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Open Access Case study

A Study of Agrobiodiversity and the Impacts of Biophysical and Ecogeographical Factors on it in Ghalaje Protected Area / West of Iran

Reza Rostami, Korous Khoshbakht, Abdolmajid Mahdavi Damghani, Hadi Veisi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 530-539

It is considered that agrobiodiversity as a vital component for human food security is increasingly eroding and so making more attention to this section of biodiversity is necessary. This study was conducted in a protected area located in Kermanshah, Iran, in order to infer biodiversity characteristics and the effect of biophysical and ecological factors on it. Ten villages were selected randomly and the information was gathered through interviewing 25 to 30 percent of the household heads and visiting the area too. The mean Species richness for agricultural species of the villages was 2.31. Shannon-Weiner Index was in the range of 1.06 to 2.56 and it was associated with other biodiversity indices, calculated in this study. Comparing the biodiversity indices indicated that generally being in a protected area can be useful to protect agricultural biodiversity. Cultivated land area, annual precipitation and altitude were some factors having significant effects on Species richness of agricultural plants in this study.

Open Access Short communication

Extract of Eruca sativa and Its Effects on Sex Differentiation in Muskmelon

Liqaa A. Jasaa, Hadeel M. Habib, Nabeel K. Al-Ani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 416-421

The role of herbs in increasing sex capability has been well demonstrated in science, However, the effect of Rocket (Eruca sativa) which known, as sex herb in animals, was studied in this work. It was found that 1:10 methanol w/v extract was effective in producing two types of callus white friable callus and compact green callus. The friable callus produce roots while the green callus continues growing without any differentiation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Behaviour Change Communication among Pregnant Women Regarding Knowledge of Low Birth Weight Infants’ Susceptibility to Certain Morbidities

Mohd Haroon Khan, Najam Khalique, Ali Amir, Ruby Khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 350-357

Objective: To assess the impact of Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) Package among pregnant women regarding correct knowledge of susceptibility of the low birth weight neonate to certain morbidities.
Study Design: A community based intervention study.
Place and Duration of Study: Field practices areas of Urban Health Training Center Department of Community Medicine, JNMCH, AMU Aligarh (UP) India, between September 2008 to August 2009.
Participants: 200 pregnant women (100 pregnant women from each intervention and non-intervention groups) were enrolled.
Sampling: Purposive sampling method.
Statistical Analyses: Data analysed with Epi Info version 3.5.1. Significant difference was determined using Chi- square test. The impact of Behaviour Change Communication was assessed using relative risk and difference was accepted significant at more than 95% (p value <0.05). Intervention and non-intervention were also compared after 7th and 28th of delivery days.
Results: Before BCC package intervention, there was no significant difference (p-value>0.05) between two groups regarding correct knowledge about susceptibility of low birth weight infants to different conditions. Due to impact of BCC Intervention, knowledge regarding susceptibility of LBW baby to infection was increased to two times. Knowledge regarding susceptibility of LBW baby to yellow palm and sole was increased to four and half times. Knowledge regarding susceptibility of LBW baby to feeding difficulty was increased to seven times and knowledge regarding susceptibility of LBW baby to hypoglycemia was increased to 4.75 times. Knowledge of mother regarding susceptibility of LBW baby to infection, yellow palm and sole, feeding difficulty and hypoglycemia were increased significantly (p-value <0.05) in the intervention group due to impact of the BCC package on 7th day of follow up and was maintained on the 28th day after delivery.
Conclusion: There was significant improvement in pregnant women regarding correct knowledge about susceptibility of the low birth weight neonate to different conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antisecretory Effects of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Juice in Male Albino Rats

Francis S. Oluwole, Morufu E. Balogun, Adedeji G. Temitope

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 358-366

Aims: To evaluate the effects of the juice of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) on gastric acid secretion and pH in Indomethacin-induced ulceration in male albino rats.
Study Design: The experiment was divided into two studies. Under each study, four groups of rats were pre-treated with distilled water (control), 25% watermelon, 50% watermelon and 100% watermelon juice respectively for 30 days.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, between June, 2011 and July, 2012.
Methodology: Sixty-four animals in total were used for the experiment. The animals were divided into two experimental studies: Study I contained thirty-two rats which were used for the study on ulcerogenesis. Study II also contained thirty-two rats which were used for the study on gastric acid secretion. Each of the experimental studies was further divided into four groups in accordance with the study design.
Results: Rats pre-treated with Citrullus lanatus juice exhibited significant dose-dependent reduction of gastric lesions formation (P<0.05). Also, ulcerogenesis in the pretreated groups was significantly lower than that observed with the control (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The results suggest that Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) juice has a significant gastroprotective effect in Indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration. One of the mechanisms by which this protective effect is carried out is by its inhibition of gastric acid secretion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Morphology and Protein Patterns (SDS-PAGE) as a Mean in Classification of Some Taxa of the Subfamily Mimosoideae (Fabaceae)

Eman A. Karakish, Mohamed M. Moawed, Mohamed E. Tantawy

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 367-388

Aims: This study is developed to discuss whether the plant morphology and seed characters (macro and micromorphological and protein pattern) can provide an additional fundamental tool helping in explanation of the taxonomic trends at specific and infra-specific level within the 47 studied taxa belonging to subfamily Mimosoideae (Fabaceae) and to compare the proposed taxonomic treatment based on numerical analysis (dendrogram) with other previous and current systems of classification.
Methodology: The macro and micromorphological characters of the whole plant and seed as well as seed protein pattern of 47 taxa of subfamily Mimosoideae, family Fabaceae were investigated (using LM, SEM and Stereomicroscope and SDS-PAGE technique respectively). The taxa under investigation represent three tribes, seven genera and 46 species including three subspecies. The macro and micromorphological criteria (219 attributes) and seed protein pattern attributes (38 bands) extracted were numerically analyzed using NTsys-Pc program (version 2.02).
Results: The taxonomic treatment of the Mimosoideae taxa under investigation were based on the numerical analysis of 257 macro-, micromorphology of whole plant and seed protein attributes. The dendrogram interprets the similarities and dissimilarities between the investigated taxa. The dendrogram revealed that the taxa under investigation were split into two main series and 25 groups. The splitting Series I includes 12 groups which represented by 20 of the studied Acacia species. Series II includes 13 groups which represented by 15 sp. of Acacia and the species of other six studied genera, group 17 as well as group 21 contain species from different genera. The specific and infra-specific relationships were discussed and compared with some current systems of classification.
Conclusion: There is no difference of opinion about the phyletic position of the Acacieae which is always considered a link between Mimoseae and Ingeae. However different affinities of the genus Acacia taken as a natural unit have been suggested. The tribe Mimoseae represents the polymorphic and older core of Mimosoideae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Tyrosinase Producing Endophytic Fungi from Calotropis gigantea, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum tenuiflorum and Lantana camara

Kamal Uddin Zaidi, Abin Mani, Ayesha S. Ali, Sharique A. Ali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 389-396

Aims: The present study focuses on evaluation of tyrosinase producing endophytic fungi from Calotropis gigantea, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum tenuiflorum and Lantana camara.
Place and Duration of the Study: The present study was conducted at centre for Scientific Research and Development People’s Group Bhanpur, Bhopal India during January 2011 to December 2012.
Methodology: The endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves, root and stem of Calotropis gigantea, Azadirchta Indica, Ocimum tenuifloram and Lantana camara and cultured on malt extract agar. Isolates were evaluated for tyrosinase production qualitatively and quantitatively on modified Czapex Dox’s agar.
Results: Out of fifty isolates, twenty seven isolates showed tyrosinase production in agar plate assay. It was observed that endophytes isolated from Azadirachta indica and Ocimum tenuiflorum has higher production of extracellular tyrosinase in comparison with Calotropis gigantea and Lantana camara.
Conclusion: Phylum basidiomycete is considered to be the prominent source of tyrosinase. This finding indicates that the endophytic fungi are also a promising source and are more suitable for large scale productions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Follicular Fluid Concentrations of Biochemical Metabolites and Trace Minerals in Relation to Ovarian Follicle Size in Dairy Cows

