Main Article Content
Leaf is a key functional traits that shows respond of changes in plant physiology. This experiment aimed to study the changes on the leaf traits of loquat seedling that treated with plant growth regulators (PGRs). Three types of PGRs, auxin (naphthalene acetic acid/NAA), gibberellin (gibberellic acid/GA3) and cytokinin (benzylaminopurine/BA) with four doses (0, 25, 50, 100 ppm) were sprayed onto the leaves of loquat seedling. We observed nine parameters, PGRs treatments were significantly affecting eight parameters, while there were one parameter is not significantly affected. The results showed that either in mature or young leaves, PGRs treatments were significantly affecting in eight parameters the growth and development of leaves, such as leaf surface area, specific leaf area, fresh and dry weight leaf, water content, number of stomata, size of stomata, chlorophyll and transpiration rate compared to control. These results gave general view that PGRs treatment might stimulate leaf growth and development including photosynthesis and respiration. However, PGRs was not significantly affecting the number of stomata in young leaves. The application of PGRs doses was not always inline with the mean value of each parameters and it could be linear or quadratic models. The findings of this research could provide the recommendation for application of PGRs during seedling growth, and theoretical basis for comparison between mature and young leaves after PGRs application.
Talluto G, Gugliuzza G, Massenti R, Lo Bianco R. Growth and biomass partitioning of young loquat plants under water deficit. Acta Horticulturae. 2015;1092:199-204.
Shahi-Gharahlar A, Yavari AR, Khayyat M, Jalali N, Farhoudi R. Effects of soaking temperature, stratification, potassium nitrate and gibberellic acid on seed germination of loquat trees. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 2012;35(11):1735-1746.
Caballero P, Fernández MA. Loquat, production and market. Options Mediterraéens, Serie A. Seminaires Mediterranéens. 2003;58:11-20.
Li X, Xu C, Chen K. Nutritional composition of fruit cultivars: Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.). In: Nutritional composition of fruit cultivars. Academic, San Diego; 2016.
Liu Y, Zhang W, Xu C, Li X. Biological activities of extracts from loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.): A review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016;17(12):1-15.
Davies PJ. The plant hormones: Their nature, occurrence and functions. In: Davies PJ (Eds) Plant Hormones. Springer, Dordrecht; 2010.
Souza GM, Prado CHBA, Ribeiro RV, Paulo J, Barbosa RAD, Goncalves AN. Toward a systemic plant physiology. Theoretical and Experimental Plant Physiology. 2016;28(4):341-346.
Rademacher W. Plant growth regulators: Backgrounds and uses in plant production. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 2015;34:845-872.
Peleg Z, Blumwald E. Hormone balance and abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 2011;14(3):290-295.
Taiz L, Zeiger E. Plant physiology, 3rd Ed. Sinauer Associates Inc Publishers. Sunderland; 2002.
Wright IJ, Reich PB, Westoby M, Ackerly DD, Baruch Z, Bongers F, Cavender-Bares J, Chapin T, Cornelissen JH, Diemer M, Flexas J. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature. 2004;428(6985):821-827.
Koch GW, Sillett SC, Jennings GM, Davis SD. The limits to tree height. Nature. 2004;428:851-854.
Tozer WC, Rice B, Westoby M. Evolutionary divergence of leaf width and its correlates. American Journal of Botany. 2015;102:367-378.
Franks PJ, Beerling DJ. Maxiumum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America. 2009;106(25):10343-10347.
Taylor SH, Franks PJ, Hulme SP, Springs E, Christin PA. Photosynthetic pathway and ecological adapation stomatal trait diversity amongst grasses. New Phytologist. 2010;193(2):387-396.
Oyeleke MO, Abdulrahaman A, Oladele FA. Stomatal anatomy and transpiration rate in some afforestation tree species. NISEB Journal. 2014;4(2):83-90.
Dodd IC. Hormonal interactions and stomatal responses. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 2003;22(1):32-46.
Beghin T, Cope JS, Remagnino P. Shape and texture based plant leaf classification. In: Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
Miyazawa SI, Livingston NJ, Turpin DH. Stomatal development in new leaves is related to the stomatal conductance of mature leaves in poplar (Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides). Journal of Experimental Botany. 2006;57(2):373- 380.
