produced by adding Guar gum (4.5., 3.1., 0.0 ml/lit), respectively, and their mixture (4.3., 6.1. and 3.5 ml/l). Results reported significant differences in pH values (4.9, 4.5, and 3.9) during storage (0, 3, and 9 days), respectively for all types of stabilizers added. The results illustrated significant differences in total solid (7–8%) at different concentrations during the storage period. The study showed no significant difference in stabilizers (Gum Arabic and Guar Gum). The effect of storage on microbial characteristics was determined and the results showed that all microbial characteristics except coliform bacteria showed a significant decrease in the supplemented yoghurt samples compared with those of control yoghurt, while no effect with stabilizer concentration on microbial characteristics. Sensory characteristics (texture, color, and overall acceptability) were significantly improved, while the flavor was not affected with type and concentrations of stabilizers, but affected with storage period. Yoghurt processed with the addition of Gum Arabic had best quality characteristics than yoghurt made with addition Guar gum and a mixture of them. The study recommended doing more researches in rheological, microbial, and sensory characteristics to improve the quality of yoghurt.

Yoghurt, Arabic gum, guar gum, physicochemical properties, microbial, properties, sensory properties.

Article Details

How to Cite
Salih, Z. A., Siddeeg, A., Farga, A. A.-, Mousa, R. M. A., Husam, S. A., & Zubair, A. S. A. (2020). Physicochemical, Microbial and Sensory Characteristics of Yoghurt Processed by Adding Various Formulations of Gum Arabic and Guar Gum. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 35(11), 33-44.
Original Research Article


Seo MH, Lee SY, Chang YH, Kwak HS. Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt supplemented with nano powder chitosan during storage. Journal of Dairy Science. 2009;92.

Zare F, Boye JI, Orsat V, Champagne C, Simpson BK. Microbial, physical and sensory properties of yogurt supplemented with lentil flour. Food Research International. 2011;44:2482–2488.

Ramesh P, Vengala RY, Shaik A, Sharma M. Fermented milk in protection against inflammatory mechanisms in obesity, a book chapter in: Immunity and inflammation in health and disease. Academic Press; 2018.

Behare VV, Gundale SS, Deshpande AV. Study of electrical conductivity of Li2O-B2O3-SiO2-Li2SO4 glasses and glass-ceramics. Solid State Ionics. 2016;298: 57-62.

Lee WJ, Lucey JA. Formation and Physical Properties of Yoghurt. Asian. Aust. J. ANIM SC. 2010;23(9):1127 -1136.

Hansen PMT. Food hydrocolloids in the dairy industry. In K. Nishinari, E. Doi (Eds). Food hydrocolloids: structures, properties and functions. New York: Plenum Press. 1993;211-224.

Slavin, Greenberg. Arabic gum is used for its nutritional and surface properties; 2003.

Sulieman AE. Gum Arabic as thickener and stabilizing agents in dairy products in: Gum Arabic structure, properties, application and economics. Elsevier Academic Press; 2018.

Rosell CM, Rojas JA, Bendito de barber C. Influence of hydrocolloids on dough and bread quality. Food Hydrocolloids. 2001; 15:75-81.

Soukoulis C, Panagiotidis P, Koureli R, Tzia C. Industrial yogurt manufacture: monitoring of fermentation process and improvement of final product quality. Journal of Dairy Science. 2007;90:2641– 2654.

Soukoulis Costas M, Stefan Linden, Martin Wegener. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths. Science. 2007; 315(5808):47-49.

Rezaei R, Khomeiri M, Kashaninejad M, Aalami M. Effects of guar gum and Arabic gum on the physicochemical, sensory and flow behavior characteristics of frozen yoghurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2011;64:563–568.

Sekhavatizadeh S, Sadeghzadehfar S. The effect of guar gum as the fat substitute on some sensory and chemical properties of low-fat yogurt. Journal of Innovation in Food Science and Technology. 2013;5:29–38,129.

Kosikowiski FV. Cheese and fermented milk products. 2nd Ed., F.V. Kosikowiski and Associates Brooktondale N.Y; 1982.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. AOAC international, 17th ed., Gaithersburg, MD, USA, Official methods. 120.124, 926.08, 955.30 2001.14; 2003.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. Helrichik, (ed.) 15th edition Association of Analytical Chemists, Inc. USA. 2000;777.

Morton, John, Uta Frith. What lesson for dyslexia from Down's syndrome? Comments on Cossu, Rossini, and Marshall; 1993.

Thatcher FS, Clark DS. Microorganisms in foods: Their significance and methods of enumeration. University of Toronto. Press, Baffalo NY; 1968.

Rayman KN, Malik, Jarvis G. Performants of four selective media for enumeration of staphylococcus aureus in corned beef and in cheese. J. Food Prot. 1988;51:878-888.

Khosrowshahi Sara 1, Mohammad Ali Hesarinejad. The effect of Prunus cerasus gum exudates addition on physic-chemical, rheological and sensory properties of yogurt. Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society. 2017;25:41-45.

Kocabas, Muhammed, Salih Karagoz, Emre Akbas. Self-supervised learning of 3d human pose using multi-view geometry. Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition; 2019.

Huyam E. Hamad, Abdel Moneim E. Sulieman, Zakaria A. Salih. Quality Aspects of the Sudanese Fermented Milk (Robe) Supplemented with Gum Arabic powder. Discourse Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2013;1(1):8-7.

Jung EH, Jeon NJ, Park EY, Moon CS, Shin TJ, Yang TY, Seo J. Efficient, stable and scalable perovskite solar cells using poly (3-hexylthiophene). Nature. 2019; 567(7749):511-515.

Ishizuka, Andrew S, et al. Protection against malaria at 1 year and immune correlates following PfSPZ vaccination. Nature Medicine. 2016;22(6):614-623.

Nima Ali Al, Trevor Archer, Danilo Garcia. The happiness-increasing strategies scales and well-being in a sample of Swedish adolescents. International Journal of Happiness and Development. 2013;1(2): 196-211.

Abd El-Salam M, El-Etriby H, Shahein N. Influence of some stabilizers on some chemical and physical properties of yoghurt. Egyptian Journal of Diary Science. 1996;24:25-36.

Harwalkar V, Kalab M. Relationship between microstructure and susceptibility to syneresis in yogurt made from reconstituted nonfat dry milk. Food Microstructure. 1986;5(2):287-294.

El-Sayed, Mohamed, et al. Transport mechanism (s) of poly (amidoamine) dendrimers across Caco-2 cell monolayers. International journal of pharmaceutics. 2003;265(1-2):151-157.

Mckanna AB. Effect of homogenization pressure and stabilizer conc. On the physical stability of long-life laban – New Zealand J. of Dairy Sci. and Technology. 1987;22:167-174.

Abd Alla MOM. Effect of processing conditions on the on the microbial quality of white pickled cheese. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA; 1992.

Hamad, Yousif M., et al. Molten carbonate fuel cell combined heat, hydrogen and power system: feedstock analysis. Energy. 2013;6.2:31-35.

Youngseung Lee, Yoon Hyuk Chang. Influence of guar gum addition on physicochemical, microbial, rheological and sensory properties of stirred yoghurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology. 2016;69(3):356-363.

Moeenfard M, Mazaheri Tehrani M. Effect of some stabilizers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of ice cream type frozen yoghurt. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture & Environment Science. 2008;4:584–589.