Nasroallah Moradi Kor, Kaveh Mohammadi Khanghah, Ali Veisi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 397-404

In the present study, ovarian follicular fluid concentrations of trace elements and biochemical metabolites in relation to follicular size were investigated in dairy cows. Ovaries were recovered from 40 female adult Holstein Friesian cows 5–7 years of age with clinically normal reproductive tracts after slaughtering. The stage of the cycle in the cows slaughtered was diestrus determined post mortem. Visible follicles on the surface of the ovaries were classiï¬ed, based on their diameter, into (i) small (3-5 mm), (ii) medium (6-9 mm) and (iii) large (10-20 mm) categories. Follicular fluid samples were analyzed for elements (iron, iodine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum and selenium) and biochemical metabolites (glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine). Results showed that concentrations of trace elements were different between follicles sized categories. Differences in follicular fluid concentrations of iodine and manganese between follicles sized categories were significant (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, differences in follicular fluid concentration of glucose and cholesterol between follicles sized categories (Small, Medium and large follicles) were significant (p ≤ 0.05). These results of the present study suggest that the levels of trace elements and biochemical metabolites composition in the follicular fluid were related to follicular size in dairy cows.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Selection of Indigenous Bacterial Strains with Suppression Properties from the Rhizospheres of Potato and Wheat

Samia Mezaache-Aichour, Nora Haichour, Nadia Sayeh, Abdelhadi Guechi, Mohamed M. Zerroug

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 405-415

Soil-borne fungal and bacterial root pathogens can cause serious losses to agricultural crops. The enhancement of disease suppressive properties of soils will limit disease development, thus, being of great importance for sustainable agriculture as well as organic farming systems. The aim of the present study is to isolate, identify and to select indigenous bacterial strains with antifungal activity from the potato and wheat rhizospheres. 111 bacterial strains were obtained in the preliminary screening, from the antagonism test plates, 50 from potato and 61 from wheat. About 55% were Gram+ and about 46% were Gram-. Fourteen bacterial strains from potato revealed an antagonistic activity in vitro against the phytopathogenic fungi, Phytophthora infestans, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis and Fusarium solani var. coeruleum with a percentage of inhibition varying from 0 to 92.30%. Twenty four bacterial strains from wheat had an antagonistic activity in vitro against the studied fungi with a range from 0 to 87%. This shows a promising beginning for detecting suppressive soils in Sétif aria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Yield and Yield Component of Fenugreek to Irrigation Intervals, Potassium and Zinc

Mohammadjavad Seghatoleslami, Gholamreza Mousavi, Ramin Mahdavi, Hamidreza Zabihi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 466-474

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation intervals, potassium and zinc fertilizers treatments on fenugreek,
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Khorasan-e-Razavi, Mashhad, Iran in 2010.
Methodology: Experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Irrigation intervals (5, 10 and 15 days) and fertilizers (50 kg ha-1 Zn, 250 kg ha-1 K, Zn+K and control) were as main plot and sub plot, respectively.
Results: The results showed that the highest biomass (120.8 g.m-2) and seed (36.39 g.m-2) yield were related to irrigation interval 5 days. Between two irrigation interval 10 and 15 days, no significant differences were observed. The effect of fertilizer on biological and seed yield was not significant. The effects of irrigation and fertilizer levels on any of the seed yield components were not significant.
Conclusion: The insignificant response of the plants to fertilization might be caused by meeting plants K and Zn demand by soil and/or the sensitivity and low K and Zn demand of the plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Behavioural Interpretations of the HPLC Peaks Derived from Egg-Pod Foam Extracts of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål)

M. Saiful Islam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 475-491

Aims: The present study was aimed at assessing the bioactivity of the HPLC fractions and peaks from egg-pod materials of the crowd-reared desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) that elicited gregarious behaviour in the first-instar hatchlings derived from treated eggs of solitary-reared insects.
Study Design: In a series of stepwise experiments using crude extracts of the egg-pod materials in different solvents, filtered foam-extracts, HPLC foam-extracts and their fractions, sub-fractions and peaks, bioactivities of the egg-pod foam of the crowd-reared locusts have been assessed in terms of behavioural gregarization in the hatchlings from treated solitary eggs.
Place and Duration of Study: The initial experiments were carried out in the Departments of Zoology and Chemistry, University of Oxford, UK, during January 2002 and May 2003. Further analyses, manuscript writing and updated interpretations were performed in the Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh, during September 2012 and February 2013.
Methodology: Beginning with egg-pod wash and foam-extracts in ethanol, hexane and water, step-wise bioactivities of the filtered foam-extracts, HPLC foam-extracts, HPLC fractions, sub-fractions and their peaks were assayed in terms of behavioural gregarization of the hatchlings from treated solitary eggs. Behavioural assays and multiple logistic regressions (LR) analysis were used to determine the behavioural phase state in terms of median Probability (solitary) values of individual experimental hatchlings.
Results: It has clearly been demonstrated that filtered foam-extracts at the concentrations of 0.1 foam-plug equivalent (FPE) and their HPLC reconstitutes at 0.2-0.4 FPEs significantly shifted the behavioural phase of the treated solitary hatchlings towards gregariousness. Further fractionations of the HPLC foam-extract at 0.4 FPE reconstitutes into four fractions (Fraction 1-Fraction 4), four sub-fractions (Fraction 3.1-Fraction 3.4), three sub-fractions of Fraction 3.2 (Fraction 3.2.1-Fraction 3.2.3) and five peaks (peak 1-peak 5) of the sub-fraction 3.2.2 revealed that peak 3 contained substances that induced the maximum behavioural gregarization in the hatchlings from treated solitary eggs.
Conclusion: HPLC reconstitutes of the aqueous egg-pod foam-extracts of the crowd-reared S. gregaria are capable of shifting the behavioural phase of the treated solitary hatchlings towards gregariousness. Further fractionations of the HPLC foam-extracts into sub-fraction 3.2.2 and five peaks revealed that peak 3 contained bioactive substances that elicited maximum gregarizing behaviour in the hatchlings from treated solitary eggs. The results deserve further investigation with regard to determining the precise nature of the causal factor(s) that escaped NMR’s detection thresholds in an earlier study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Ground Pits of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) with or without Probiotic Yeasture® on Productive Performance, Egg Traits and Some Blood Parameters of Laying Hens

Seifollah Kashani, Ahmad Mohebbifar, Mahmood Habibian, Mehran Torki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 492-506

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of ground pits of date palm (DP) (Phoenix dactylifera) supplementing with a commercial probiotic mixture (Yeasture®) on the performance, egg quality characteristics, blood parameters, and excreta pH of laying hens. A total of 144 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens were randomly divided in 24 cages. Based on a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design with four replicates, 6 iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets (ME=2720 kcal/kg and CP=150 g/kg) including: I-corn-soybean meal-based control-1 diet, II-corn-soybean meal-oil-based control-2 diet, and III-corn-soybean meal-based diet included 210 g/kg DP with or without probiotic (0.0 and 0.05 g/kg) were formulated. Dietary treatment had no significant effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio and body weight as well as egg production and egg mass (P>.05). Probiotic supplementation did not significantly affect laying performance. In the first egg sampling (wk3) egg index, Haugh unit, egg gravity, and egg abnormality were not significantly affected by dietary treatments (P>.05). Shell weight and shell thickness were decreased by diet inclusion of DP (P=.05). Dietary treatment did not have significant effect on blood parameters except for triglycerides and high density lipoprotein (HDL) contents which was increased by adding probiotic to diet in compared to the control groups (P=.05). Dietary combination of DP and probiotic significantly decreased excreta pH in compared to other groups (P=.05). From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that DP can be included in diets of laying hens up to 21% with no substantial adverse effect on their performance and egg quality traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of MAPKK Inhibitor PD98059 on Growth of Maize Seedling

