Annual Research & Review in Biology https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB)</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 2347-565X)</strong> <strong>(Previous name:</strong> <strong>Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776</strong>) is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Annual Research & Review in Biology 2347-565X Deeper, Larger, More Common: Cryptic Coral Species Podabacia Benefits from Reef Recovery https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30309 <p>In 2000 a protected area of 20,000 ha was established in West Sumatra, Indonesia (MPA Pulau Pieh) and the partial reef recovery is well documented. During monitoring of destructed reefs, a new cryptic mushroom coral species, <em>Podabacia kunzmanni,</em> was detected. It is not common, with rather occasional occurrence and most specimens are small. During recent visits in 2018 and 2019, the authors detected numerous specimens, mainly at three locations within the MPA Pulau Pieh, mainly at Pulau Pandan. Most individuals were found in greater depth, down to 18 m, reaching diameters of up to 20 cm. With regard to size, depth distribution and abundance, three new records can be established for this species. There are two potential explanations for finding them mainly on dead reefs: either they are better survivors or they are better colonizers of dead coral substrata. The team is presently collecting more data on the distribution and the reasons behind the sudden rise in visibility.</p> Andreas Kunzmann . Samsuardi Ofri Johan Karin Springer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 41 44 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230309 Performance of P2x7 and P2Y Purinergic Receptors as an Inhibiting Factor in the Progression of Pulmonary Neoplastic Cells https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30311 <p>Different pathological processes are considered in lung cancer, such as nicotine deposition, oxidative stress, deregulation of metal ions and chronic inflammation. Purine signaling is involved in all processes, suggesting the importance of nucleotide receptors (P2X7 and P2Y) and adenosine receptors present in lung cells. The accumulation of toxic substances promotes chronic inflammation and cellular alteration, which induces the release of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) in the extracellular space, thus stimulating P2X7 receptors. The activation of P2X7 promotes an increase in the synthesis and release of some pro-inflammatory mediators. P2Y works by promoting the increase of intracellular calcium levels and, P2X7, changing cell permeability. Thus, drugs can be developed with a specific targeting for such recipients, thus provid additional therapeutic options to those existing.</p> Matheus Ribeiro Bizuti Laura Nyland Jostl Emanuely Scramim Keroli Eloiza Tessaro da Silva Luana Paula Schio Gabriela Vidotto Cavallieri Renata Calciolari Rossi Débora Tavares de Resende e Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 56 62 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230311 Two Faces of Regulatory T Cells: From Immune Defense to Tumoral Progression https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30317 <p>T cells are the most important cellular element of human immunity defending against virus, bacteria, non-self-tissue and tumor cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the major responsible for self-tolerance maintenance, especially those expressing forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) transcription factor. Tregs suppressive function is established through several mechanisms that are essential to immune system homeostasis, but also related to tumoral microenvironment. Recent studies have provided deeper understanding of Tregs role in cancer as well as promising therapeutic targets for improving prognosis in cancer patients. This review approaches Tregs subtypes, functions and its implication in tumor progression.</p> S. S. D. E. Medeiros L. G. De Souza W. M. Souza M. G. C. Mayeiro G. R. Degasperi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 112 125 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230317 Assessment of Salinity Level and Some Nutrients in Different Depths of Soil at Kalapara Upazila of Patuakhali District https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30306 <p>Salinity intrusion is one of the major environmental issues throughout the world. The spatial variability of salt accumulation through the soil profile was studied at Kalapara Upazila, Patuakhali district, Bangladesh. The soil samples were collected from 30 locations covering six villages: Solimpur, Umidpur, Diaramkhola, Hazipur, Monoharpur and Puranmohipur of Kalapara Upazila, Patuakhali district. From each spot, soil samples were collected from two soil depths (0-5cm and 5-10 cm).The study was therefore consisted (30 locations and 2 soil depths) 60 soil samples. The soils were strongly acidic having mean pH value of 4.11, and 4.83 in 0-5, and 5-10 cm soil depth, respectively. In 0-5 cm soil depth, the EC1:5 values were 5.80 dS/m. The EC1:5 values were drastically reduced to 1.86dS/m in 5-10 cm soil depth. The available P content in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil depth was 21.3 and 24.1 ppm indicating the less availability of P in the surface soil. Available sulphur content found in 0-5 cm soil depth was 28.5 meq/100 g soil ppm which reduced by 63% in 5-10 cm soil depth. The Na+ content in surface soil was 23.03 meq/100 g soils where as in subsurface soil it was 16.7 meq/100 g soils that indicated Na affects plants growth in the study area. With the increase of soil depth exchangeable K content was gradually decreased. Based on the electrical conductivity and different nutrients Monoharpur, Puranmohipur, Diaramkhola village were found seriously affected by salinity.