Annual Research & Review in Biology 2021-07-26T11:55:23+00:00 Annual Research & Review in Biology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB)</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 2347-565X)</strong> <strong>(Previous name:</strong> <strong>Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776</strong>) is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Haematological and Biochemical Profile of Wistar Rats Exposed to Chloroform Stem Extract of Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Purslane) 2021-07-13T11:41:24+00:00 Victoria C. Obinna Gabriel O. Agu <p><em>Portulaca oleracea</em> Linn. has a history of extensive use as a medicinal plant and is a component of the Nigerian ethnomedical pharmacopoeia. Although several studies have been carried out exclusively on the leaves to ascertain the physiological effect, there seems to be dearth of literature on the physiological effect of the stem. This study which was designed to fill this gap investigated the sub-chronic effect of oral administration of chloroform stem extract of <em>P.oleracea </em>(CSEPO) on haematological parameters and plasma activities of some enzymes (Alanine Aminotransferase - ALT, Alkaline Phosphatase - ALP &amp; Aspartate Aminotransferase - AST) and levels of other biochemical parameters such as total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urea and creatinine in male wistar rats. Twenty animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. Group A(Control) received 0.5 ml of olive oil(vehicle) while Groups B, C &amp; D received 125, 250 &amp; 500 mg/kg body weight of CSEPO respectively for 21 days by oral gavage. At the end, the animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were collected for haematology and plasma biochemical assay. No significant (<em>P </em>&gt; .05) variation occurred in the mean values of ALT, ALP, AST, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration, RBC, WBC and differential leucocyte counts relative to the control. There was a highly significant (<em>P</em> &lt; .01) increase in the total platelet count only at the dose of 500mg/kg in comparison with control. Oral administration of CSEPO as used in this study had no adverse effect on haematological and biochemical parameters. Secondly, CSEPO may be a useful remedy in thrombocytopenia, due to its potential to increase platelet count. However, further study is recommended in that regards.</p> 2021-07-10T11:00:18+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Doxorubicin-Induced Cardio Toxicity in Albino Rats Protected by Adansonia Digitata (Baobab) Leaf Extract 2021-07-13T09:54:15+00:00 Akintola Adebola Olayemi Kehinde Busuyi David Saka Waheed Adeoye Oyewande Esther Ajoke Ayandiran Tolulope Akinpelu Ogundiran Mathew Akinloye <p>Cardiovascular disease is the world's leading cause of death, killing 17 to 19 million people each year. The usage of traditional drugs was influenced by the need for effective medications for the treatment of cardiovascular disease without side effects. The current study investigated the cardio-protective effects of Adansonia digitata leaf extract on doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity in laboratory rats. Thirty-five albino rats were divided into five groups, each consisting of seven rats. Group 1 was given filtered water as a control, while Group 2 was given saline and doxorubicin, Group 3 received doxorubicin and Vitamin E, and Groups IV and V were myocardial oxidative animals treated with Adansonia digitata leaf extract (150 and 300 mg/kg/wt) for two weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, their hearts were collected and homogenized for biochemical assays. The results on the activities of creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde were determined. Histopathology examination was used in addition to assays to validate myocardial damage. In comparison to the control group, rats provided doxorubicin showed a significant increase in the activities of cardiac marker enzymes (CK, LDH, and AST), as well as a significant increase in malondialdehyde concentration with a concomitant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and NOS), implying cardiotoxicity. In rats with doxorubicin-induced myocardial infection, pretreatment with Adansonia digitata leaf extract reduced myocardial damage, these biochemical results were confirmed by histopathology. Finally, the new study demonstrates that Adansonia digitata has cardioprotective properties.</p> 2021-07-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Toxicological Impact of Leachates from Lemna Refuse Dump Site on African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1882) Fingerlings Under Laboratory Condition 2021-07-14T09:27:10+00:00 Udeme Uyom Udofia Finian Tobias Okoro Akaninyene Paul Joseph <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The study investigated the toxicological effects of Calabar municipal dumpsite leachate on the fingerlings of <em>Clarias gariepinus</em>.