Annual Research & Review in Biology <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB)</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 2347-565X)</strong> <strong>(Previous name:</strong> <strong>Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776</strong>) is to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, &nbsp;Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology,&nbsp; Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and&nbsp; Zoology. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Annual Research & Review in Biology) (Annual Research & Review in Biology) Thu, 17 Sep 2020 11:26:36 +0000 OJS 60 Dextrose Prolotherapy for Muscle, Tendon and Ligament Injury or Pathology: A Systematic Review <p><strong>Background: </strong>Prolotherapy with dextrose has recently gained attention as a potential treatment for muscle, ligament or tendon pathology/injury.</p> <p><strong>Questions/Purpose: </strong>This review aimed to: 1) evaluate the main outcome of dextrose prolotherapy treatment for muscle, ligament or tendon pathology/injury; 2) determine the concentrations of dextrose and protocol of injection; and 3) assess complications or adverse effects after dextrose prolotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Four electronic databases were searched for related published articles. Articles that met the following criteria were included in this review: 1) articles on peer-reviewed level 1 to 4 studies; 2) articles published in English; 3) articles on dextrose prolotherapy study for tendon or ligament or muscle injury/pathology; and 5) articles that describe dose of dextrose. Published articles that met this inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Twenty four studies fulfilled inclusion criteria,consisting of seventeen clinical studies, four animal studies and three invitro studies. Eleven studies reported there were improvement of functional outcome after dextrose prolotherapy. Three Studies reported improvement of patient satisfaction after dextroprolotherapy in supraspinatus tear, Achilles tendinopathy. And patellar tendinopathy, meniscus tear and anterior tibiofibular ligament tear. Three studies reported there are increasing of neovascularization in Achilles tendinopathy and patellar tendinopathy in animal studies, increasing of inflammatory response in animal studies and <em>in vitro</em> studies and increasing of cell proliferation and collagen production. Nine studies (52%) use dextrose 25% concentration. A few adverse effects were reported and&nbsp; minor effect, such as discomfort&nbsp; Minor soreness, extreme pain, skin burns 2nd grade, hypotension, Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) ( patient has history DVT).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Dextrose Prolotherapy is a potentially effective treatment for patients with muscle, tendon or ligament tear or pathology. Efficacy in long term follow-up, as single therapy or first-line therapy cannot be determined from the current literature.</p> Sholahuddin Rhatomy, Evlin Margaretha, Rizki Rahmadian ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 17 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of the Cranio-osteology of Two Lonchophyllinae from Colombia <p><em>Lonchophyllinae</em> comprises four genera of Neotropical nectarivorous bats. Inside this subfamily&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the genus <em>Lonchophylla</em> is one of the most diverse. A total of 51 <em>Lonchophylla </em>skulls from&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Colombia (<em>L. robusta</em> n=34 and<em> L. thomasi</em> n=17) was studied by means of geometric morphometric methods with the aim to determine their morphological differential characteristics. For this purpose, viscero and neurocranium were evaluated with 12 landmarks on the dorsal aspect of left hemicranium. The two species were statistically different according to size (expressed as skull length) but also to shape (expressed as the set of Procrustes coordinates). Skulls in <em>L. robusta</em> were clearly bigger, with shorter braincase and longer rostra, and their zygomatic process was more latero-caudally displaced, whereas <em>L. thomasi</em> presented a zygomatic process which was&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;displaced more rostrally as well longer braincases. All these detected skull form dissimilarities between both species would be explained by their different alimentary habits, but a combination of dietary analysis and morphological analysis is needed to make stronger inference about diet preferences.</p> P. M. Parés- Casanova ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 17 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 No Directional Scapular Asymmetry among Tamarines of the Genus Saguinus (Primates: Callitrichidae) <p>Bilateral asymmetry is defined as a deviation of a whole organism or a part of it from a perfect symmetry, and different categories can be recognized. One is the fluctuating asymmetry, defined as the random developmental variation of a trait (or character) that is expected to be perfectly symmetrical on average, and the other one is directional asymmetry, which occurs when one of the sides shows stronger morphological structures or marks than the other. The aim of this study was to determine the kind of scapula asymmetry in <em>Saguinus</em> scapulae. On lateral surface of each right and left scapula, a set of 5 landmarks and 3 curves with semi-landmarks along the margins, on a sample of 16 pairs from different <em>Saguinus</em> species, were considered. Asymmetries (fluctuating and directional) on size and shape of the scapulae were analysed by means of geometric morphometric methods. Directional asymmetry was not detected, demonstrating no side scapular shape bias. The absence of significant directional asymmetry may indicate a similar contralateral pattern of employment of the shoulder, at least for one-arm vertical suspension, as it needs stronger forces than those for terrestrial locomotion and thus would cause more asymmetry in case side loadings were different. