Toxicological Impact of Leachates from Lemna Refuse Dump Site on African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1882) Fingerlings Under Laboratory Condition
Annual Research & Review in Biology,
Aim: The study investigated the toxicological effects of Calabar municipal dumpsite leachate on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus.
Experimental Design: The study was set-up in a 6 × 2 Complete Randomized Block Design.
Methodology: During the studt 120 C. gariepinus fingerlings were used. Each group was made up of 10 fingerlings. The fingerlings were exposed to 0% (control group), 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% of leachate in duplicate. Histopathology was also carried-out on the gills and liver of the fingerlings of each exposure group.
Results: The temperature, pH, conductivity, and BOD increased with increasing leachate concentration, while the DO decreased with concentration. 5.17 ± 0.66 cm and 1.09 ± 0.40 g mean length and weight respectively of fingerlings were determined. Mortality depended on concentration. The 96 hours LC50 value with 95% confidence limit of C. gariepinus fingerlings exposed to leachate was 22.5% ± 0.89, and was significant with a determination coefficient (r2) of 0.93 at P<0.05. Leachates altered the orientation of gills and liver of the fingerlings.
Conclusion and Recommendations: The low LC50 value of fingerlings exposed to different concentrations of leachate indicates a high toxicity of the leachate and altered the gills and liver of fingerlings. To this end, we recommended dumpsites are sited at a distance far from water bodies and areas inhabited by human, to mitigate the leeching of leachate into nearby aquatic systems. Law against indiscriminate discharge of waste into drainage channels and any aquatic system should be enforced by Government, to prevent mortality of biological organisms, extinction of species, contamination of organisms in nearby aquatic systems, changes in the physical properties, and health risk to humans that depends on resources from these aquatic systems for food.
- Calabar Municipal
- Refuse dump
- Clarias gariepinus
How to Cite
Mor S, Ravindra K, Dahiya RP, Chandra A. Leachate characterization and assessment of Groundwater pollution near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site. Environ. Monitor. Assess. 2006;4:325-334.
Kulikowska D, Klimiuk E. The effect of Landfill age on municipal Leachate composition. Bioresour. technol. 2008;99 (13):5981-5985.
Zin M, Shaylinda N, Abdul Aziz H, Adlan M, Ariffin A. Characterization of Leachate at Matang Landfill site, Perak, Malaysia. Acad. J. Sci. 2012;1(2): 317-322.
Kjeldsen P, Barlaz M, Rooker A, Baun J, Ledin A, Christensen T. Present and long-term composition of MSW Landfill Leachate: A review. Crit. rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002;32 (4):297-336.
Bhambulkar A. Effects of Leachate recirculation on a Landfill. Int. J. Adv. Eng. Sci. Technol. 2011;11 (2):286 - 291.
Ojolo SJ, Bamgboye AI, Aiyedun PO, Ogunyemi AP. Pyrolysis of shredded plastic waste. In: proceedings of the 7th Africa-America International conference on manufacturing technology, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. 2004;1:412-518.
Thomas D, Tyrrel S, Smith R, Farrow S. Bioassays for the evaluation of Landfill Leachate toxicity. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health. 2009;12 (1):83-105.
Bortolotto T, Bertoldo J, Silveira F, Defaveri T, Silvano J, Pich C. Evaluation of the toxic and genotoxic potential of Landfill Leachates using bioassays. Environ. toxicol. pharm. 2009;28 (2):288-293.
Christie WW and Han X. Lipid analysis-isolation, separation, identification and lipidomic analysis (4th edition). Oily press, Bridgwater, U.K. 2010;446.
Phanis P, Sumantakul T, Wongpakdee W, Fukana N, Ratanawimarnwong J, Sitanurak D, Nacapricha D. Anal. Chem. 2016;88:8749 – 8756.
Trinder P. Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen acceptor. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 1966;6:24 – 32.
Whiteside PJ, Milner BA. Pye Unicam Atomic Absorption Data Book, 6th ed., Pye Unicam Limited, Cambridge, England. 1984;72.
Rahman MZ, Hossain Z, Mullah MFR, Ahmed GU. Effects of diazinon 60EC on Anabus testudineus, Channa punctatus and Barbades gomonotus. The ICLARMS Quarterly, 2002;25:8- 11.