</p> <p><strong>Experimental Design: </strong>The study was set-up in a 6 × 2 Complete Randomized Block Design.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>During the studt 120 <em>C. gariepinus</em> fingerlings were used. Each group was made up of 10 fingerlings. The fingerlings were exposed to 0% (control group), 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% of leachate in duplicate. Histopathology was also carried-out on the gills and liver of the fingerlings of each exposure group.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The temperature, pH, conductivity, and BOD increased with increasing leachate concentration, while the DO decreased with concentration. 5.17 ± 0.66 cm and 1.09 ± 0.40 g mean length and weight respectively of fingerlings were determined. Mortality depended on concentration. The 96 hours LC<sub>50</sub> value with 95% confidence limit of <em>C. gariepinus</em> fingerlings exposed to leachate was 22.5% ± 0.89, and was significant with a determination coefficient (r<sup>2</sup>) of 0.93 at <em>P</em>&lt;0.05. Leachates altered the orientation of gills and liver of the fingerlings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and Recommendations:</strong> The low LC<sub>50</sub> value of fingerlings exposed to different concentrations of leachate indicates a high toxicity of the leachate and altered the gills and liver of fingerlings. To this end, we recommended dumpsites are sited at a distance far from water bodies and areas inhabited by human, to mitigate the leeching of leachate into nearby aquatic systems. Law against indiscriminate discharge of waste into drainage channels and any aquatic system should be enforced by Government, to prevent mortality of biological organisms, extinction of species, contamination of organisms in nearby aquatic systems, changes in the physical properties, and health risk to humans that depends on resources from these aquatic systems for food.</p> 2021-07-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among the Malnourished Children in Enugu, Nigeria 2021-07-16T11:42:00+00:00 N. F. Onyemelukwe U. C. Maduakor C. A. Uchenna U. Okongwu <p>Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) have remained a serious challenge to developing countries. Infectious disease and nutritional deficiencies can impact adversely on the nutritional status of children. Hence, this study aimed at investigating prevalence of Intestinal parasitic infections among malnourished children in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. It was a case-controlled study consisting of 164 malnourished children and 100 well-nourished subjects between the ages of 0-10 years whose caregivers gave their consent. Anthropometric measures were evaluated using the Gomez system of classification. Stool samples were analyzed using standard parasitological protocols. Of the 164 malnourished children 52(31.7%), 63(38.4%), 49(29.9%) had mild, moderate, and severe malnutrition respectively. Five species of helminths and three species of protozoa were detected. The overall prevalence was 51.8% among the malnourished and 12% in well-nourished children. The prevalence of IPIs among the control, mild, moderate, and severe malnutrition were 12%, 36.5%, 60.3%, and 57.1% respectively. <em>Ascaris lumbricoides </em>ranked highest 40(37.7%) followed by Hookworm 31(29.3%) and the least was <em>Strongyloides stercoralis </em>4(3.8%) among the helminths while <em>Cryptosporidium spp</em> was the most prevalent protozoa 8(7.6%) and the least was <em>Isospora spp</em>. 2(1.9%). Mixed infections were detected in 3(7.5%) and 6(21.4%) among children with moderate and severe malnutrition respectively. Nutritional status was found to be a significant risk factor while gender and age were statistically insignificant P= 0.118 and P= 0.455 respectively. The study revealed that malnourished children are highly susceptible to IPIs. There is a need for integrated effort to address malnutrition and parasitic infections</p> 2021-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Soybean Cultivation Technology Package on Tidal Swamp Lands in Indonesia 2021-07-21T11:28:24+00:00 Arief Harsono Dian A. A. Elisabeth Sriwahyuni Indiati Fachrur Rozi Didik Harnowo Titik Sundari Yudi Widodo Ruly Krisdiana Made J. Mejaya <p>The main constraints of the tidal swamp lands in Indonesia for soybean growth are low soil pH, high Al saturation, and low nutrient availability of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. The objectives of this research were to determine tolerance of several soybean varieties to Al saturation level, and to obtain a technological package for soybean cultivation which was suitable for farmers to