</p> Sabnaj Khanam Mohammad Asadul Haque Md. Fazlul Hoque Md. Tariqul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 1 10 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230306 Effects of Pre-sowing Treatments and Abiotic Stress on the Germination of Ceratonia siliqua Seeds of Four Moroccan Biomes https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30307 <p>In order to improve the germination rate of carob seeds (<em>Ceratonia siliqua</em> L.), we studied the morphological characteristics of the fruits (pod and seeds, integumentary hardness and tolerance to abiotic stress of the seeds) of seven ecotypes of carob trees from four regions of Morocco. The fruits of its seven populations were studied according to seven discriminative characteristics relating to the pods (length, width, thickness, total number of seeds, total weight of the pulp, seeds&nbsp; per pod and yield of pods per tree) and four discriminative characteristics relating to the seeds namely length, width, thickness and total fresh weight of seeds. Integumentary hardness was evaluated by pretreating the seeds with boiling water and 95% sulfuric acid. Similarly, we also followed the evolution of water absorption by the seeds during 4 days and we evaluated on these seeds pre-treated, effects of different incubation temperatures (10°C, 25°C and 40°C), their tolerance to different concentrations of NaCl, PEG6000 (0MPa, -0.5MPa, -1MPa and -1.5MPa ) and their reversibility. The morphological characterization of the fruits allowed us to group the populations studied into three groups. Soaking the carob seeds in sulfuric acid for 20 minutes improved the germination rate and time. The evolution of water absorption makes it possible to distinguish two phases. The first phase is obtained during the first 24 hours and characterized by a rapid penetration of water, and second phase which lasts over the last 72 hours and which is characterized by a slow entry of water. The optimum temperature for germination of seeds from all provenances is 25°C. The germination behavior of carob under conditions of osmotic stress demonstrated a highly significant treatment effect (concentration of PEG6000) on the rate and mean time of germination and revealed that this species is very resistant to drought. This study also showed that, salt has a depressive effect on the average germination rate, time and length of radicles. The results of the reversibility test showed that the germination of seeds transferred from osmotic stress and salt stress (-0.5, -1 and -1.5MPa) and from the temperature of 40°C. is totally inhibited. On the other hand, seeds transferred from a temperature of 15°C resume germination under optimal conditions. This study allowed us to select a variety with high yield and tolerant to various biotic constraints.</p> Meriem Yatim Rahal El Kahkahi Ikram Es- Sbata Taoufik El- Askri Samia ElOirdi Tarik Lakhlifi Abdelhaq Belhaj Majida Hafidi Rachid Zouhair ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-05 2020-12-05 11 31 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230307 Selecting Bacillus spp. Antagonist of Fungal Phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans Causing Tomato Late Blight https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30308 <p>The late blight caused by phytopathogen <em>Phytophthora infestans</em> has been one of the serious disease-causing yields and quality losses of tomato production in Vietnam. To control the fungal disease, chemical fungicides have been overused causing concerns about the ecological risks and human health, especially fungal resistance. Therefore, using natural products from beneficial microorganisms as a safer strategy is getting attention. The present study focused on the isolation of indigenous <em>Bacillus </em>sp. with potential antifungal activity against <em>Phytophthora infestans</em> with the aim to contribute to the diversification and improving the quality of biological control products <em>Bacillus</em> spp. in Vietnam. From 21 strains <em>Bacillus</em> spp. (marked BV1 - BV21) being isolated from different tomato farms in Danang City, Vietnam, <em>Bacillus velezensis</em> BV 16 was selected based on the most potential antagonistic strain in controlling fungal plant pathogen <em>Phytophthora infestans</em> attacking the tomato tree. The strongest inhibition of mycelial growth on P. infestans of <em>Bacillus velezensis</em> BV16 was recorded with 88.89% of growth inhibition percentage. The results also showed that strong activity of chitinase, protease and cellulase in the BV16 strain are consistent with the novel growth control of <em>Phytophthora infestans</em>.