Sprague JB. The ABC’s of pollutant bioassay using Fish. A Paper presented on Environment monitory in Los Angeles, California. 1972; June 27 – 28 (ASTM).
Finney DJ. Statistical Methods in Biological Assay. (3rd Edition), London, Charles Griffinco, 1971;508.
Mather K. Statistical Analysis in Biology. London, Chapman and Hall, 1973; 420pp.
Kelly WR. Veterinary Clinical Diagnosis. (2nd edition). London, Balliere Tindall. 1979;360.
Alimba CG. DNA and systemic damage induced by Landfill Leachates and health impacts of Human exposure to Landfills in Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 2013;258.
Pillay TVR. Environmental impacts of Cage-culture for Catfish in Chau Doc, Vietnam. Aquaculture colloborative Research support program. Blackwell scientific Publications inc., Cambrigde, England, 1992;82.
Nwabueze AA. Water quality and Micro-organisms of Leachate-contaminated Pond. American J. Scient. Indust. Resear.. 2011;2(2):205-208.
Adeboyejo OA, Fagbenro OA, Adeparusi EO, Clarke EO. Acute toxicity of industrial effluents from Agbara environs of Ologe Lagoon on early life stages of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus. American J. of Resear. Commun. 2013;1(3):50-60.
Nwabueze AA, Ekelemu JK. Growth and survival of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings in different concentrations of domestic Leachate. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 2001;6(5):25-29.
Singh V, Mittal A, Sinna V. Toxicity analysis and public health aspects of Municipal Landfill Leachate: A case study of Okhla Landfill, Delhi', 2011;(18):18.
Andem AB, Ibor OR, Joseph AP, Eyo VO, Edet AA. Toxicological evaluation and histopathological changes of synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticide (Cypermethrin) exposed to African Clariid Mud Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) Fingerlings. Int. J. Toxicol. Pharm. resear., 2016;8(5):360 – 367.
Joseph AP, Otong BE, Okoro FT, Akpan OE. Toxicological Responses of African Mud Catfish (Clarias gariepinus; Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings Exposed to Culture Water Contaminated with different Concentrations of Cypermethrin. Advan. Resear. 2018;17(4):1–15.
Otong BE, Joseph AP, Okoro FT. Water Quality Contamination and Mortality of African Mud Catfish (clarias gariepinus; burchell, 1822) Fingerlings exposed to Paint Effluents. Asian J. Environ. Ecol. 2018;7(3):1-12.
Pathan TS, Sonawane DL, Khillare YK. Toxicity and behavioural changes in Freshwater Fish Rasbora daniconius exposed to Paper Mill Effluent. J. biotech. Resear. Int, 2009;2(4):263-266.
Adeola AO, Amusat TH, Peijun L. Toxicity of Leachates from the Aba-Eku Landfill Leachate Lagoon, Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria. Adv. Appli. Sci. Resear. 2011;2 (2):450-460.
Oshode OA, Bakare AA, Adeogun AO, Efuntoye MO, Sowunmi AA. Ecotoxicological assessment using Clarias gariepinus and microbial characterization of Leachate from Municipal Solid Waste Landfill. Int. J. Environ. Resear., 2008; 2(4):391-400.
Pavlović SZ, Mitić SSB, Radovanović TB, Perendija BR, Despotović SG, Gavrić JP, Saicić ZS. Seasonal variations of the activity of Antioxidants defense Enzymes in the Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus) from Adriatic Sea. Marine Drugs. 2010;8(3): 413-428.
Gupta SK, Pal AK, Sahu NP, Saharan N, Mandal SC, Chandraprakash AMS, Prusty AK. Dietary microbial levan ameliorates stress and augments immunity in Cyprinus Carpio Fry (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to sub-lethal toxicity of Fipronil. Aquac. Resear. 2012;11 – 20.
Aderemi AO, Adewumi GA, Adebayo A., Otitoloju AA. Municipal Landfill Leachate characterization and its induction of glycogen vacuolation in the Liver of Clarias gariepinus. Inter. J. Environ. Protect. 2012; (4):20-24.
Pathan TS, Thate PB, Shinde SE, Sonawane DL. Histopathological effects of Paper Mill Effluent in Liver and Kidney of a Fresh Water Fish, Rasbora daniconius. Resear. J. Bio. Sci. 2010;5(5):389-394.
Abstract View: 54 times
PDF Download: 23 times