Yukun Liu, Chengzhong He

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 507-516

Aims: Preliminary observations showed that 75 ìM PD98059 had a long-term effect on growth of maize seedlings. To verify and systemically analyze the effects of 75 ìM PD98059 on growth of maize seedlings, we designed and conducted this experiment.
Methodology: We recorded and analyzed the effects of 75 ìM PD98059 on growth of maize seedling during the first fourteen days. The growth traits were observed. The length, fresh weight, and dry weight of shoots or roots, and the root/shoot ratio of fourteen-day old seedlings were measured. Cutting analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of PD98059 on shoot growth.
Results: The shoot and root length of control showed about 1.38- and 1.5-fold longer than that of PD98059-treated seedlings, respectively. The shoot and root fresh weight of PD98059-treated seedlings declined to 80% and 79.4% of the control, respectively. The shoot and root dry weight of PD98059-treated seedlings declined to 68.3% and 69.8% of the control, respectively. PD98059 also decreased the length, fresh weight, and dry weight of cuttings.
Conclusion: PD98059 had a negative effect on the growth of maize seedlings and this effect was overall on both shoots and roots. The effect of PD98059 on shoot growth seemed to be not due to detrimental effects of PD98059 on roots.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Auxin (IBA) Concentrations and Planting-Beds on Rooting Grape Cuttings (Vitis vinifera)

Mohammad Galavi, Mohammad Ali Karimian, Sayed Roholla Mousavi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 517-523

Aims: Vitis vinifera is a grape species and native to the Mediterranean region and east to northern Iran. The present research was carried out in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of four concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0; 2000; 4000; and 6000 mg/l) and three planting beds (agricultural soils, sandy, and mixture of agricultural soils and sand) on rooting grape cuttings in institute of agriculture at Zabol University, (Iran).
Methodology: The experimental design was a factorial design in randomized complete block with three replicates.
Results: Results showed that different auxin and planting bed treatments had a significant influence on grape rooting. The maximum number of roots, root length, and root fresh and dry weight was obtained by applying 4000 mg/l IBA. The significant effect of planting bed treatments was found in studying traits, so that maximum number of roots, root length, and root fresh and dry weight was obtained in mixture of agricultural soils and sand planting beds. Studied traits significantly affected by an interaction effect of IBA and cuttings beds, so that maximum number of roots, root length, and root dry weight was obtained by using 2000 mg/l IBA + sandy planting bed, and maximum root fresh weight was obtained by using 4000 mg/l IBA + sandy planting bed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Common Transgenic Elements from Soy Sauce Samples by PCRs

Ping Yu, Chunyan Yu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 524-529

Aims: To establish PCR procedures for detecting common transgenic elements from soy sauce samples.
Methodology: Soy sauce samples, Haitian, Jiajia, Taitaile and Lijinji, and common transgenic elements from them, the CaMV35S promoter, the NOS terminator, and the Cp4-EPSPS, were chosen to establish PCR procedures. Genomic DNAs from soy sauce samples were extracted by the improved CTAB method. Primers for amplifying transgenic elements were designed and transgenic elements were amplified with extracted genomic DNAs as the templates. Amplified products were detected and analyzed using 1% agarose gel electrophoresis.
Results: The lectin gene from four samples, the NOS terminator from a sample and the Cp4 -EPSPS from two samples could be amplified by the established PCR procedure. The CaMV35S promoter sequence could be amplified from three soy sauce samples by the established nested PCR procedure.
Conclusion: This study lays a good foundation for developing the reagent kit for detecting common transgenic elements from soy sauce samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Different Expression of Segmentally Duplicated ZmMPK6-1 and ZmMPK6-2 Paralogues in Maize

Yukun Liu, Neng Li, Chengzhong He

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 540-550

Aims: ZmMPK6-1 and ZmMPK6-2 are two genes resulting from segmental duplication in the maize genome. To investigate whether ZmMPK6-1 and ZmMPK6-2 had different expression or functions, we designed and conducted this experiment.
Methodology: Adult plants and 10-day-old seedlings of maize were used to study the expression of ZmMPK6-1 and ZmMPK6-2 in different tissues. The responses of ZmMPK6-1 and ZmMPK6-2 to polyethylene glycol (PEG6000, 25%, w/v), NaCl (200 mM), abscisic acid (ABA, 100 ìM), salicylic acid (SA, 1 mM), or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 2 mM) were performed in 10-day-old seedlings.
Results: Although ZmMPK6-1 and ZmMPK6-2 are highly similar to each other throughout the entire coding sequence (95.32% identity), gene-specific primers can be generated based on the portions of 5’-untranslated region (UTR) of the two genes which share only 37.97% identity. The organ-specific expression of ZmMPK6-1 and ZmMPK6-2 in adult plants and 10-day-old showed that, although the two genes share high sequence identity, they have differently expressional patterns in different tissues. They have also dissimilarly expressional patterns in response to PEG6000 (25%, w/v), NaCl (200 mM), ABA (100 ìM), SA (1 mM), or H2O2 (2 mM).
Conclusion: ZmMPK6-1 and ZmMPK6-2 paralogoues displayed markedly different patterns of expression in different tissues or in response to different stimuli, suggesting that differently functional roles may have been distributed to the two genes after evolutionary duplication.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plants Diversity along Watershed Environment: A Case Study at Ikot Uso Akpan Wildlife Sanctuary in Itu L.G.A. of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

F. O. Ogbemudia, N. I. Etukudo, R. M. Ubom

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 551-563

Plant diversity and soil characteristics were studied along watershed environment in Ikot Uso Akpan Wildlife Sanctuary of Itu Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom state. The systematic sampling method was used to sample the vegetation in 10m x10m quadrats. Plants were identified to species level. Vegetation attributes such as frequency, density, height, basal area and crown cover, were measured for each species. In each quadrat, two soil samples were collected and bulked into one composite sample. A total of twenty soil samples were collected. Soil physicochemical properties were analyzed in the Soil Science Laboratory of University of Uyo, Uyo. 42 plant species belonging to 33 families and 38 genera were identified in all the sampling area. The results showed that Elaeis guineensis was the most abundant species with 70% frequency of occurrence while Rauvolfia vomitoria was the least with 10% frequency of occurence. Carpolobia lutea had the highest mean density of 250±0.00stems/ha while 6 plant species had the least mean density of 25±0.00stems/ha. Brachystegia eurycoma had the highest mean height while Aframomum sceptrum was the shortest plant. Brachystegia eurycoma had the highest mean basal area of 1.10±0.001m2/ha, while Costus afer had the smallest mean basal area of 0.00002±0.000008m2/ha. Brachystegia eurycoma had the highest mean crown cover of 213.71±0.00m2/ha, while Aframomum sceptrum had the smallest mean crown cover of 0.077±0.009m2/ha. The soil was slightly acidic with pH mean value of 5.41±0.15. Organic Carbon, Total Nitrogen, Sodium and Potassium were low with mean values of 1.53±0.33%, 0.07±0.01%, 0.06±0.004 Cmol/kg and 0.10±0.01 Cmol/kg, respectively. Among the heavy metals, Iron (Fe) had the highest mean value of 36.16±8.94mg/kg, followed by Manganese (Mn) with mean value of 6.48±0.46mg/kg. The soil had high sand content of 89.20±0.80%, and low silt and clay contents of 5.40±0.20% and 5.40±0.60%, respectively. Linear regression of soil parameters and vegetation components showed that soil characteristics affected the abundance and distribution of vegetation components. This indicates that they play a vital role in plants diversity and distribution along watershed environments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Cotton Verticillium wilt in Golestan Province, the North of Iran