</p> Trang Le Vu Khanh Le Nguyen Tan Mai Le Thi My Pham Thi Trieu Ly Hai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-09 2020-12-09 32 40 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230308 Biochar, Bentonite and Potassium Humate Effects on Saline Soil Properties and Nitrogen Loss https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30310 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> In order to study the effect of biochar, bentonite and potassium humate on saline soil characteristics, barley growth and nitrogen loss, a column experiment was conducted. Addition of the above mention materials was hypothesized to improve the characteristics of saline soil and decrease nitrogen loss in the leachate solution.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Farm of Soils and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt during the winter season of 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Biochar and bentonite were added with rates 0, 5 and 10 g.kg<sup>-1</sup>; and the rates of potassium humate were 0, 5 and 10 mg.kg<sup>-1</sup>. Excess irrigations were implemented three times (on 12th, 24th, 36th days) during growing season. Leachate solution was collected after each excess irrigation from each column to determine nitrogen loss.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Main results show that total organic carbon and soil porosity were increased by increasing the addition rates of the studied materials, especially at the high rates of biochar and bentonite. Also, the availability of water significantly increased. Addition of biochar and bentonite gave the highest decreasing in leachate solution volume. Nitrogen loss was decreased significantly at the highest rates of the studied materials, where the decrement percentage in leachate solution reached at 36.07%, 35.82 and 23.81 at the highest rates of biochar, bentonite and potassium humate, respectively. That led to increasing the retention of available nitrogen in saline soil. Fresh and dry weights of barley plants were increased significantly by increasing the addition rates of all amended materials. Macronutrients (NPK) content and uptake were increased significantly by increasing the addition rates of the studied materials.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Research results proved that changes in soil properties caused a significant increase in barley growth and nutrients uptake. Addition of biochar and bentonite were the best option for improving saline soil properties, barley growth and nutrients uptake and reduce nitrogen loss by improving nitrogen retention and decreasing the leachate volume.</p> S. A. Abdeen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 45 55 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230310 Endo-Parasites of Apparently Healthy Wild Birds in Kaduna State, Nigeria https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30312 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Wildbirds interaction with poultry increases the likelihood of exchange of parasites between wild birds and poultry highlighting the need to understand wild bird endoparasites to reduce cross-infection at the wild bird-poultry interface. This study investigates the prevalence and diversity of endoparasites among wild birds in Kaduna State to provide baseline data on the wild birds' endoparasites which could be a source of infection to poultry.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Wild birds in live wild bird markets, free-flying wild birds and semi-domesticated birds were the samples for endoparasites.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Birds were sampled in Kaduna State, Nigeria and the samples were analyzed at the helminthology laboratory of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria between April 2012 and December 2012.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Wild birds faecal samples were examined for endoparasites by the simple flotation method.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 357 birds sampled, 36.4% were infected with at least one species of endoparasite. Charadriidae (7.1%) and Meleagris gallopavo (23.5%) had the lowest family and species prevalence respectively. Free flying, live poultry markets (LPM) and live wild bird markets (LWBM) birds had a prevalence of 39.1%, 37.2% and 34% respectively. The endoparasites identified were coccidia (30.5%), Ascaridia (5.9%), nematode larvae (0.8%), Capillaria (0.6%); Syngamus, Raillietinia and Trichuris (0.3% for each). There was a significant difference between the prevalence (p = 0.00), mean intensities (p = 0.00) and abundance (p = 0.01) of coccidia and Ascaridia. The prevalence&nbsp; &nbsp;of multiple infections was 2.0% representing 5.4% of infected birds. The study is first to report&nbsp; in Kaduna State, Nigeria of Trichuris in Anas platyrhynchos and Raillietina in Laniarius&nbsp; barbarous.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Wild birds in Kaduna State, Nigeria harbours endoparasites of economic significance to poultry and there is the need for more study of these wild birds’ endoparasites at the wild bird–poultry interface.