Main Article Content
Aim: In order to study the effect of biochar, bentonite and potassium humate on saline soil characteristics, barley growth and nitrogen loss, a column experiment was conducted. Addition of the above mention materials was hypothesized to improve the characteristics of saline soil and decrease nitrogen loss in the leachate solution.
Place and Duration of Study: Farm of Soils and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt during the winter season of 2019.
Methodology: Biochar and bentonite were added with rates 0, 5 and 10 g.kg-1; and the rates of potassium humate were 0, 5 and 10 mg.kg-1. Excess irrigations were implemented three times (on 12th, 24th, 36th days) during growing season. Leachate solution was collected after each excess irrigation from each column to determine nitrogen loss.
Results: Main results show that total organic carbon and soil porosity were increased by increasing the addition rates of the studied materials, especially at the high rates of biochar and bentonite. Also, the availability of water significantly increased. Addition of biochar and bentonite gave the highest decreasing in leachate solution volume. Nitrogen loss was decreased significantly at the highest rates of the studied materials, where the decrement percentage in leachate solution reached at 36.07%, 35.82 and 23.81 at the highest rates of biochar, bentonite and potassium humate, respectively. That led to increasing the retention of available nitrogen in saline soil. Fresh and dry weights of barley plants were increased significantly by increasing the addition rates of all amended materials. Macronutrients (NPK) content and uptake were increased significantly by increasing the addition rates of the studied materials.
Conclusion: Research results proved that changes in soil properties caused a significant increase in barley growth and nutrients uptake. Addition of biochar and bentonite were the best option for improving saline soil properties, barley growth and nutrients uptake and reduce nitrogen loss by improving nitrogen retention and decreasing the leachate volume.
Kaledhonkar MJ, Meena BL, Sharma PC. Reclamation and nutrient management for salt-affected soils. Indian Journal of Fertilisers. 2019;15(5):566-575.
Naveed M, Sajid H, Mustafa A, Niamat B, Ahmad Z, Yaseen M et al. Alleviation of salinity-induced oxidative stress, improvement in growth, physiology and mineral nutrition of canola (Brassica napus L.) through calcium-fortified composted animal manure. Sustainability. 2020;(12) 846:1-17.
Russo TA, Tully K, Palm C, Neill C. Leaching losses from Kenyan maize cropland receiving different rates of nitrogen fertilizer. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosyst. 2017; 108:195–209.
Naz MY, Sulaiman SA. Slow release coating remedy for nitrogen loss from conventional urea: A review. J Control Release. 2016; 225:109–120.
Wang Y, Ying H, Yin Y, Zheng H, Cui Z. Estimating soil nitrate leaching of nitrogen fertilizer from global meta-analysis. Sci Total Environ. 2019; 657:96–102.
Guilhen SN, Masek O, Ortiz N, Izidoro JC, Fungaro D. A pyrolytic temperature evaluation of macauba biochar for uranium adsorption from aqueous solutions. J Biomass and Bioenergy. 2019;122: 381-390.
Nguyen VT, Nguyen TB, Chen CW, Hung CM, Vo TDH, Chang JH et al. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons production and tetracycline adsorption behavior of biochar derived from spent coffee ground. Bioresource Technol. 2019; 284:197-203.
Tomczyk A, Sokołowska Z, Boguta P. Biochar physicochemical properties: Pyrolysis temperature and feedstock kind effects. Rev. Environmental Sci. Biotechnology. 2020; 19:191–215.
Huang LQ, Fu C, Li TZ, Yan B, Wu Y, Zhang L. Advances in research on effects of biochar on soil nitrogen and phosphorus. Earth and Environmental Science. 2020; 424:1-8.
Cheng JZ, Li YL, Gao WC, Chen Y, Pan WJ, Lee XQ et al. Effects of biochar on cd and pb mobility and microbial community composition in a calcareous soil planted with tobacco. Biol Fertile Soils. 2018; 54:373–383.
Shui-qin Z, Liang Y, Wei L, Zhi-An L, Yan-Ting L, Shu-Wen H. Effects of urea enhanced with different weathered coal-derived humic acid components on maize yield and fate of fertilizer nitrogen. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2019;18(3):656–666.
Tan KH. Humic matter in soil and the environment: Principles and controversies. CRC Press, USA; 2014.
El-Etr WMT, Hassan WZ. Effect of potassium humate and bentonite on some soil chemical properties under different rates of nitrogen fertilization. J Soil Sci and Agric. Eng, Mansoura Univ. 2017;8(10):539 – 544.
Kayama M, Nimpila S, Hongthong S, Yoneda R, Wichiennopparat W, Himmapan W et al. Effects of bentonite, charcoal and corncob for soil Improvement and growth characteristics of teak seedling planted on Acrisols in Northeast Thailand. Forests. 2016; 7(36):1-21.
Zhang H, Chen W, Zhao B, Phillips LA, Zhou Y, Lapen DR et al. Sandy soils amended with bentonite induced changes in soil microbiota and fungi stasis in maize fields. Applied Soil Ecology. 2020; 146:1-12.
Mohawesh O, Durner W. Eﬀects of bentonite, hydrogel and biochar amendments on soil hydraulic properties from saturation to oven dryness. Pedosphere. 2019;29(5):598–607.
Gee GW, Bauder JW, A Klute. Particle-size Analysis Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. 2nd Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI. 1986;383–411.
Grossman RB, Reinsch TG, Dane JH, Topp, GC. Bulk density and linear extensibility: Core method. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 4, Physical Methods, SSSA, Incorporated, Madison. 2002;208-228.