S. J. Sanei, S. E. Razavi, E. Lotfalinezhad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 564-573

Aims: The efficiency of Verticillium dahliae inoculum density (ID) on tolerant cotton Verticillium wilt in cotton growing of northern province of Iran (Golestan) and the influence of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RHA) on this relationship.
Place and Duration of Study: In several fields in Golestan province, northern Iran, between 1992-2009.
Methodology: The microscleotia per gram of soil samples and disease severity of cotton Verticillium wilt were determined in several fields. Physiological time was determined as the cumulative number of degree-days from the time of sowing.
Results: ID for overall fields and years varied between 2 and 47 propagules per gram of air-dried soil with average 18.961 ± 0.730. The pattern of diseased plants varied with fields and years. Linear regression analysis between ID (propagules per gram of air-dried soil) of V. dahliae at planting time and the disease severity for all years closely followed the linear curves. The straight line models described the increase in disease intensify index over the accumulated physiological time from sowing. The effect of temperature, number of days with above 28ºC and the area under RHA from sowing with respect of pathogen ID in soil (MS) on the final disease severity (Y) were significant and fitted a Y= 65.840- 0.0034 RHA + 0.57MS- 1.7T model with R2 = 0.859 and significant F function (p≤ 0.0001).
Conclusion: this study revealed that Verticillium wilt severity of cotton related to V. dahliae ID in soil at planting and negative exponential models described the relationships. This work also demonstrated the influence of temperature (days with above 28°C) and relative humidity on the efficiency of Verticillium ID for disease severity. This simulation may be important to consider when selecting a cotton cultivar for planting or in breeding programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Biofertilizers on Growth and Reproductive Performance of Eisenia fetida (Savigny 1926) During Flower Waste Vermicomposting Process

D. Senthil Kumar, P. Satheesh Kumar, V. Uthaya Kumar, G. Anbuganapathi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 574-583

The growth and reproductive performance of epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida in biofertilizers enriched flower waste vermicomposting was studied for 80 days in the laboratory. Six feeding compositions – Co-Flower waste (FW) alone; A- FW + Earthworms (E. fetida); B- FW+ EW + Azospirillum (Azos); C- FW + EW+ Phosphobacteria (PB); D- FW+EW+ Blue green algae (BGA); E- FW + EW + Rhizobium (Rhizo). Maximum number of earthworms was recorded in C and minimum number in A, highest average body weight was observed in E and least in A. Maximum average body length was noted in B and minimum in A. Higher reproductive performance of earthworms under the influence of biofertilizers were clearly visible in C and E than A. The microbial populations and availability of food materials from biofertilizers enriched flower waste increases the biomass, average body weight, average body length and also increases the reproductive performance of earthworms in the vermicomposting process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relevance of Nematode Parasitic Burden in Channid Fishes of Orogodo River, Southern Nigeria to Organic Pollution

Francis O. Arimoro, Kester E. Utebor

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 584-595

Aims: To ascertain the gastrointestinal nematode burden on the channids, Parachanna obscura and Parachanna africana (Steindachner, 1879) (Family: Channidae) in the down reaches of Orogodo River at Evboesi and Ekwuoma-Abavo, southern Nigeria and its relationship to the levels of organic pollution.
Study Design: A total of 220 channid fish were collected from two stations of the river experiencing different degree of organic pollution and dissected for gastrointestinal nematode parasites
Place and Duration of Study: The study lasted for a period of six months (Jan to Jun 2010) with collections of fishes done monthly at two sampling stations of Orogodo River in southern Nigeria.
Methodology: A total of 220 channid fishes were examined. Their stomachs and intestines were cut open and the contents were emptied into Petri dishes containing water and were examined for nematode parasites. These were quickly stained with Giemsa stain and viewed under a light microscope.
Results: A total of 100 (45.5%) were infected with gastrointestinal nematode parasites. The prevalence of infection reveals that Parachanna obscura recorded 62.5% while Parachanna africana had 66.7% in fishes collected from station 1 and 20.1% and 28.6% respectively from fishes collected at station 2. The nematode parasites recovered were Cucullamus sp., Camallanus sp. and Procamallanus laevionchus. The overall parasitic burden reveals that the prevalence infection was statistically significant (p< 0.05) in the species examined. The distribution of infrapopulations of the parasites varied significantly with size class and weight of the fish peaking in most cases in larger size classes. The chemical parameters of the river water at station 1 showed the water to be stressed with high BOD and nutrients levels when compared with station 2. This may explain the high parasitic burden recorded in the channids at station 1.
Conclusion: The intensity of the parasites in the host fish agree with previous hypotheses suggesting that environmental pollution does affect parasite population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Saponins on Rumen Fermentation, Nutrients Digestibility, Performance, and Plasma Metabolites in Sheep and Goat Kids

M. H. Aazami, A. M. Tahmasbi, M. H. Ghaffari, A. A. Naserian, R. Valizadeh, A. H. Ghaffari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 596-607

Aims: Two in vivo experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of saponins on rumen fermentation, plasma metabolites, nutrients digestibility, and performance in small ruminant.
Study Design: In the experiment 1, three Baluchi sheep (48± 4.3 kg, body weight) were randomly assigned to three experimental diets in a 3×3 Latin square design to determine the effects of saponins on digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics and plasma metabolites. Saponins were added at levels of 0, 100 and 200 mg/kg dry matter intake to diet. In the experiment 2, eighteen Saanen kids (6–7-month) were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of saponins on ruminal fermentation, plasma metabolites, and body measurements. Saponins were added at levels of 0, 36 and 54 mg/kg dry matter intake.
Place and Duration of Study: The trials were conducted at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran), between February 2011 and October 2011.
Methodology: Ammonia-N concentration was determined using the distillation method and blood metabolites were determined by an automated biochemical analyzer using commercial kits.
Results: In the experiment 1, saponins administration had no effect on apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH, ruminal ammonia-N concentrations. Results showed that sheep receiving saponins had lower (P<0.05) plasma cholesterol concentrations than the control. In addition, saponins administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, but did not affect the concentration of blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglycerides. In the experiment 2, saponins administration had no effect on DMI, ruminal pH, ammonia-N concentrations, body measurements and plasma metabolites except cholesterol. In goat kids we observed significant reduction in plasma cholesterol concentrations.
Conclusion: Administration of saponins in the diets of small ruminants did not improve nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation and growth performance, but reduced blood cholesterol concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fertilization and Irrigation on Establishment and Growth of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in Sokoto, Nigeria

A. A. Abdullahi, B. L. Aliero, A. A. Aliero, A. A. Zuru

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 608-623

Aims: To determine the effects of fertilization and irrigation on establishment and growth of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in Sokoto, Nigeria and its adaptability.
Study Design: A factorial experiment laid down in split – plot design.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 dry seasons in upland and lowland areas in Sokoto, Nigeria.
Methodology: The effects of nitrogen fertilizer, manure and irrigation interval on percentage plant establishment, plant height, number of leaves and stem diameter of P. virgatum were assessed. Four levels of nitrogen (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg N ha-1), three rates of manure (0, 5 and 10 t ha-1) and three irrigation regimes (w2, w4 and w6).
Results: Results indicate that there is no significant (P = 0.05) increase in percentage plant establishment, plant height, number of leaves and stem diameter by raising nitrogen rate from 50 to 75 kg N ha-1, manure rate from 5 – 10 t ha-1 or irrigation intervals from w2 to w4 days. The findings of the study revealed that a combination of 50 kg N ha-1, with 5 t ha-1 of manure and w2 irrigation interval enhanced percentage plant establishment, plant height, number of leaves and stem diameter.
Conclusion: The combination of treatments 50 kg Nha-1, 5 t ha-1 of manure and w2 irrigation interval were recommended for switchgrass establishment and growth in Sokoto geo-ecological zone of Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Response of Clarias gariepinus to Rubber Processing Effluent