</p> Assam, Assam Abdu, Salamatu Paul, Abdu Augustine, Ezealor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 63 72 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230312 Antimicrobial Activity of Herbal Toothpaste against Organisms Causing Dental Caries https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30313 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Dental caries occurs as a result of acid produced by bacteria which destroys the enamel and underlying dentin. A study was carried out to isolate microorganisms that cause dental caries in patients belonging to different age groups and find out the antimicrobial activity of various toothpastes against them.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Collection of samples for isolation of caries causing organisms, to identify them using biochemical tests and test the activity of herbal toothpastes against them.</p> <p>Place and duration of study: Samples were collected from Krish Multispeciality Clinic and Prashanth Dental Clinic, Nagole between June’2016 – December’2017 and worked on, at Microbiology Department, St. Francis College for women, Hyderabad.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Ten samples of each age group from 10-20 yrs., 20-40 yrs. and 40-60 yrs. were isolated. The organisms were identified by carrying out various biochemical tests according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and molecular characterization&nbsp; &nbsp; based on 16s rRNA typing. Identified organisms were used to test the antimicrobial activity&nbsp; &nbsp;of herbal toothpastes by employing agar well diffusion method. ANOVA is used for statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> Patanjali herbal products like Dantkanti are gaining lot of importance and have become a part of life of common man because of their effectivity. Our studies revealed that out of the various toothpastes tested, Patanjali toothpaste had good antimicrobial activity against all the isolates. On comparative analysis of f-ratio and P significant value (&lt; .05.) of all pairs, it is observed that Patanjali has good antimicrobial activity against all isolates tested. The efficacy of Meswak is almost similar to that of Patanjali.</p> M. Shailaja Raj R. Hema Anitha Thomas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-14 2020-12-14 73 83 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230313 A Study on the Knowledge Level and Extent of Adoption of Plant Protection Measures against Blast Disease of Rice by the Farmers of Indian Sundarbans https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30314 <p>The study was conducted to know the knowledge and adoption level of plant protection measures against blast disease among 80 respondent paddy growers in the blocks of North and South 24 Parganas of Sundarbans. About 48.75% of the respondents had medium knowledge. Majority of the respondents (75%) knew about blast disease of rice and its key identifying symptom. The 67.5% farmers were having the knowledge about the fungicides used against the disease (Tricyclazole 75 WP, Carbendazim 50 WP, Hexaconazole 5EC), and 22.5% of the farmers knowing about the recommended dose of fungicide application.&nbsp; The 28.75% of the respondents also knew that the fungicide should be applied at the first appearance of the disease. Further, it has been found that the adoption level of plant protection measures against blast disease of rice was medium (47.5%). Nearly 53.75% of the respondents practicing rice cultivation were in the middle age group of 31-50 years.&nbsp; Most of the respondent had either 0.13-0.27ha (22.5%) or 0.40-0.67ha (37.5%) landholding wherein they were practicing rice cultivation. Almost all the respondents (100%) possessed Knapsack or hand sprayer for fungicide application. Climatic vagaries, lack of knowledge about to the number of sprays and concerning technology application, non-availability of fungicide on time, lack of facility at the nearby place were the major constraints as expressed by 95, 83.75, 85, 90, and 95 per cent of respondents, respectively. The high cost of chemicals and expensiveness and non-availability of labour during peak cropping period were also the major constraints as expressed by 60 and 83.75 per cent of the respondents, respectively. There was a significant relationship between age, education, landholding, social, mass media and participation in extension activities with knowledge and adoption levels of the farmers of the Indian Sundarbans.</p> Sabita Nath Bholanath Mondal Palash Mondal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 84 97 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230314 Investigation through New Approach on Plants with Antihypertensive Properties Used by the Herbalists in the Maritime Region of Togo https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30316 <p>Like other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, hypertension is currently a public health problem in Togo. To decrease the insufficient of the methods previously used, a new survey technique, namely ATRM (Achat en Triplet des Recettes Médicinales), has been proposed. This study aims to contribute to a better knowledge of traditional remedies for their safe and sustainable use in the management of hypertension. ATRM method applied with 34 herbalists of 17 markets in maritime and Lomé-Commune health regions. Plant species and parts