Annual Research & Review in Biology https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB <p>The aim of <strong>Annual Research &amp; Review in Biology (ARRB) (ISSN: 2347-565X) (Previous name: Annual Review &amp; Research in Biology, ISSN: 2231-4776)</strong> is to publish high quality papers (<a href="https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) with broad areas of Aerobiology, Agriculture, Anatomy, Astrobiology, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Bioinformatics, Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology, Biomechanics, Biomedical research, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Botany, Cell biology, Conservation Biology, Cryobiology, Developmental biology, Food biology, Ecology, Embryology, Entomology, Environmental Biology, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolutionary Biology, Genetics, Herpetology, Histology, Ichthyology, Integrative biology, Limnology, Mammalogy, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Neurobiology, Oceanography, Oncology, Ornithology, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Paleontology, Pathobiology or pathology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychobiology, Sociobiology, Structural biology, Virology and Zoology. </p> <p><strong>NAAS Score: 4.90 (2024)</strong></p> en-US contact@journalarrb.com (Annual Research & Review in Biology) contact@journalarrb.com (Annual Research & Review in Biology) Sat, 15 Jun 2024 11:42:04 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Principal Component Analysis of Morphological Traits in Udaipuri Goats in Uttarakhand, India https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2094 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To study the principal component analysis (PCA) of morphological traits in Udaipuri goats.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Pauri, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Eight traits were measured in 407 adult (doe) and (buck) goats over a period of 2021-2022. The traits considered in the study were Horn Length (HL), Face length (FL), Ear Length (EL), Height at Withers (HW), Body Length (BL), Chest Girth (CG), Tail Length (TL) and Body Weight (BW). The data were analyzed for the estimation of mean, coefficient of variation (CV %), phenotypic correlation and PCA by using the software SPSS version 24.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The descriptive statistics including the mean and CV % were estimated which revealed the lowest average and the highest average for horn length and chest girth, respectively. The horn length and ear length showed the highest and lowest CV %, respectively, and the phenotypic correlations were significant (P&lt;0.01) for all the characters included in the study. Principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation method was applied and extracted a total variation of 66.01%. In all adult males and females, HL, HW, BL and CG were loaded as first component while FH, EL, TL and BW were loaded as second component.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Therefore, these findings indicated that PCA could serve as a valuable tool in breeding programmes, allowing for a significant reduction in the number of traits while still effectively capturing morphometric trends in Udaipuri goats.</p> Olympica Sarma, R S Barwal, C V Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2094 Mon, 17 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Salinity and Substrate on the Emergence and Growth of Propagules of the Mangrove Species Rhizophora racemosa in the Sassandra-Dagbego Ramsar Complex, Côte d’Ivoire https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2095 <p>This study aimed to evaluate the behaviour of seeded propagules of <em>Rhirophora racemosa </em>(<em>R. racemosa</em>) on different substrates and under different salinity levels. Three substrates including sand, mud and a mixture of the two were tested together with tree salinity levels (low 5%, moderate 10% and high 25%). <em>R. racemosa</em> seedlings were more likely to emerge and grow under moderate and low salinity conditions. The propagules had significant early growth in mud compared to sand and mud-sand mixture. The combined effect of salt and substrate influenced significantly propagules performance in nursery (p&lt;0.001). High propagules emergence and growth were observed in the combination mud and salt treatments as compared to sand and san-mud mixture substrates. These results provide valuable information for the management and restoration of mangroves, highlighting the optimal environmental conditions for the successful regeneration of this species.</p> Cossi Irénée Amenoudji, Souleymane Sanogo, Khévine Robaverge Djogli, Jean-Fabrice Adanve, Kpedetin Frejus Ariel Sodedji Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2095 Wed, 26 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Occurrence and Distribution of Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Mungbean in Jaipur District, Rajasthan, India https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2096 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Mungbean (<em>Vigna radiata</em> (L.) R. Wilczek) is one of the important pulse crops grown in India. Considering the economic importance of nematodes as disease causing organism of mungbean the present investigation was carried out to know the distribution of plant parasitic nematodes in mungbean crops in Jaipur district of Rajasthan.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total 139 soil samples were collected from mungbean fields of 12 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;different localities in Jaipur district. The samples were processed using Cobb's &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;sieving and decanting technique followed by Baermann's funnel technique and nematode population was counted in suspension and identified on the basis of their morphological &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;characters.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The samples were infected with mainly four genera of plant parasitic nematodes <em>i.e., Meloidogyne</em> spp.<em>, Helicotylenchus</em> spp.<em>, Pratylenchus</em> spp. and <em>Tylenchorhynchus</em> spp.<em> etc.</em> Out of 139 soil samples, 120 samples showed the presence of <em>Meloidogyne</em> <em>javanica</em> with 86.33 % occurrence, 18.82 % absolute density, 83.81 % relative density and 15.85 % prominence value and found most predominant in different surveyed localities in Jaipur district.</p> Rahul Meena, B.S. Chandrawat, Manisha, R.L. Midha Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2096 Wed, 03 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Screening of Artocarpus odoratissimus (Marang) Seed Extract and Its Antimicrobial Potential against Staphylococcus aureus & Escherichia coli https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2098 <p><strong>Aims: </strong><em>Artocarpus odoratissimus</em>, often called locally as "Marang," is well-known in the Philippines for its economic and nutritional value. No phytochemical studies have been conducted on <em>Artocarpus odoratissimus</em> cultivated locally in Davao City. The purpose of this study is to establish an initial chemical profile of the species by examining the secondary metabolites found in <em>Artocarpus odoratissimus</em> seed ethanol and methanol extract and determining their antimicrobial activity against selected soil microorganisms, particularly <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Laboratory experiments were conducted at San Pedro College, Davao City, to assess the qualitative phytochemical components and antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic and methanolic extracts of <em>A. odoratissimus</em> against selected soil bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> At San Pedro College, the study was conducted in the science laboratories between December 2022.