Comparative Repellency of Selected Plants to Adult Anopheles gambiea complex (Gilles) in the Laboratory
Annual Research & Review in Biology,
Aims: The study evaluated the repellency effects of some tropical plants and shrubs found in semi- rural communities of Badagry Area of Lagos state; which are acclaimed to have the potentials of repelling mosquitoes from human dwellings. The repellency effects of Moringa oleifera, Morinda lucida, Magnifera indica and Phyllanthus muellerianus to adult Anopheles gambiea was evaluated in the Laboratory.
Study Design: The study was carried out at Central Research Laboratory of Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria and Central Research Laboratory of University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria. Powdered of dried test plants were prepared and admix with coconut husk as inert, different concentrations were rubbed on the forearm of volunteers and repellency to blood starved female Anopheles mosquitoes was observed.
Methodology: Test plants were collected from Badagry area of Lagos State, they were identified at University of Lagos Herbarium and given numbers. They were dried between 10 and 14 days at temperature of 25-27oC and powdered. Different concentrations of the powder mixed with powdered coconut husk was used to treat volunteers forearms and they were exposed to 0-2 two day old adult unfed mosquitoes in an aluminum glass cage fitted with net as arm entrance and repellency was observed for a period of 180 minutes, with landing counts taken every 30 minutes. The test plants were also subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis at University of Lagos Central Research Laboratory.
Results: Results showed that all test plants were able to repel Anopheles mosquitoes in the study, repellency was shown in descending order Moringa oleifera with 88%, Magnifera indica 83%, Phyllantus muellerianuss 80% and Morinda lucida 72%. There was no statistical significance in percentage repellency at 95% CL. The result of phytochemical screening of the test plants showed that only M .indica indicated presence of saponing (36.99%). While M.oleifera has highest phenol content (45.6%3), Alkaloid (38.68%), steroid (24.89%) and Tannin (33.19%). Flavonoid and reducing sugar quantity was highest in M. indica (39.39%) and (55.18%) respectively.
Conclusion: The plants were able to show repellency to Anopheles gambiae a nuisance malaria vector of serious medical importance. These plants are available in all tropical areas of Africa, they can therefore be used to prevent nuisance and painful mosquito bites which could be a sustainable way to prevent mosquito vectored diseases.
- Anopheles gambiae
- Moringa oleifera
- Morinda lucida
- Magnifera indica
- Phyllanthus muellrianus repellency badagry phytochemical flavonoid phenol tannin alkaloid steroid saponin
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