Annual Research & Review in Biology <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB)</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 2347-565X)</strong> <strong>(Previous name:</strong> <strong>Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776</strong>) is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Annual Research & Review in Biology 2347-565X Comparative Study of the Cranio-osteology of Two Lonchophyllinae from Colombia <p><em>Lonchophyllinae</em> comprises four genera of Neotropical nectarivorous bats. Inside this subfamily&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the genus <em>Lonchophylla</em> is one of the most diverse. A total of 51 <em>Lonchophylla </em>skulls from&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Colombia (<em>L. robusta</em> n=34 and<em> L. thomasi</em> n=17) was studied by means of geometric morphometric methods with the aim to determine their morphological differential characteristics. For this purpose, viscero and neurocranium were evaluated with 12 landmarks on the dorsal aspect of left hemicranium. The two species were statistically different according to size (expressed as skull length) but also to shape (expressed as the set of Procrustes coordinates). Skulls in <em>L. robusta</em> were clearly bigger, with shorter braincase and longer rostra, and their zygomatic process was more latero-caudally displaced, whereas <em>L. thomasi</em> presented a zygomatic process which was&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;displaced more rostrally as well longer braincases. All these detected skull form dissimilarities between both species would be explained by their different alimentary habits, but a combination of dietary analysis and morphological analysis is needed to make stronger inference about diet preferences.</p> P. M. Parés- Casanova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-17 2020-09-17 1 6 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030283 No Directional Scapular Asymmetry among Tamarines of the Genus Saguinus (Primates: Callitrichidae) <p>Bilateral asymmetry is defined as a deviation of a whole organism or a part of it from a perfect symmetry, and different categories can be recognized. One is the fluctuating asymmetry, defined as the random developmental variation of a trait (or character) that is expected to be perfectly symmetrical on average, and the other one is directional asymmetry, which occurs when one of the sides shows stronger morphological structures or marks than the other. The aim of this study was to determine the kind of scapula asymmetry in <em>Saguinus</em> scapulae. On lateral surface of each right and left scapula, a set of 5 landmarks and 3 curves with semi-landmarks along the margins, on a sample of 16 pairs from different <em>Saguinus</em> species, were considered. Asymmetries (fluctuating and directional) on size and shape of the scapulae were analysed by means of geometric morphometric methods. Directional asymmetry was not detected, demonstrating no side scapular shape bias. The absence of significant directional asymmetry may indicate a similar contralateral pattern of employment of the shoulder, at least for one-arm vertical suspension, as it needs stronger forces than those for terrestrial locomotion and thus would cause more asymmetry in case side loadings were different. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the symmetrical/asymmetrical nature of scapulae in <em>Saguinus</em>. Our findings increase knowledge and understanding of humeral joint and arboreal locomotion in primates.</p> P. M. Parés- Casanova J. F. Vélez- García ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-19 2020-09-19 7 13 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030284