used, preparation and administration methods and market characteristics of plants were collected. In total, 62 plant species (56 genera and 30 families) were identified from 102 collected recipes. These recipes included 70% single plant recipes and 30% associated plant recipes, showing the influence of the ATRM method in reducing the number of plants in the recipes. <em>Lippia multiflora</em> Moldenke (23.50%) was the most used plant species followed by <em>Uvaria chamae</em> P. Beauv (8.20%), <em>Acanthospermum hispidum</em> DC. (4.92%), <em>Lannea kerstingii</em> A. Rich. (3.83%), <em>Vitex doniana</em> Sweet (3.83%), and <em>Senna sieberiana</em> DC. (3.28%). Leafy stems (33.33%), roots (20.83%) and trunk bark (16.67%) were the most used organs. The recipes were mainly prepared as a decoction and administered orally. In the transit market, <em>Sorghum bicolor</em> (L.) Moench (7.12 USD/kg), <em>Senna occidentalis</em> (L.) Link (4.98 USD/kg), <em>Senna angustifolia</em> Vahl (3.73 USD/kg) and <em>Gardenia aqualla</em> Stapf. &amp; Hutch. (3.56 USD/kg) were the most expensive plants. 59.18% of the plant parts sold were roots, fruits, seeds, trunk bark and whole plants. These results suggest, on the one hand, an extensive biological investigation for effective management of hypertension. On the other hand, there is an urgent need to preserve the species whose vital organs were heavily sold.</p> Souleymane Compaoré Koffi Koudouvo Alimata Bancé Raïnatou Boly Lazare Belemnaba Noufou Ouédraogo Sylvin Ouédraogo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-28 2020-12-28 98 111 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230316 Agronomic Performance of Corn Cultivars in Low-Altitude in the Cerrado-Amazon Ecotone https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30318 <p>e of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of corn cultivars for grain production in the south at low altitude in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone.</p> <p><strong>Place:</strong> The research was carried out at Sítio Vitória (8°18'32.0"S, 50°36'58.0"W, 278 MASL), in the south of the state of Pará, Brazil.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experimental design was randomized blocks with twelve treatments and three replications. The treatments were eight corn hybrids: AG 1051, AG 8088, BM 3051, BR 2022, BR 205, BR 206, BRS 3046 and PR 27D28; and four open pollination populations: AL BANDEIRANTE, ANHEMBI, CATIVERDE and M 274.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Sowed on January 28, 2019. The following characteristics were evaluated: ear height, plant height, number of grains per row, ear diameter, ear length, ear weight and grain yield.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The cultivars showed a difference for all traits. The grain yield of the cultivars ranged from 4,567 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>(BR 205) to 9,450 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (AG 1051).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The hybrids AG 1051 and BM 3051 were the ones that stood out the most, had the best performance in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone.</p> Weder Ferreira dos Santos Lara Rythelle Souza Bequiman Lucas Carneiro Maciel Joênes Mucci Peluzio Osvaldo José Ferreira Júnior Layanni Ferreira Sodré Talita Pereira de Souza Ferreira Fernando Barnabé Cerqueira Lucas Alves de Faria ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 126 133 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230318 Neoplasias in Fish: Review of the Last 20 Years. A Look from the Pathology https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/30319 <p>In fish there is an innumerable variety of neoplasias that arise essentially from all cell types. Neolasia here, we will focus on the neoplasias that appear spontaneously in these animals and will not cover the experimentally induced neoplasias and/or the animal models of neoplasias. As for diagnosis, in general, specialists in aquatic organism pathology are not so familiar with the diagnosis of neoplasias. Infectious pathology, as opposed to non-infectious pathology, is the predominant condition in this area and, of course, these are of greater importance because some infectious diseases generate great economic losses, while neoplasias are isolated pathologies, with some exceptions.</p> <p>In the last 20 years, 10 neoplasias in different species have been diagnosed in our laboratory, and we reported their characteristics in this paper. We also made a detailed bibliography review and observed how 90 neoplasias among 56 species of teleosteal fish were reported.</p> <p>Neoplasias in fish, unlike other diseases, do not generate great losses to aquaculture. However, the true value of neoplastic pathology compared is to better understand the histiogenesis and biological behavior of neoplasias in mammals and humans. Carcinogenesis is generally complex and in most neoplasias in both mammals and fish, the origin is unknown, and it seems that there are many factors that contribute to the onset and growth of neoplasias.</p> Luis Alberto Romano Virgínia Fonseca Pedrosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 134 153 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230319