Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Extract Primed Dendritic Cell Transplantation on Breast Cancer Tumor Murine Models

Pham Van Phuc, Chi Jee Hou, Nguyen Thi Minh Nguyet, Duong Thanh Thuy, Le Van Dong, Truong Dinh Kiet, Phan Kim Ngoc

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13

Cancer stem cells are considered as an origin of cancer. Cancer stem cells can cause tumors in mice models. Recent studies proved the efficacy of some promising therapies to treat cancers. Dendritic cell (DC) therapy is one of the best promising therapies to treat cancer. In recent years, DC therapy is performed by using primed cancer cell antigens of DC to immune organism body. This research aims to combine DC therapy with cancer stem cell antigen for treating breast cancer in murine models. DCs were derived from mouse bone marrow monocytes. Then they were primed with the breast cancer cell antigen prior to employ into the tumor mice model. This was performed to determine whether the DCs would capture and eventually migrate, be present in the spleen and present the cancer antigens to autologous CD8 T cells; induce the activation of the CTL response. The existence of tumors in mice was evaluated after 15-60 days from transplantation. The results showed that 40% mice of the experimental group, with injected breast cancer stem cell antigen loaded DCs, got tumors after 18 transplantation days. But in control group 100% mice got tumors after 15 transplantation days. It is also noticed that transplanted DCs could migrate into spleen, stimulate CD8 T cells and CD45 T cells proliferation. Specially, the ratio of CD8 T cells strongly increased in comparison to control or normal mice. These results are important and provides most required initial platform to do further experiment. Results of this study also established a promising novel targeting therapy for cancer, especially for breast cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biometry of Mandible in Tiger (Panthera tigris)

Y. Tiwari, J. S.Taluja ., R. Vaish

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 14-21

The jaw of tiger (Panthera tigris) is derived for predation with powerful killing bites. They use large canine in a shearing bite to the throat of prey for severing nerves and blood vessels causing rapid collapse. The present study was proposed to keep on record the gross anatomical features of mandible of tiger. Gross anatomical study was conducted on mandibles of 3 adult tigers (age more than 8 years) of either sex. It was found that the mandible was the largest and thickest bone of the skull weighing 350.9gm. It forms the lower jaw in tiger. The mandible was formed of 2 halves which were symmetrical to each other and were fused rostrally by symphysis. Each half was consisted of one horizontal rod like part, it was flattened mediolaterally and thicker anteriorly. The other part was vertical, short plate like dorsal border of symphysis was bearing alveoli for teeth. The alveoli of each corner were larger for canine and medial to this 3 small alveoli were present on each side for incisors. The dorsal border of horizontal part of mandible was having 3 alveoli for only 3 cheek teeth on each side. The mandibular and mental foramina were large. It can be stated from the present study that the mandible of tiger can be differentiated on gross morphological and morphometrical parameters with leopard by presence of 3 incisor teeth and more prominent angle of mandible.