adopt on tidal swamp lands. The research consisted of two stages of study. The first stage formulated of technology package, and the second stage evaluated feasibility of the technology package which was formulation from the first stage. The first stage&nbsp; studied&nbsp; the effect of&nbsp; dolomite application (20%</p> <p>- 30% of soil Al saturation) on four soybean varieties (Anjasmoro, Panderman, Dega 1, and Demas). The second stage studied the effect of three technological packages: existing technology; water- saturated soybean cultivation (WSC); and alternative technology which was formulated from the results of the first study. In the 30% of soil Al saturation condition, the alternative technology package (application of 50 kg urea + 75 kg SP36 + 50 kg KCl + 1500 kg organic fertilizers/ha + rhizobium biofertilizer “Agriosy” 0.25 kg/50 g seeds/ha)&nbsp; gave soybean yield of 1.78 - 2.72 t/ha for all</p> <p>of soybean varieties tested. The alternative technology package with Anjasmoro variety provided higher seed yields (2.62 t/ha) compared to the existing technology (2.07 t/ha) and WSC technology package (2.44 t/ha). The alternative technology package gave a profit of 11,595,000 IRD/ha with B/C values of 1.71 which was higer than the existing and WSC technology packages. The alternative technology package was more profitable than the existing technology (current farmer practice) and water-saturated soybean cultivation technology packages.</p> 2021-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study on the Ecological Situation and the Nursery Function of the Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813 Prairies on the Islands of Ventotene e Santo Stefano 2021-07-24T11:44:11+00:00 Roberto Bedini Marco Bedini Arianna Trafeli Martina Manuele <p>On behalf of the Management of the Protected Marine Area of the island of Ventotene and Santo Stefano the Marine Ecology and Biology Institute of Piombino (ITALY) carried out a very in dept study aimed at knowledge of the ecological situation of the Posidonia Oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813 meadows. The most appropriate methodologies were used to be able to identify all the benthic species present in order to evaluate the efficiency of the nursery function of the prairies investigated. The results of the numerous species captured in the juvenile stage have demonstrated the excellent nursery function of the meadows of the island of Ventotene.</p> 2021-07-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Correlation and Regression Analysis of Age and Body Mass Index (BMI) Among Nsidung Fisher Folks, Calabar South, Cross River State, Nigeria: The Counselor Sensitization Strategy 2021-07-26T11:55:23+00:00 Florence A. Undiyaundeye Effiom B. Ekeng Godwin M. Ubi <p>The research focuses on the relationship between age, blood pressure and body mass index among fisher folks at Nsidung, Calabar south, cross River state Nigeria. The study evaluated one hundred and twenty fisher folks separated into six groups based on age. Appropriate equipment and tools were used to measure the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse rates. The body mass index was determined using weight over square of height (kg/m<sup>2</sup>). The data generated was analyzed using Pearson’s’ correlation coefficient and linear regreesion analysis. The results showed that the age of the Nsidung fisher folks correlates strongly, positively and significantly with their body mass index and systolic blood pressure and correlated negatively, weakly and non-significantly with diastolic blood pressure, mean body weights, height and pulse rate. The results also revealed that a body mass index is linearly dependent on the age of the fisher folks. The results of correlation analysis reveals that age correlated (r=0.719; p&lt;0.001) and (r=0.883; p&lt;0.001) significantly, positively and strongly with Body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure respectively. The study revealed the line of best fit equation Y = 1.2329X + 23.937 with a significant regression coefficient R<sup>2</sup> of 0.5182. The counselor’s intervention strategy will focus on the creation of awareness on the need for a regular and routine blood pressure check - up by all fisher folks at Nsidung. There is need to create awareness on the potential risk factors that predisposes the Nsidung fisher folks to increased blood pressure and pulse rates. The need for urgent guidance and counseling program for the Nsidung fisher folks on the dangers of drug abuse, smoking and poor dieting which is highly prevalent among them. The need for government safety nets intervention program for the aged among the Nsidung fisher folks to forestall increasing cardiac associated problem which is highly prevalence among the aged.</p> 2021-07-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##