Lakshmipathi JD, Kalaivanan D, Halesh GK. Effect of plant growth regulators on leaf area, chlorophyll content, carotenoids, stomatal count and yield of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) var. Bhaskara. Journal of Plantation Crops. 2017;45(2):141-146.
Bailey LF, Rothacher JS, Cummings WH. A critical study of the cobalt chloride method of measuring transpiration. Plant Physiology. 1951;27(3):563-574.
Bishnoi NR, Krishnamoorthy HN. Effect of gibberelic acid on stomatal diffusive resistance and photosynthesis in waterlogged peanut plants. Biologia Plantarum. 1993;35:467.
Nobel PS, Zaragoza LJ, Smith WK. Relation between mesophyll surface area, photosynthetic rate and illumination level during development for leaves of Plectranthus parviflorus Henckel. Plant Physiology. 1975;55(6):1067-1070.
Miceli A, Moncada A, Sabatino L, Vetrano F. Effect of gibberellic acid on growth, yield and quality of leaf lettuce and rocket grown in a floating system. Agronomy. 2019;9(7): 382.
Lambers H, Nagel OW, Van Arendonk JJCM. The control of biomass partitioning in plants from favourable and stressful environments: A role for gibberellins and cytokinins. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology. 1995;21(2-3):24-32.
Dwyer PJ, Bannister P, Jameson PE. Effects of three plant growth regulators on growth, morphology, water relations and frost resistance in lemonwood (Pittosporum eugenioides A. Cunn). New Zealand Journal of Botany. 1995;33(3): 415-424.
Mbandlwa NP, Fotouo-MH, Maboko MM, Sivakumar D. Stomatal conductance, leaf chlorophyll content, growth and yield of sweet pepper in response to plant growth regulators. International Journal of Vegetable Science. 2020;26(2):116-126.
Chaudhry NY. Effect of growth hormones i.e., IAA, kinetin and heavy metal ie, lead nitrate on the internal morphology of leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2003;6(2):157- 162.
Di Benedetto A, Galmarini C, Tognetti J. Effects of combined or single exogenous auxin and/or cytokinin applications on growth and leaf area development in Epipremnum aureum. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 2015;90(6):643-654.
Savaldi-Goldstein S, Chory J. Growth coordination and the shoot epidermis. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 2008;11: 42-48.
Jones HG. Stomatal control of photosynthesis and transpiration. Journal of Experimental Botany. 1998;49:387- 398.
Kumar B, Pandey DM, Goswami CL, Jain S. Effect of growth regulators on photosynthesis, transpiration and related parameters in water stressed cotton. Biologia Plantarum. 2001;44(3):475-478.
Schubert J, Roeser K, Grossman K, Sauter H, Jung J. Transpiration-inhibiting abscisic acid analogs. Journal of Plant Growth Regulators. 1991;10:27-32.
Kuldeepsingh AK, Singh AL, Goswami N, Mehta D, Mahatma MK, Ajay BC, Chakraborty K, Zala PV, Chaudhary V, Patel CB. Photosynthetic characteristics of peanut genotypes under excess and deficit irrigation during summer. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 2015;21(3): 317-327.
Cechin I, Rossi SC, Oliveira VC, Fumis TDF. Photosynthetic responses and proline content of mature and young leaves of sunflower plants under water deficit. Photosynthetica. 2006;44(1):143.
Zhang X, Jun ZHU, Cheng S, Zhang WW, Feng XU, Yongling LIAO. Effect of exogenous gibberelin on endogenous hormone and ginkgolide content in Ginkgo leaves. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 2020;48(1):140-149.
Acharya BR, Assmann SM. Hormone interactions in stomatal function. Plant Molecular Biology. 2009;69:451-462.
Sun TP, Gubler F. Molecular mechanism of gibberellin signaling in plants. Annual Reviews of Plant Biology. 2004;55:197-223.
Weis D, Ori N. Mechanisms of cross talk between gibberellin and other hormones. Plant Physiology. 2007;144: 1240-1246.