Annual Research & Review in Biology https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB <p>The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB) (ISSN: 2347-565X) (Previous name: Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776)</strong> is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US contact@journalarrb.com (Annual Research & Review in Biology) contact@journalarrb.com (Annual Research & Review in Biology) Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Experimentally Histological Assessment for the Effect of Resveratrol in the Liver of Mice https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2061 <p>Resveratrol a major Polyphenolic compound is a non-flavonoid stilbene, was isolated and purified as a first time in Iraq from the skin of black grape had grown in this country. Many studies confirmed the biological importance of this substance in different disorders, beside the protective properties specially towered the hepatic cells against free radicals and drugs toxic effects as histological level. In this study the purified resveratrol from Iraqi black grape was administered to groups of normal mice in three doses to investigate if there is any unwanted or harmful effects which may appear on the mice liver after fifteen days and thirty days administrated as intrapretoneal single dose a day Results showed that the extraction method estimated resveratrol in two stereo isomer mixture cis and trance forms. The different doses within two intervals affected the hepatocytes in different manner. The harmful properties of this substance appeared to be more potent in relation with dose and exposure time increasing. The study concluded that there must be an extensive studies that bridge the gap of available information with what is required regarding the Iraqi purified resveratrol as a safe therapeutic substance, not only for treating liver disorders, but in all it's therapeutic purposes</p> Asmaa Khalid Salman , Zainab Yaseen Mohammed Hasan , E. R. Al-Kenanny Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2061 Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Adenosine and Lactate Coexistence on NK92 Cell https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2062 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aims to investigate the impact of lactate and adenosine, present in the tumor microenvironment (TME), on the immune cell immunity.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Five groups included Adenosine concentration screening groups, L-lactic acid and Sodium L-lactate concentration groups, Adenosine + L-lactic acid and Adenosine + sodium L-lactate concentration groups were chosen to evaluate the NK92 cell functions. The proliferation ability and morphological observations of NK92 cells were assessed using a hemocytometer. The CCK-8 assay measured the inhibition of NK92 cell activity in the treatment group, while the crystal violet method evaluated the effect of NK92 cells on the killing ability of A549 cells.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A concentration of 50 μM adenosine served as a reference for high adenosine experimental concentrations, demonstrating a significant impact on NK92 immune cells within the TME. The functional entity "lactic acid" revealed independent effects of lactate [La-] and hydrogen ions [H+]. Lactate enhanced cell viability but reduced NK92 cytotoxicity. Conversely, lactic acid containing hydrogen ions caused a sharp decrease in cell viability and cytotoxicity to tumor cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Elevated adenosine concentration and acidification of the tumor microenvironment significantly inhibit the ability of NK cells to kill tumor cells.</p> Xinjie Xu, Wenjie Nie, Fangfang Ding, Chun Chen Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2062 Mon, 26 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Rachis Characters of Different Cultivars of Banana https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2063 <p>Banana is one of the most important staple food around tropics. Bananas can be eaten as green when it is starchy. These crops are the most important components for food security around world by providing income to the farming community through local trade. This experiment was conducted to study the rachis behaviour and male bud characteristics of ABB genomic group and AAB genomic group banana cultivars. Here 5 cultivars under ABB genomic group (Behula, Bara Beglo, Bluggoe, Green Bombay, Pantharaj) and 5 cultivars of AAB genomic group (Dudhsagar, Martaman, Manohar, Desi Malbhog, Kalibhog) were observed. All of these 10 cultivars showed different characteristics in case of male bud, like male bud shape, male bud size, colour of the bract (external face), male bract lifting, wax on the bract, male flower behaviour, compound tepal basic colour, anther colour, stigma colour, ovary shape and dominant colour of male flower, all these were explained in details in this study.</p> Mihir Karmakar , Tanmoy Mondal , Rajdeep Mohanta , Gouri Mandi , Subrata Mahato , Fatik Kumar Bauri Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2063 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Most Effective Plant Extracts, Bioagents and Chemical Fungicides In vitro against Powdery Mildew of Pea https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/1945 <p>The present investigation was carried during 2022-23 at Plant Pathology Section, College of Agriculture, Pune-05 with the objectives of evaluation of the most effective plant extracts, bioagents and chemical fungicides<em> in vitro.</em> Effect of six plant extracts, bioagents and chemical fungicides were studied <em>in vitro</em> by hanging drop method where the study revealed that garlic (<em>Allium sativum</em>), followed by neem (<em>Azadiracta indica</em>) showed highest inhibition of spore germination for powdery mildew. After 48 hours of incubation, the spore germination rate ranged from 3.15 % to 34.45 %, where garlic showed the highest inhibition at 95.30 %, followed by neem at 91.03 %. The efficacy of bioagents was evaluated by preparing the bacterial and fungal culture filtrates where <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em> and <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em> were found to be the most effective with tune of 56.86% and 50.72% of efficacy respectively against <em>Erysiphe pisi.</em> Among all chemical fungicides, hexaconazole (0.05 %) resulted as the most effective chemical fungicide against powdery mildew of pea. These findings can be useful in developing safer and more eco-friendly methods to control powdery mildew and protect crops.</p> A. V. Bhosale, V. M. Karade, C. T. Kumbhar, R. M. Khadtare, V. M. Rajenimbalkar, S. S. Shinde Copyright (c) 2024 Bhosale et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/1945 Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000