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Seed extracts were prepared using ethanol and methanol solvents through maceration techniques. Standard methods were employed to identify the presence of various phytochemicals qualitatively. The disc diffusion method was utilized to assess the effectiveness of the extracts against specific bacterial strains, including E. coli and S. aureus. The extent of inhibition zone formation was measured to determine the antimicrobial potential.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Qualitative analysis revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites in <em>Artocarpus odoratissimus</em> seed extracts, including flavonoids, tannins, phenolics, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, and alkaloids. Furthermore, the seed extracts exhibited limited antimicrobial activity against <em>Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus</em> as determined by the zone of inhibition assay.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Seed extracts from <em>Artocarpus odoratissimus</em> showed promise due to the presence of health-promoting compounds. While initial tests against bacteria were limited, further research can improve extraction methods and explore how these compounds work together for broader antibacterial effects. Future studies should also precisely measure the compounds, test against more bacteria, and explore potential uses based on the extract's profile.</p> Genaro F. Alderite Jr Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2098 Thu, 04 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Growth Retardants on Reprodutive Efficiency and Yield of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2100 <p>A field experiment was carried out during <em>Kharif, </em>2023 at dryland farm of S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati campus of Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications and two genotypes as main factor (G<sub>1</sub>- Dharani, G<sub>2</sub>- K-6), growth retardants as sub factor. The current experiment was conducted with an objective to study the impact of growth retardants on reduction of plant stature thereby enhancing the reproductive and assimilates partitioning efficiency along with yield. This article discusses various yield and reproductive efficiency related attributes of groundnut as influenced by growth retardants. The experimental results revealed that, the T5 (PBZ @ 250 ppm at 45 DAS) reported Maximum number of pegs per plant (58.50), number of pods per plant (28.89), shelling % (70.39) and harvest index (32.52 %). Among the two genotypes studied, G1 (Dharani) demonstrated more number of flowers (73), number of pegs per plant (50), number of pods per plant (26), shelling % (69) and harvest index (32 %).</p> B. Srikanth, B. Santhosh, P. Sandhya Rani, K. John Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2100 Tue, 16 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Feeding Potential of Mexican Beetle (Zygogramma bicolorata) on Carrot Grass (Parthenium hysterophorus) in Dehradun District, Uttarakhand, India https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2099 <p><em>Zygogramma bicolorata</em> is an efficient natural control agent that can be used against <em>Parthenium hysterophorus,</em> a very common and allergic weed found in the Dehradun belt of Uttarakhand region. It is responsible for asthma, bronchitis, skin lesions, rashes, contact dermatitis, hay fever and various respiratory ailments. <em>Z. bicolorata</em> is a natural predator of this vicious weed. The feeding capacity of Mexican beetle, <em>Z.bicolorata</em> was studied under controlled conditions, at the Department of Zoology, S.G.R.R. University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 2023.Ten different sites were chosen from the Dehradun district, considering the widespread availability of Parthenium weed in the region. It was detected that the feeding capacity of the adult stage of the beetle was maximum in site 3 and lowest in site 6. The result showed in site 3 that he adult consumed 3.7 g leaves of Parthenium at 20 °C whereas, the similar relevant statistics were 2.3 mg. The detriment caused by <em>Z. bicolorata</em> was more visible when it was used at a higher density and at the initial growing stages of Parthenium. The fully mature stages were preferred less in comparison to the younger ones. This technique can be highly useful if implemented wisely in the management of <em>Parthenium</em> weed and contributes towards achieving the goal of sustainable development.</p> Yashika Negi, Veena Maurya, Madhu Thapliyal, Ashish Uniyal Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2099 Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Economic, Social, and Environmental Aspects of Dairy Farming in Sub-saharan Africa: A Literature Review https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2092 <p>This literature review on dairy cattle rearing in sub-Saharan Africa aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the current situation of this activity in the region. It examines the various dimensions of dairy farming, such as its economic importance, its impact on food security and its role in poverty reduction. The review also looks at existing farming systems, factors influencing dairy cow productivity, constraints and challenges faced by farmers, good practices and innovations, environmental impacts, and policies and programmes to support dairy cow farming. The aim of this review is to provide valuable information for improving this activity in the region.</p> S. Tagba, D. Puchooa , H. Sina Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2092 Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Spider Species Identification: Bridging Traditions with Molecular and Deep Learning Approaches https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2097 <p>This article provides an in-depth review of various methods employed in the identification and sequencing of spiders, highlighting the advancements and challenges in the field. With the increasing importance of spiders in ecological studies, medical research, and biodiversity conservation, accurate identification and genetic analysis have become crucial. This review discusses traditional and modern techniques, shedding light on their applications, limitations, and future prospects.</p> <p>The exploration begins with an analysis of taxonomists' etymological choices, examining patterns in naming conventions across continents and centuries. Traditional morphological identification, anchored in backbone taxonomy, dichotomous keys, and statistical analyses, highlights the advantages and challenges of relying on observable features. The study transitions to molecular techniques, elucidating the applications and challenges of DNA barcoding, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), and metabarcoding in spider identification. The integration of deep learning models, exemplified by the YOLOv7-based Spider Identification APP, represents a landmark in computer vision for efficient and user-friendly spider species recognition. The study's multifaceted approach provides a nuanced understanding of spider taxonomy, bridging historical practices with state-of-the-art technologies, and lays the groundwork for future advancements in the field.</p> Aakriti Shrivastava, V. K. Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalarrb.com/index.php/ARRB/article/view/2097 Thu, 04 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000