Selecting Bacillus spp. Antagonist of Fungal Phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans Causing Tomato Late Blight

Main Article Content

Trang Le Vu Khanh
Le Nguyen Tan
Mai Le Thi
My Pham Thi
Trieu Ly Hai


The late blight caused by phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans has been one of the serious disease-causing yields and quality losses of tomato production in Vietnam. To control the fungal disease, chemical fungicides have been overused causing concerns about the ecological risks and human health, especially fungal resistance. Therefore, using natural products from beneficial microorganisms as a safer strategy is getting attention. The present study focused on the isolation of indigenous Bacillus sp. with potential antifungal activity against Phytophthora infestans with the aim to contribute to the diversification and improving the quality of biological control products Bacillus spp. in Vietnam. From 21 strains Bacillus spp. (marked BV1 - BV21) being isolated from different tomato farms in Danang City, Vietnam, Bacillus velezensis BV 16 was selected based on the most potential antagonistic strain in controlling fungal plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans attacking the tomato tree. The strongest inhibition of mycelial growth on P. infestans of Bacillus velezensis BV16 was recorded with 88.89% of growth inhibition percentage. The results also showed that strong activity of chitinase, protease and cellulase in the BV16 strain are consistent with the novel growth control of Phytophthora infestans.

Fungal disease, plant pathogen, antifungal activity, biological control

Article Details

How to Cite
Khanh, T. L. V., Tan, L. N., Thi, M. L., Thi, M. P., & Hai, T. L. (2020). Selecting Bacillus spp. Antagonist of Fungal Phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans Causing Tomato Late Blight. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 35(12), 32-40.
Original Research Article


Burgess LW, Knight TE, Tesoriero L, Phan HT. Diagnostic manual for plant diseases in Vietnam. ACIAR Monograph. 2008;129: 210. ACIAR: Canberra.

Childers, Richard, Giovanna Danies, Kevin Myers, Zhangjun Fei, Ian M. Small, and William E. Fry. Acquired Resistance to Mefenoxam in Sensitive Isolates of Phytophthora Infestans. Phytopathology. 2015;105(3):342–49.

Machado, Carolina S, Brisa M. Fregonesi, Renato IS. Alves, Karina AA Tonani, Jordi Sierra, Bruno S. Martinis, Beatriz S. Celere, Montse Mari, Marta Schuhmacher, Martí Nadal, Jose L. Domingo, and Susana Segura-Muñoz. Health Risks of Environmental Exposure to Metals and Herbicides in the Pardo River, Brazil,. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017;24(25):20160–72.

Suganthi C, Mageswari A, Karthikeyan S, Anbalagan M, Sivakumar A, Gothandam KM. Screening and Optimization of Protease Production from a Halotolerant Bacillus Licheniformis Isolated from Saltern Sediments. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. 2013;11(1):47–52.

van der Werf, Hayo MG, Christophe Zimmer. An Indicator of Pesticide Environmental Impact Based on a Fuzzy Expert System. Chemosphere. 1998; 36(10):2225–49

Carey, Ann E, Frederick W. Kutz. Trends in Ambient Concentrations of Agrochemicals in Humans and the Environment of the United States. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 1985;5(2):155–63.

Gong, Peng, Lu Liang, Qiang Zhang. China Must Reduce Fertilizer Use Too. Nature. 2011;473(7347):284–85

Elad, Yigal, Stanley Freeman. Biological Control of Fungal Plant Pathogens. Agricultural Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2002;93–109.

THAN, Phyu Phyu, Carmelo S. DEL CASTILLO, Takeshi YOSHIKAWA, and Taizo SAKATA.. Extracellular Protease Production of Bacteriolytic Bacteria Isolated from Marine Environments. Fisheries Science. 2004;70(4):659–66.

Han, Joon-Hee, Hongsik Shim, Jong-Hwan Shin, Kyoung Su Kim. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus Spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum Acutatum and C. Gloeosporioides in South Korea. The Plant Pathology Journal. 2015; 31(2):165–75.

Hsu SC, Lockwood JL. Powdered Chitin Agar as a Selective Medium for Enumeration of Actinomycetes in Water and Soil. Applied Microbiology. 1975;29(3): 422–26.

Teather RM, Wood PJ. Use of Congo Red-Polysaccharide Interactions in Enumeration and Characterization of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Bovine Rumen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1982;43(4):777–80.

Caulier, Simon, Annika Gillis, Gil Colau, Florent Licciardi, Maxime Liépin, Nicolas Desoignies, Pauline Modrie, Anne Legrève, Jacques Mahillon, and Claude Bragard. Versatile Antagonistic Activities of Soil-Borne Bacillus Spp. and Pseudomonas Spp. against Phytophthora Infestans and Other Potato Pathogens. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2018;9:143.

Wang LT, FL Lee CJ. Tai, Kuo HP. Bacillus Velezensis Is a Later Heterotypic Synonym of Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2008;58(3): 671–75.

McSpadden Gardener, Brian B. Ecology of Bacillus and Paenibacillus Spp. in Agricultural Systems. Phytopathology®. 2004;94(11):1252–58.

Fan, Ben, Cong Wang, Xiaofeng Song, Xiaolei Ding, Liming Wu, Huijun Wu, Xuewen Gao, and Rainer Borriss. 2018. Bacillus Velezensis FZB42 in 2018: The Gram-Positive Model Strain for Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol, Frontiers in Microbiology, 2018;9:2491.

Vega, Karina, Markus Kalkum. Chitin, Chitinase Responses, and Invasive Fungal Infections. International Journal of Microbiology. 2012;1–10.

Xu, Sheng Jun, Sae Jin Hong, Woobong Choi, and Byung Sup Kim. Antifungal Activity of Paenibacillus Kribbensis Strain T-9 Isolated from Soils against Several Plant Pathogenic Fungi. The Plant Pathology Journal. 2014;30(1):102–8.

Adeniji, Adetomiwa Ayodele, Du Toit Loots, and Olubukola Oluranti Babalola. Bacillus Velezensis: Phylogeny, Useful Applications, and Avenues for Exploitation. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2019;103(9):3669–82.

Arguelles-Arias, Anthony, Marc Ongena, Badre Halimi, Yannick Lara, Alain Brans, Bernard Joris, and Patrick Fickers. 2009. Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens GA1 as a Source of Potent Antibiotics and Other Secondary Metabolites for Biocontrol of Plant Pathogens. Microbial Cell Factories, 2009;8(1):63.

Yuan, Jun, Waseem Raza, Qiwei Huang, Qirong Shen. The Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Identification of Antifungal Substances from B. Amyloliquefaciens Strain NJN-6 Suppressing Fusarium Oxysporum. Journal of Basic Microbiology. 2012;52(6):721–30.

Yuan, Jun, Yunze Ruan, Beibei Wang, Jian Zhang, Raza Waseem, Qiwei Huang, and Qirong Shen. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Strain Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-Enriched Bio-Organic Fertilizer Suppressed Fusarium Wilt and Promoted the Growth of Banana Plants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2013;61(16):3774–80.