S. O. Dahunsi, U. S. Oranusi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 624-635

Industrialization has led to huge waste generation over the last decades, the absence of adequate facilities for treating such wastes in most developing nations has led to the discharge of effluents into the environment without proper treatment. Toxicological effects of effluents from rubber processing plant (collected during the period of low rivertide i.e. between October 2012 and February 2013) were carried out in this study. Lethal concentration (96-h LC50) was evaluated using 0.25mg/L, 0.30mg/L, 0.35mg/L and 0.40mg/L while sub-lethal effects (42 days) was carried out on haematological parameters like Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC), Haemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) using 0.064mg/L, 0.048mg/L, 0.032mg/L and 0.016mg/L which are the 20%, 15%, 10% and 5% of the 96-h LC50 value. Mortality increased as the concentrations of the effluent increases and 0.32mg/L was obtained as LC50. In comparison with the control, the mean value obtained for PCV, HB and RBC showed significant differences (P<0.05) most especially at highest concentration while there was no significant difference in all values obtained for WBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC. It was concluded that the rubber processing effluent had some negative effect on the haematology of Clarias gariepinus. Therefore, it is recommended that the effluent should be properly treated before discharge into the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Antioxidant Nutrition against Fenvalerate Toxicity in Rat Liver (Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies)

Awatef Mohamed Ali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 636-648

Aims: Fenvalerate (FEN) is a type II synthetic pyrethroid that has replaced other groups of insecticides due to its improved insecticidal potency. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of antioxidant nutrients as a protective agent against alterations of FEN in liver tissue of male albino rats.
Study Design: Histological and immunohistochemical studies.
Place and Duration of Study: Zoology Department, College of Science, Alexandria University - Egypt, between May 2010 and February 2013.
Methodology: Forty animals were divided into four groups of 10 rats each. The first group served as control which received corn oil , second group received a single dose (20mg FEN/kg) 24hours prior to decapitation , third group received (20 mg fish oil (ÏŽ3) /kg/48h) and (4.1 mg selenium (Se) /kg/48h) for 20 days and fourth group received FEN following the supplementation with ÏŽ3 and Se .
Results: Histopathological changes in the FEN group illustrated as degeneration and proliferation of hepatocytes forming acinar and pseudoglandular pattern. The previous changes disappeared from FEN+ (ÏŽ3 and Se) group. The histochemical staining of catalase enzyme revealed increased activity in FEN, FEN+ (ÏŽ3 and Se) groups while activity of glutathione reductase enzyme was decreased in compare with control group. Immunohistochemical staining of Bcl-2 oncoprotein increased in the cytoplasm of periportal and centrilobular hepatocytes in FEN and FEN+ (ÏŽ3 and Se) groups, while it decreased in (ÏŽ3 +Se) group.
Conclusion: It was suggested that FEN-induced dysregulation of architecture, antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 oncoprotein which might be ameliorated by the effect of antioxidant nutrient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity and Physiological Effects of Essential Oil from Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze Against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Larvae

Asgar Ebadollahi, Roya Khosravi, Jalal Jalali Sendi, Parisa Honarmand, Rahim Moayed Amini

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 649-658

Aims: It is acknowledged that many essential oils isolated from various plants can exert toxic activity against insect species. In the present study, the essential oil from aerial parts of Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze (Lamiaceae) evaluated for its larvicidal and physiological effects against the larvae of Tribolium castaneum Herbst.
Place and Duration of Study: Place – Department of plant protection, Faculty of agriculture, Guilan university, Rasht, Iran. Duration – May, 2012 to January, 2013.
Methodology: The essential oil was isolated from aerial parts of A. foeniculum by hydrodistillation method with a Clevengertype apparatus. In Larvicidal bioassay, five concentrations of the essential oil were prepared with acetone as solvent. Control samples were treated only with pure acetone. Ten same-aged instars were randomly selected, placed with treated diets and kept at 27 ± 2ºC and 60 ± 5% RH. The experiment was repeated four times and insect mortalities were recorded after 24 h. The effects of essential oil on total carbohydrate, lipid and protein contents on the surviving larvae were assessed. Also, the responses of general esterase and glutathione S-transferase as two detoxifying enzymes to essential oil were investigated.
Results: A. foeniculum essential oil caused high mortality and the mortality was dose dependent i.e. with increasing of essential oil concentrations more mortality achieved. Furthermore, study on the effect of essential oil on total carbohydrate, lipid and protein contents demonstrated that all of them were decreased with increasing of concentrations. When A. foeniculum essential oil was applied, inhibition of esterase and glutathione Stransferase activities was observed.
Conclusion: It has been found that the essential oil of A. foeniculum may produce a great range of biological effects on T. castaneum larvae and can be a potent candidate for such insect pest management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Amylase Activity, Soluble Sugars and Proteins of Unripe Banana and Plantain during Ripening

Isaac Olusanjo Adewale, Adenike Adefila, Tosin Babatunde Adewale

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 678-685

The profiles of amylase activity, soluble sugars and proteins in unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and for a comparison, unripe banana (Musa sapientum), from harvest to ripening were investigated to provide basic information about their nutritional status at the different stages of the ripening process. Unripe plantain contained about a quarter of the soluble sugars found in ripe plantain. Conversion of the insoluble sugar (starch) to soluble sugar by amylase during ripening was an almost linear process. And as such, activity of amylase in plantain was highest at the ripe stage (2400 ± 120 Units/mg protein) and lowest immediately after harvest when it was still green (700±100 Units/mg protein). The soluble proteins increased from first day when it was harvested, at maximum around the third day and began to decline gradually. In contrast, amylase activity was highest in unripe banana (3900 ± 310 Units/mg protein) and decreased rapidly to a very low value (100 ±15 Units/mg protein) when it was fully ripened. The soluble sugar level in unripe banana was 3.8 ±0.5 mg/ml and around 6.0 ±1.0 mg/ml of extract when fully ripened. The soluble protein was 3 ± 1.0 mg/ml of extract when unripe and increased nine folds to a value of 27± 3.0 mg/ml of extract when fully ripened. The overall results suggest that the highest amount of starch, and the lowest amount of soluble sugars were present on the day when the mature plantain was just harvested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on in vitro Rumen Microbial Fermentation Responses Using Batch Culture

M. Mojtahedi, M. Danesh Mesgaran, S. A. Vakili, M. Hayati-Ashtiani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 686-693

Aims: To evaluate the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), gas production and ammonia-N formation of an alfalfa hay based diet using batch culture system.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Science, between July 2011 and August 2012.
Methodology: In an anaerobic batch culture system, 50 ml of buffered rumen fluid was dispensed into a 125-ml serum bottle containing 0.5 g dry matter (DM) of the experimental diet. Experimental treatments included four dose levels of AFB1 (0, 300, 600 and 900 ng/ml). All bottles were purged with anaerobic CO2, sealed and placed in a shaking water bath for 72 h at 38.6ºC. Gas production of each bottle was recorded at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h of the incubation and then gas released. The batch cultures were repeated in three incubation runs. After 72 h incubation, bottles were opened and 2-ml sample of each bottle were taken for ammonia-N analysis. The biomass residues were centrifuged and the pellet was dried at 65 °C for the determination of the residual DM and IVDMD.
Results: Addition of AFB1 affected the rate and cumulative gas production (P<0.05), so, by increasing the level of AFB1 from 0 to 900 ng/ml, the gas production rate decreased from 0.071 to 0.051 and cumulative gas production decreased from 196.4 to 166.0 ml/g DM, respectively. In addition, IVDMD decreased significantly with inclusion of AFB1 in culture medium, so that the lowest and the highest IVDMD values were observed in treatments with 900 and 0 ng/ml AFB1, respectively (0.54 vs. 0.68). The results indicated that addition of AFB1 significantly (P<0.05) decreased ammonia-N concentrations, so the lowest value was observed at 900 ng/ml AFB1.
Conclusion: The addition of different levels of AFB1 affected in vitro fermentation characteristic, as represented in reduced gas production, dry matter digestibility and ammonia-N concentrations. Therefore it is necessary to control and manage aflatoxin contaminations in ruminants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fasciolosis Control: Phytotherapy of Host Snail Lymnaea acuminata by Allicin to Kill Fasciola gigantica Larvae

