Annual Research & Review in Biology <p>The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB) (ISSN: 2347-565X) (Previous name: Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776)</strong> is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Annual Research & Review in Biology 2347-565X Multiple Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli and Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes <p>Quinolone antibiotics have been commonly used to treat cases of multiple antibiotic resistance. Unfortunately, quinolone antibiotics have so much been resisted by infectious bacterial agents. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of some clinical isolates of <em>E. coli </em>to some commonly used quinolone antibiotics and the determination of the plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance genes.</p> <p>Our results showed the plasmid quinolone-resistance genes in the following prevalence: qnr genes: qnr S (71.4 %); qnr B (15.4 %); qnr S and B (12.1 %); aac (6) lb-cr (4 %); Efflux genes: oqxA (7.7 %); oqxB (25.3 %); qepA (12.1 %); oqxA and oqxB (5.5 %). We conclude that there is a high frequency of Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in <em>Escherichia coli</em> isolates from clinical samples in South-Eastern Nigeria. These could be responsible for the high incidence of quinolone resistance reported in Enugu. There is a need for whole-genome sequencing to map out all resistance genes.</p> Ugo U. Anayo Nna E. Okechukwu Onyemelukwe F. Ngozi Samson O. Aisida Canice C. Anyachukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-08 2023-03-08 1 11 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i230568 Cell-free DNA in Embryo Culture Media as Non-invasive Biomarker of the Quality of Embryo Cleavage <p><strong>Background:</strong> The success of <em>in vitro</em>-fertilization (IVF) cycles is determined in large part by the quality of embryo cleavage, which in turn, is dependent on the quality of the embryo culture media (CM). Many factors can influence the quality of embryo CM, one of which is the levels of Cell Free <em>Deoxyribonucleic acid</em>&nbsp;(DNA). Understanding the association between Cell-free DNA levels in embryo CM and the quality of embryo cleavage could help improve the quality of IVF techniques.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This prospective study was conducted with 96 spent CM from patients undergoing IVF cycle, in order to determine relationships of Cell-free DNA levels in embryo CM with embryo cleavage quality on day 3. After intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), 48 embryos were evaluated on day 3 of their development, according to their cell number. Day 2 and day 3 CM corresponding to each one of the embryos was analyzed, by quantitative PCR, for estimation of Cell-free DNA levels.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results revealed a significant increase in Cell-free DNA levels on day 2 CM corresponding to 4 to 6 cell embryos compared to those corresponding to 7 to 8 cell embryos (p=0.04).&nbsp; As for day 3 CM, the results showed no significant difference between the Cell-Free DNA levels in CM of 7-8 and those of 4-6 cell embryos (p=0.4). Also, cell free DNA levels in embryo CM, were significantly higher on day 2 compared to day 3 for both 7-8 and 4-6 cell embryos (p=0.03; p=0.04).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We conclude that cell-free DNA levels in CM might be associated with delayed embryo cleavage.</p> Malak Jamil Hasnae Debbarh Hasnaa Jelloul Amal Kabit Mohamed Ennaji Mohamed Zarqaoui El Mehdi Hissane Wassym Senhaji Nourredine Louanjli Rachida Cadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-10 2023-03-10 12 18 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i230569