Thomas GW. Soil pH and Soil Acidity. Methods of Soil Analysis part 3. Chemical Methods (Eds DL Sparks. et al.). American Society of Agronomy: Madison, WI.1996;475-490.
Summer ME, Miller WP, Sparks DL. Cation Exchange Capacity and Exchange Coefficients Methods of Soil Analyses part 3 Chemical methods. Madison: Soil Science Society of America Inc. 1996; 1201-1229.
Dellavalle NB. Determination of specific conductance in supernatant 1:2 Soil: Water solution in handbook on reference methods for soil analysis. Soil and Plant Analysis Council. 1992;44-50.
Nelson DW, Sommers LE. Methods of Soil Analysis. part 3. Chemical Methods. Soil Science Society of America Book Series. 1996; 5:961-1010.
Mohsen S, Rashidi M, Khabbaz B Gh. Prediction of soil exchangeable sodium percentage based on soil sodium adsorption ratio. American-Eurasian J Agric and Environ Sci., 2009;5(1):1-4.
US. Salinity laboratory staff. diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. US Dept. agriculture, handbook 60. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. 1954;160.
AOAC. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. Association of Official Analysis Chemists Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Washington, DC, USA; 1995.
Levesque R. SPSS programming and data management: A guide for SPSS and SAS users. 4th ed. SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL; 2007.
Mukherjee A, Zimmerman A, Harris W. Surface chemistry variations among a series of laboratory-produced biochars. Geoderma. 2011; 163:247-255.
Gai X, Wang H, Liu J, Zhai L, Liu S, Ren T, Liu H. Effects of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature on biochar adsorption of ammonium and nitrate. Plos One. 2014; 9(12):1-19.
Bista P, Ghimire R, Machado S, Pritchett L. Biochar eﬀects on soil properties and wheat biomass vary with fertility management. Agronomy .2019; 9(623):1-10.
Lehmann J. A handful of carbon, Nature. 2007; 447:143-144.
Du J, Sun P, Feng Z, Zhang X, Zhao Y. The biosorption capacity of biochar for 4-bromodiphengl ether: Study of its kinetics, mechanism, and use as a carrier for immobilized bacteria. Environ Sci Pollut R. 2019; 23:3770-3780.
Guo M, Zhang T, Li J, Li Z, Xu G, Yang R. Reducing nitrogen and phosphorus losses from diﬀerent crop types in the water source area of the danjiang river, China. Int J Environ Res. Public Health. 2019; 344 (16):1-17.
Agafonov EV, Khovanskii MV. Effect of bentonite on the fertility of an ordinary chernozem. Eurasian Soil Science. 2014;47(5):478–482.
El-Naggar A, Lee MH, Hur J, Lee YH, Igalavithana AD, Shaheen SM et al. Biochar-induced metal immobilization and soil biogeochemical process: An integrated mechanistic approach. Science of the Total Environment. 2020;698,1-11.
Cao CT, Farrell C, Kristiansen PE, Rayner JP. Biochar makes green roof substrates lighter and improves water supply to plants. Ecological Engineering. 2014; 71:368–374.
Paiman P, Effendy I. The effect of soil water content and biochar on rice cultivation in polybag. Open Agriculture. 2020; 5:117-125.
Aydin A, Kant C, Turan M. Humic acid applications alleviate salinity stress of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants decreasing membrane leakage. Afr J Agric Research. 2012; 7:1073–1086.
Ouni Y, Ghnaya T, Montemurro F, Abdelly C, Lakhdar A. The role of humic substances in mitigating the harmful effects of soil salinity and improve plant productivity. Int J Plant Production. 2014; 8:353–374.
Mahmoud E, El-Beshbeshy T, Abd El-Kader N, El- Shal R, Khalafallah N. Impacts of biochar application on soil fertility, plant nutrients uptake and maize (Zea mays L.) yield in saline sodic soil. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 2019;12 (719):1-9.
Czaban J, Siebielec G. Effects of bentonite on sandy soil chemistry in a long-term plot experiment (II); Effect on pH, CEC and macro- and micronutrients. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2013; 6 (22): 1669-1676.
Khaled H, Fawy HA. Effect of different levels of humic acids on the nutrient content, plant growth, and soil properties under conditions of salinity. Soil and Water Reserch. 2011; 6:21–29.
Bassouny MA, Abbas MHH. Role of biochar in managing the irrigation water requirements of maize plants: The pyramid model signifying the soil hydro-physical and environmental markers. Egypt J Soil Sci. 2019; 59(2):99-115.
Novak JM, Busscher WJ, Watts DW, Amonette J E, Ippolito JA, Lima IM, and Rehrah D. Biochar’s impact on soil‐moisture storage in an ultisol and two aridisols. Soil Science. 2012;177(5):310–320.
Lashari MS, Liu Y, Li L, Pan W, Fu J, Pan G et al. Effects of amendment of biochar-manure compost in conjunction with pyroligneous solution on soil quality and wheat yield of a salt-stressed cropland from Central China Great Plain. Field Crop Reserch. 2013; 144:113–118.
Kraska P, Oleszczuk P, Andruszczak S, Kwiecinska-Poppe E, Rozyło K, Pałys E et al. Effect of various biochar rates on winter rye yield and the concentration of available nutrients in the soil. Plant Soil and Environment. 2016; 11:483– 489.
Chan KY, Van Zwieten L, Meszaros I, Downie A, Joseph S. Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 2008; 46: 437–444.
Abd- All AH, El-Namas AE, El-Naggar EM. Effect of humic acid and foliar application of different potassium sources on yield, quality and water use efficiency of sweet potato grown under drip irrigation in sandy soil. Alex Sci Exchange Journal. 2017; 38 (3): 543-552.