Kumari Sunita, Pradeep Kumar, D. K. Singh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 694-704

Aims: Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease affecting the lives of herbivorous animals and human. The causative agents are Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of Fasciola species. Sporocyst, redia and cercaria are the larval stages found in the snail body.
Methodology: The destruction of these larvae in intermediate host is one of the important methods to abolish the incidences of fasciolosis without, killing the snail. Mortality of larvae in in vitro and in vivo condition was observed at 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h, exposure of allicin an active component of Allium sativum.
Results: Abiotic factors alter the toxicity of allicin against F. gigantica larvae in different months of year 2011-2012. Highest in vitro toxicity of allicin against redia larva was noted in July (8h LC50 0.001 mg/ml), where as in case of cercaria larva it was in month of June (8h LC50 0.005 mg/ml). Highest toxicity in in vivo treatments against redia and cercaria larvae was observed in February (8h LC50 0.013mg/L and 0.010 mg/L, respectively). The highest temperature, free carbon dioxide, lowest pH and dissolved oxygen were noted in the months of June to August.
Conclusion: In vitro and in vivo treatment of allicin against Fasciola larvae is one of the new approaches to control the fasciolosis, without killing the host snail.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Level of Gastrointestinal Parasites Infection among Food Vendors in Minna, North Central Nigeria

I. C. J. Omalu, S. Paul, L. A. Adeniran, S. C. Hassan, V. A. Pam, S. S. Eke, G. C. EZE

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 705-713

Aim: This study was undertaken to access the intestinal parasitic profile of food vendors in Minna Nigeria.
Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Minna the capital of Niger state, North central Nigeria. Sample sizes were determined at random from the food vendors selling ready to eat food.
Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from the food vendors in Minna between June and December 2012.
Methodology: Samples were assayed for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation techniques.
Results: This study showed that 104 samples out of 116 (89.66%) were positive for intestinal parasites; 70 samples (67.31%) represented single infections and 34 (32.69%) mixed infections. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in 11 (10.58%), Hookworm 10 (9.62%), Trichuris trichuira 4 (3.85%), Giardia duodenalis 15 (14.42%), Entamoeba histolytica 20 (19.23%), and Taenia saginata 10 (9.62%) respectively. A significant (p<0.05) prevalence was found in females 92 (88.46%) and in mean age of 31 – 40 years 34 (32.69%). Eggs and cysts of intestinal parasites were found more in the food samples such as Beans portage (15.50%), Stew (6.00%), Soup (15.50%), Rice (14.00%), Salad (20.00%), Spaghetti (12.50%) and Chinchin (20.00%) respectively.
Conclusion: High prevalence of intestinal parasites in food vendors is a matter of great concern considering the effect which will lead to diseases outbreaks. The provision of food safety measures focusing on personal hygiene and periodical medical check-ups is highly advised.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Training on Rural Chicken Production Reared By Women in Islamabad/ Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Abida Parveen, Sohail Hassan Khan, Abdul Rashid, Mian Aurangzeb

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 714-723

Aim: To study the impact of training given to female farmers under the poultry extension women worker on the status of rural chicken production in Islamabad/Rawalpindi area.
Study Design: The data were analyzed using General Linear Model procedures. The statistical model was constructed to ascertain the effect of breeds, season, health coverage program and training received by female farmers on egg production and mortality in chicks.
Place and Duration of Study: Poultry Research Institute, Murree Road, Shamsabad, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, between July 2011 and June 2012
Methodology: The study contained data collection (prior to and after getting training in rural chicken production over a one year period) from 100 female farmers who were willing to join female farmers groups and get training from extension workers. These one hundred female farmers were primarily selected from 150 farmers at random, keeping in view their zeal for joining female farmer groups. The training included skill development, production, and breeding of highly productive stock, care of the newly hatched chicks, housing, feeding, disease prevention, and hygienic measures, control of external and internal parasites, egg selection and storage, hatchability of eggs, and its requirements, selection and culling of birds, vaccination schedule.
Results: Significantly lower flock size was maintained by female farmers before getting training (12.4 numbers) than after training (23.44 numbers). Egg production, per bird, was significantly lower prior to training (37.7 eggs) than after training (75.2 eggs). A significantly higher number of eggs per capita per year were available for farmers after training (140 eggs) than before training (87 eggs). However, per capita egg consumption was not improved by training. Mean overall mortality per flock were significantly higher before training (45.5%) than after training (13.5%). Eggs were stored for a longer duration in summer (6.80) and winter (15 days) for hatching prior to training than after training (4.09 and 7.75 days, respectively). A significantly higher number of eggs (18.0 eggs) were set under a broody hen before training than after training (12.6 eggs). Hatchability per number of eggs set was significantly lower before training (59.0%) than after training (75.5%). Ninety percent female farmers were adopted vaccination practice, whereas, 21.0 percent female farmers were already vaccinating their birds prior to training.
Conclusion: Training significantly improved rural chicken production by female farmers. Overall training improved the poultry production practices through better adaptation of new techniques by female farmers. Most of female farmers adopted vaccination schedule after training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Temperature Response of Macrophomina phaseolina Isolates from Different Climatic in Iran

E. lotfalinezhad, Z. Mehri, S. J. Sanei

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 724-734

Aims: To investigate the favorable temperature regimes for growth of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates in vitro and the adaptability of the isolates in relation to different climatic conditions of Iran.
Methodology: Forty-three isolates of M. phaseolina from different host (canola, cotton, melon, olive, pine, potato, safflower, soybean, sunflower, tomato and watermelon) collected in three different areas of Iran (north, northwest, southwest) were subjected to growth rate (GR) tests at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35 and 40ºC.
Results: The optimum temperature for growth was 25ºC for 33 isolates and 33ºC for 10 isolates. Isolates GR varied considerably at all temperatures (p≤0.01) but the maximum variability between isolates occurred at 20 and 33ºC. Isolates from the north (colder area) grew better at lower temperatures than other isolates. Isolates from the southwest had the faster GR at 33ºC but the worst GR at the lowest temperature tested. The predicted relationship of GR and temperature for high optimum temperature isolates differ from other isolates. The results show the complete microsclerotial melanization at >30ºC for high optimum temperature isolates. The correlation was detected for the first time.
Conclusion: The environmental condition of the north and northwest areas of Iran are similar but differ from those of the southwest. High optimum temperature was detected among some isolates especially for growth of southwest isolates as warm area. It is possible that environmental conditions and cropping systems in the southwest have encouraged Macrophomina isolates to adapt to the higher temperature better than in other warm areas. On the basis of this study, we can affirm that combined GR values at 20 and 33ºC can be indicative of climatic areas of origin and that the fungus has adapted to these climatic conditions, which are far from the best, especially the colder conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Muscle Carbohydrate Dynamics in Nemipterus japonicus with Reference to Microbial Infection

T. C. Diana, C. Manjulatha

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 735-741

The present study was carried out to determine the total carbohydrate dynamics in the non infected and infected muscle samples of Nemipterus japonicus, harboured with pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae and Vibrio vulnificus. About twenty seven fish collected from the coast off Visakhapatnam, identified with lesions were undergone microbial analysis to isolate the incriminating pathogenic bacteria. The total muscle carbohydrate levels were analysed by Dubois method. The estimated total carbohydrates in the infected fish were found significantly higher as compared to the non infected fish. Thus it can be concluded that an increase of carbohydrate concentrations in infected fish may cause harmful physiological effects, reducing the immune response of the fish to the microbial organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Effect of Some Local Antimalarial Herbs on Reproductive Functions of Male Albino Rat