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the symmetrical/asymmetrical nature of scapulae in <em>Saguinus</em>. Our findings increase knowledge and understanding of humeral joint and arboreal locomotion in primates.</p> P. M. Parés- Casanova, J. F. Vélez- García ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 19 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Heavy Metal Analysis of Three Urban Rivers in Enugu, Nigeria <p>The multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical, and technological applications of heavy metals have led to their wide distribution in the environment, raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. This work focused on the determination of manganese, chromium, zinc, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, iron and lead concentrations in Abakpa, Iva Valley, and Transekulu Rivers which are close to residential areas in Enugu, Nigeria. The analysis were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). All the heavy metals tested in the three studied locations exceeded the different drinking water limits except zinc which was below secondary drinking water standard of 5.0 mg/l. The levels of mercury and zinc were significantly higher in Abakpa River (0.57 ± 0.112 and 0.881 ± 0.0015 mgl<sup>-1</sup> respectively). Iva valley showed higher levels of manganese, chromium, iron and arsenic compared to other rivers studied. The presence in these metals in the water sources are a great risk to humans and the environment.</p> Chinedu Ifeanyi Atama, Chioma Julieth Onovo, Chioma Janefrances Okeke, Ossai Nelson, Christopher Didigwu Nwani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bigger Males, Bigger Females? Pigeons’ Sexual Size Dimorphism <p>Sexual dimorphism, defined as phenotypic differences between males and females, is a common phenomenon in animals. In this line, Rensch’s rule states that sexual size dimorphism increases with increasing body size when the male is the larger sex and decreases with increasing average body size when the female is the larger sex. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of Rensch’s theory. Pigeon breeds encounters many different functional purposes and selective constraints, which could influence strongly their morphology. The aim of this paper is to examine, for first time, Rensch’s rule among domestic pigeons. It was compiled a database of 12 quantitative traits (body weight, body height, beak thickness, beak length, neck length, neck thickness, wing length, rump width, tail length, tarsus length, tarsus thickness and middle toe length) for males and females of 11 different domestic pigeon breeds: Bangladesh Indigenous, Racing Homer, Turkish Tumbler, Indian Lotan, Kokah, Mookee, Indian Fantail, Bokhara Trumpeter, Bombai, Lahore and Hungarian Giant House; Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) was also considered as wild relative for comparative purposes. Comparative results between males and females showed that only body weight, wing length and neck thickness were consistent with Rensch’s rule. The rest of trait did not present correlations. Among domestic pigeons, there can appear different expressions of dimorphism according to each trait, so it must be considered that Rensch’s rule vary when considering other traits than body weight.</p> P. M. Parés- Casanova, A. Kabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Parameters and States Estimates of COVID-19 Model Using Lagrange Polynomial, Least Square Approximation and Kenya Quarantine Data <p><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Aims/ Objectives</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">To develop a compartment based mathematical model, fit daily quarantine data&nbsp;from Ministry of Health of Kenya, estimate individuals in latency and infected in general community&nbsp;and predict dynamics of quarantine for the next 90 days.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Study Design</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Cross-sectional study.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Place and Duration of Study</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">13</span><span class="fontstyle3">th</span><span class="fontstyle2">March 2020 to 30</span><span class="fontstyle3">th </span><span class="fontstyle2">June 2020.</span>&nbsp;</p> <p><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Methodology</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The population based model was developed using status and characteristic of&nbsp;</span><span class="fontstyle2">COVID-19 infection. Quarantine data up to 30/6/2020 was fitted using integrating and differentiating&nbsp;theory of odes and numerical differentiation polynomials. Parameter and state estimates was&nbsp;approximated using least square. Simulations were carried out using ode Matlab solver. Daily&nbsp;community estimates of individuals in latency and infected were obtained together with daily&nbsp;estimate of rate of enlisting individual to quarantine center and their proportions were summarized.