Heavy Metal Contamination and Ecological Risk Assessment of Overlying Water and Sediments of Nkozoa Lake (Southern Cameroon)
Annual Research & Review in Biology,
Examination of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg, Cd and Ni) in overlying water and sediments was conducted in Lake Nkozoa, in a peripheral area of Yaoundé characterized by a high population density and rapid economic development in Cameroon. Sediment samples were collected at the entrance and near the center of the lake, using a raft and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. They were subjected to water quality parameters, heavy metals comparisons and calculations of pollution indices and ecological risks followed by statistical analysis in order to identify and estimate the sources of metal contamination in overlying water and sediments of the Nkozoa Lake. The physico-chemical parameters of water show that the pH (5 < pH < 6), total dissolved solids (TDS~130 g/L) and conductivity (EC~194.8 µs/cm) are below the recommendations of the WHO. The average heavy metal concentrations in sediments, except Cd, are lower than the upper continental crust (UCC) and several environmental contamination monitoring parameters, such as threshold effect level (TEL), probable effect level (PEL), and severe effect level (SEL). The sediment samples show a low heavy metal contamination degree (class 0) and low potential ecological risk (PER) level, except for Cd and Hg which have high contamination degree (class 1 to 6) and moderate PER. Matrix correlation shows that some parameters like pH, EC, Cr and TDS, Cu, Hg in water have perfect positive correlations (r = 1.00) suggesting common sources of contamination. Cluster analyses coupled with matrix data for sediments revealed that Cd is the most contaminant elements derived from anthropogenic sources.
- Nkozoa lake
- overlying water
- heavy metals
- ecological risk
How to Cite
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