E. V. Ikpeme, U. B. Ekaluo, O. U. Udensi, E. E. Ekerette

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 742-751

In this study, stem bark extracts of Cylicodiscus gabunensis, Nauclea latifolia and Araliopsis soyauxii were investigated for possible adverse effects on male reproductive organs and sex hormones of male albino rats of about eleven weeks weighing between 120-180g. The total of twenty eight rats were divided into seven groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G) with four rats in each group. Two levels of each plant extract 125mg/kg body weight (BW) and 225 mg/kg BW (low and high dose) were administered to the rats by oral intubation. Group A served as the control and were fed with normal commercial feed only, group B and C were fed with 125 and 225mg/kg BW of C. gabunensis, group D and E were fed with 125 and 225mg/kg BW of N. latifolia while F and G were fed with 125 and 225mg/kg BW of A. soyauxii. The results of the phytochemical screening showed significant differences (p<0.05) in the bioactive components of the three plants. The results obtained on the reproductive organs showed no significant effect (p>0.05) on organ weight (testes and epididymides) semen pH, sperm count and sperm head abnormality among the different groups but there were differences (p<0.05) in sperm motility and sperm viability in the different groups of the rat. On the hormonal analysis, the sex hormones under this study were generally decreased (p<0.05) as the concentration of each extract was increased. Thus, this study has x-rayed the potential reductive effects of the extracts of C. gabunensis, N. latifolia and A. soyauxii on sex hormones and some sperm parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Concentrations of Nano and Bulk Iron Oxide Particles on Early Growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Hassan Feizi, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam, Nasser Shahtahmassebi, Amir Fotovat

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 752-761

Aims: In this work we assessed Fe2O3 nanoparticles with bulk Fe2O3 for possible phytotoxicity and stimulative effects on wheat seed germination and early growth stage.
Methodology: The treatments in the experiment were five concentrations of bulk (100, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10000 ppm) and five concentrations of nanosized Fe2O3 (100, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10000 ppm) and an untreated control. Germination tests were performed according to the rule issued by ISTA. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed between treatment samples. The information was analyzed using MSTAT-C computer software. Means compared by multiple range Duncan test and a 95% significance level (p < 0.05) was employed for all comparisons.
Results: Results showed that exposure of seeds to 100 ppm iron oxide nanoparticles indicated the greatest germination rate (by 41% more than control group) related to other treatments. Increasing nanoparticles concentration above 100 ppm reduced seed germination rate. It has not found any significant effects by bulk and nanoparticles on elongation of shoot, root and seedling of wheat. Application of 100 ppm concentration of nanosized Fe2O3 reduced mean germination time (MGT) by 38.5% in comparison to the control, while 100 ppm concentration of bulk Fe2O3 did not decrease MGT in comparison with the control. The highest root biomass was achieved from concentration of 100 ppm nano- Fe2O3, but an increased concentrations of nanoparticles Fe2O3 significantly reduced root weight. Nevertheless, on the basis of these results it is highly recommended that the influence of low dose nanomaterial be assessed in order to encourage seed germination and seedling growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Pigeon Pea Landraces [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] to Exogenous Application of Plant Growth Regulators

O. U. Udensi, E. A. Edu, E. V. Ikpeme, M. I. Ntia

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 762-776

Aim: Optimizing plant growth regulators in the manipulation of growth physiology, development and seed yield of pigeon pea landraces is cardinal, especially as it complements other improvement techniques. The research was aimed at evaluating the effect of IAA, NAA and paclobutrazol singly and in combination, but especially paclobutrazol in reducing plant height.
Methods: Thirty (30) seeds each of brown “Fiofio” [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] were soaked in 0, 100, and 150mg/l concentration of IAA, NAA, paclobutrazol, paclobutrazol + IAA and paclobutrazol + NAA, respectively for 48 hours.
Results: Results obtained revealed that treating pigeon pea seeds with paclobutrazol caused reduction in plant height and inter-node length, which did not translate to higher yield. However, plants raised from pigeon pea seeds soaked in 100 and 150 mg/l paclobutrazol + NAA did excellently well in both yield and yield – related traits.
Conclusion: The implication of these findings is that though treating seeds with paclobutrazol caused significant reduction in plant height and increased branch numbers, it needed to interact with NAA to cause holistic improvement, especially in seed yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Phytase Supplementation of Low Phosphorous Diets Included Olive Pulp and Date Pits on Productive Performance of Laying Hens, Egg Quality Traits and Some Blood Parameters

Meysam Afsari, Ahmad Mohebbifar, Mehran Torki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 777-793

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate effects of phytase (E) supplementation of low phosphorous diets (NPP) included olive pulp (OP) and date pits (DP) on performance of laying hens, egg quality traits, blood parameters and excreta pH of laying hens.
Study Design: Data were analyzed based on 2×2×2 factorial arrangements in completely randomized design using GLM procedure of SAS.
Place and Duration of Study: The present experiment was done in Animal Science Department of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. All procedures used in this study were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Razi University and complied with the "Guidelines for the Care and Use of Animals in Research".
Methodology: A total number of 288 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens was randomly divided in 48 cages (n=6). Based on a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments, 8 iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets (ME =2720 Kcal/Kg and CP=150 g/Kg) consisting of two levels of date pits and olive pulp (0, and 90 g/kg), two levels of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP: 2.6 and 3.3 g/kg diet) and phytase (0 and 150 FTU/kg) were formulated. Hens in every randomly-selected six cages (replicates) allotted to feed on each of 8 experimental diets.
Results: Dietary treatment did not have significant effect on egg production (EP) and feed intake (FI). Phytase numerically increased egg mass (EM) compared to control diets. Dietary inclusion of date pits and olive pulp significantly affected feed conversion ratio (FCR). Yolk index and Haugh unit were not significantly affected by dietary treatment (P>0.05). Diet inclusion of olive pulp and date pits numerically decreased eggshell weight and thickness in the first egg sampling (wk 3) in compared to control diet (P=.05). In the second egg sampling (wk 7), egg index, yolk index, Haugh unit, egg gravity and eggshell thickness were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. Dietary treatment did not have significant effect on blood parameters except for monocyte, so that a significant interaction between DO, P and E (p=0.01) was detected. Dietary treatment did not have significant effect on body weight changes (BWC) and excreta pH.
Conclusion: From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that DP and OP can be included in diet of laying hens up to 9% with no adverse effect on birds' performance. However, diet inclusion of DP and OP has some adverse effects on egg yolk color and eggshell weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biological Response of Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) to Magnetic Field and Silver Nanoparticles

Hassan Feizi, Saeed Jahedi Pour, Kaveh Hassanzadeh Rad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 794-804

Aims: This experiment was done to study the responses of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) to magnetic field and silver nanoparticles combinations in comparison with commercial fertilizers in field conditions.
Study Design: Experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications.
Place of Study: The present study was done at the Razavi Research and Technology Institute in Mashhad, Iran.
Methodology: This experiment tested seven treatments based on a randomized complete block design in four replications. The treatments were as follows:
AgM: Silver nanoparticles + magnetic field;
HAgM: Humax commercial fertilizer + Silver nanoparticles + magnetic field;
Humax: Humax commercial fertilizer;
KAgM: Kemira commercial fertilizer + Silver nanoparticles + magnetic field;
Kemira: Kemira commercial fertilizer;
Librel: Librel commercial fertilizer,
and Control.
Results: Results indicated that treatments of silver nanoparticles with magnetic field (AgM) had the highest fruit yield (16.420 ton ha-1) followed by the Kemira fertilizer treatment (10.248 ton ha-1). Significantly, silver nanoparticles with magnetic field treatment (AgM) showed by 150% more fruit yield in comparison to the control. The highest fruit yield in second harvest was achieved in silver nanoparticles + magnetic field + Kemira commercial fertilizer (KAgM) and the lowest was found in the control and Librel treatments. Using AgM, KAgM and Librel treatments caused early ripening of fruit in muskmelon. AgM treatment indicated larger fruit size than control. Using silver nanoparticles + magnetic field (AgM) significantly increased content of fruit soluble solid (13.1%) related to control (9.8%) in first harvest.
Conclusion: The treatment combining silver nanoparticles and magnetic field (AgM) most effectively improved early ripening of fruit, fruit and the quality of muskmelon fruit like soluble solid concentration compared to other treatments in firs harvest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biology of Pathogenicity (Theoretical Review)