<br></span><strong><span class="fontstyle0">Results: </span></strong><span class="fontstyle2">The results indicated that maximum infection rate was equal 0.892999 recorded on&nbsp;28/6/2020, average infection rate was 0.019958 and minimum 0.00012 on 26/6/2020.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Predictions based on parameters and state averages indicated that the number of&nbsp;individuals in quarantine are expected to rise exponentially up to about 26,855 individuals by 130th&nbsp;day and remain constant up to 190th day.</span> </p> Cyrus Gitonga Ngari, Grace Gakii Muthuri, Mirgichan Khobocha James ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 09 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Studies on Gonad Development, Fecundity and Oocyte Maturation of Spotted Snakehead, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793) in Different Water Bodies <p>The present study was carried out to compare gonad development, oocyte maturation and fecundity of the spotted snakehead (<em>Channa punctatus</em>) fish during January to November 2015 in different water bodies (such as pond, Joghati baor and Bhairab river) in Jashore, Bangladesh. Mean GSI (gonadosomatic index) values of the female <em>C. punctatus</em> during January, March, May, July, September and November were significantly highest in pond, followed by those in Joghati baor and the lowest in Bhairab river. Absolute fecundity during the month of July in pond, baor and river was 30,006±2,027, 23,629±2,356 and 16,659±2,486, respectively, and the relative fecundity was 5064±183, 4865±106 and 4641±138 eggs, respectively. Mean ova diameter in pond, baor and river in March was 0.25±0.04 mm, 0.16±0.02 mm and 0.21±0.03 mm; in May was 0.36±0.03 mm, 0.29±0.03 mm and 0.23±0.04 mm; in July was 1.06±0.06 mm, 0.95±0.05 mm and 0.87±0.03 mm; and in September was 0.84±0.04 mm, 0.82±0.03 mm and 0.72±0.05 mm, respectively. Mean GSI values of the male <em>C. punctatus</em> during January, March, May, July, September and November were significantly higher in pond than those in baor and river, respectively. The mean highest GSI for female was found to be 6.06±0.11 in pond during the month of July, while the lowest GSI of 0.30±0.08 was in Bhairab river during November. The highest GSI value for male was obtained to be 0.70±0.16 in pond during the month of July, while the lowest GSI of 0.12±0.03 was found in Bhairab river during January. However, significant differences (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) were found in GSI values, absolute fecundity, relative fecundity and ova diameter of <em>C. punctatus</em> during different months in pond, Joghati baor and Bhairab river. The findings from the present research would immensely be useful for captive breeding and seed production techniques of <em>C. punctatus</em> for aquaculture production, sustainable management and species conservation.</p> Md. Almamun Farid, M. Anisur Rahman, Shammi Aktar, Moumita Choudhury, Syeda Maksuda Yeasmin, Anusree Biswas, M. Aminur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 21 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Organic Farming: Paradigm Shift during Pandemic to ‘Food Safety” Complying ‘Food Security” in India <p>The organic farming is gaining worldwide acceptance since the conventional farming gratifies the demand of both <em>food security</em> and the <em>food safety</em> especially during the pandemic year 2020 of COVID 19. Though demographic rise demands for high yielding grains, fruits and spices but under present scenario it fails to satisfy the food safety. The high yielding highbred seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are degrading the fertility gradually and raising health concerns and do not meet the cosmetic standard. The organic farming is labour intensive with higher input costs and lower yields as compared to conventional farming yet it is in demand for its food safety. The search is to uncover whether the yields from Organic farms in India is capable to ameliorates manage pests and diseases, economic feasibility, food safety, nutrient requirement, environmental sustainability, augment food quality. The influence of shut downs are revealed. The producers face the challenges of certification, beating income during transition, seeds and manures and marketing <em>etc.</em> In India, the end produce of organic products are highly expensive and have high end consumers. The cost amelioration needs to be attended by government institutions as tribal and hilly areas in India like Sikkim, Meghalaya and other tribal areas. The tribal population has high organic farming inputs, logistics facilities and huge organic produces from food grains to fishes and cosmetics and spices. But the novice cropping pattern needs “cluster approach for organic lands (ODOP)”, “compensation for incomes losses during transition phase”, “active participation of Corporate houses and NGOs”, “assuring adequate return on investments”, for registering phenomenal rise in the organic farming in India.</p> Durga Prasad Mishra, Siba Prasad Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 21 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000