Assessment and Factors Influencing Protein Content of Human Breast Milk at Various Stages of Lactation in Yobe State Nigeria
Annual Research & Review in Biology,
Aims: Aim: Protein in breast milk has diverse functions which gives short and long term benefits. This means human milk must adequately supply the nutritional needs of infants especially during the period of exclusive breast feeding as mandated for lactating mothers. The study assessed quantity of proteins in lactating stages of mother’s breast milk and the factors that influence its availability in Yobe State, Nigeria.
Study Design: Quantitative experimental and descriptive survey methods were adopted for the study. Quantitative experimental design was used for the analysis of breast milk samples collected while descriptive survey method was used to derive primary and secondary data to determine factors influencing protein in breast milk.
Place and Duration of Study: The collection of the samples was done in three stages of lactation from October to December (2019) in Yobe State, Nigeria.
Methodology: Primiparous women residing in Nguru (n= 49/town) were recruited base on agreement with the hospitals prior to their delivery. Breast milk samples were collected at three stages of lactation; colostrums (1-2 days), transition (12 day) and mature (30 day) for protein analysis. Descriptive survey through structured questionnaire was adopted to derive primary data which was used to determine nutrition during pregnancy and factors influencing breast milk composition.
Results: The mean proteins are 3.88%, 1.79% and 1.23% for colostrum, transition and mature milk respectively. It showed that breast milk is a dynamic fluid with changes in its protein content over the course of lactation and varies within and between nutrition and between mothers. Those with low, normal and high BMI accounted for 6.1%, 81.6% and 12.2% respectively. Based on WHO standard, 82% of the women has normal BMI during pregnancy which translate good nutrition.
Conclusion: The nutrition of the pregnant women influenced breast milk proteins. Age, ethnicity, religion and parity have no significant effect on protein quantity in breast milk. Increased education stratification and income levels contribute positively to proteins in lactation stages.
- breast milk
- lactating stages
- transition milk
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