Yurii V. Ezepchuk

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 805-813

Phenomenon of pathogenicity is the polyfunctional biological potency of germs that are realized by factors (determinants) of pathogenicity [1].
Bacterial pathogenicity is an ability of bacteria to induce and develop infectious diseases in multi-cellular organisms (human, animals and plants).
Virulence is a degree of pathogenicity measured by the in vivo (LD50) and in vitro (ID50) tests (highly virulent, weakly virulent and non-virulent strains).
Pathogenic factors (determinants) are the bio-molecules produced by pathogen and are responsible for interaction with the host tissue cells.
“Pathogenicity Islands” are the bacterial genome mobile elements that carry genes encoding the pathogenicity factors production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effects of Nanosized and Bulk Titanium Dioxide Concentrations on Medicinal Plant Salvia officinalis L.

Hassan Feizi, Shahram Amirmoradi, Farzin Abdollahi, Saeed Jahedi Pour

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 814-824

Aims: The goal of the study was to evaluate concentrations of nanosized TiO2 at 0, 5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L-1 with same concentrations of bulk TiO2 on sage (Salvia officinalis L.) seed germination and early growth stage.
Study Design: Experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with four replications.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed in a laboratory condition for 21 days at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
Methodology: The treatments in the experiment were five concentrations (5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L-1) of bulk and five concentrations (5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L-1) of nanosized TiO2 and an untreated control. The experiment was done in a germinator with an average temperature of 25 ±1ºC. The size of TiO2 bulk and nanoparticles were determined through Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). Analysis of variance was performed between treatments samples. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using SAS software. Significant levels of difference for all measured traits were calculated and means were compared by the LSD test at 5% level.
Results: After 21 days of seed incubation, germination percentage improved following exposure to 60 mg L-1 bulk and nanosized TiO2. Studied treatments had not significant effects on shoot, root and seedling elongation and biomass. Exposure of sage seeds to 60 mg L-1 bulk and nanosized TiO2 obtained the lowest mean germination time (8.42 and 8.7 days, respectively) but higher concentrations did not improve mean germination time. Exposure of sage seeds to 60 mg L-1 concentrations of bulk and nano TiO2 particles led to enhanced germination rate.
Conclusion: In general, there was a significant response by sage seed to nanosized TiO2 presenting the possibility of a new approach to overcome problems with seed germination in some plant species, especially medicinal plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Leaf Essential Oil of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

N. O. Muhammad, O. Soji-Omoniwa, L. A. Usman, B. P. Omoniwa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 825-834

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antihyperglycemic activity of leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis (Rutaceae) in alloxan –induced diabetic rats.
Methodology: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg body weight). The leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis at a dose of 110 mg/kg b.wt was administered every other day to the diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. The effects of leaf essential oil on blood glucose, hepatic glucose and glycogen were evaluated. 14.2 mg/kg body weight of metformin was used as a reference drug.
Results: Intraperitoneal administration of the oil to diabetic rats led to a significant reduction (P = .05) of fasting blood glucose and hepatic glucose levels while hepatic glycogen significantly increased (P = .05) when compared to diabetic control animals.
Conclusion: It is concluded that leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis possesses significant antihyperglycemic effect on alloxan – induced diabetic rats at the dose tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria: Still a Health Problem in the General Population of Bannu District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Shahid Niaz Khan, Sultan Ayaz, Sanaullah Khan, Sobia Attaullah, Muhammad Asim Khan, Naqib Ullah, Muhammad Aamir Khan, Ijaz Ali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 835-845

Aims: This study was aimed to know the burden of malaria infection and to re-evaluate its high prevalence in general population of Bannu District.
Study Design: The current study was designed to re-evaluate the high prevalence of malaria and its demography in the human population of Bannu District.
Place and Duration of the Study: This study was conducted during the months of May to September 2011 in local population of the Bannu District.
Methodology: A total of 823 blood samples were randomly collected from both sexes; 513 males and 310 females of varying age groups <1 up to 50< years (mean 26.3± 9.1). Blood was drawn by pricking a left hand finger by using a sterilized lancet. Both thick and thin smears were prepared and examined through microscope for the detection of malarial parasites along with their impact on the general hematology.
Results: Out of 823 blood samples, 223(27.1%) subjects were found positive for Plasmodiasis, while the distribution of species prevalence was observed as 186 (22.6%) and 25 (3.04%) for Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium falciparum, respectively along with a mixed infection of 12(1.46%). Variation with high incidence (42.65%) was found in the age group of 21-30 years. Moreover, males were found to be more malaria infected (30.64%) than females (24.95%). In addition, the prevalence of Plasmodiasis was found more frequent in rural population (33.42%) as compared to urban (21.00%) population.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that the burden of malaria was high in rural areas of Bannu District and more attention is needed to overcome and control the high prevalence of malaria in this region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Ground Pits of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) with or without Probiotic Yeasture® on Productive Performance, Egg Traits and Some Blood Parameters of Laying Hens

Seifollah Kashani, Ahmad Mohebbifar, Mahmood Habibian, Mehran Torki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 492-506

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of ground pits of date palm (DP) (Phoenix dactylifera) supplementing with a commercial probiotic mixture (Yeasture®) on the performance, egg quality characteristics, blood parameters, and excreta pH of laying hens. A total of 144 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens were randomly divided in 24 cages. Based on a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design with four replicates, 6 iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets (ME=2720 kcal/kg and CP=150 g/kg) including: I-corn-soybean meal-based control-1 diet, II-corn-soybean meal-oil-based control-2 diet, and III-corn-soybean meal-based diet included 210 g/kg DP with or without probiotic (0.0 and 0.05 g/kg) were formulated. Dietary treatment had no significant effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio and body weight as well as egg production and egg mass (P>.05). Probiotic supplementation did not significantly affect laying performance. In the first egg sampling (wk3) egg index, Haugh unit, egg gravity, and egg abnormality were not significantly affected by dietary treatments (P>.05). Shell weight and shell thickness were decreased by diet inclusion of DP (P=.05). Dietary treatment did not have significant effect on blood parameters except for triglycerides and high density lipoprotein (HDL) contents which was increased by adding probiotic to diet in compared to the control groups (P=.05). Dietary combination of DP and probiotic significantly decreased excreta pH in compared to other groups (P=.05). From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that DP can be included in diets of laying hens up to 21% with no substantial adverse effect on their performance and egg quality traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation on the Ability of Sulfonolipid from Salinibacter ruber to Ameliorate the Toxic Effect of Sodium Arsenite on the Sperm Count and Testoterone Level in Rat

O. O. Oluyide, J. K. Oloke, T. O. Elufisan, T. F. Ogunyemi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 860-872

Aims: In this study, the ameliorative activity of sulfonolipid extracted from a local isolate of Salinibacter ruber was investigated against sodium arsenitetoxication on sperm quality, testosterone level and histological structure of rat testis. The treatment was applied for twenty-six days so as to be able to examine the effect of sodium arsenite and the activity of sulfonolipids on the sperm count. This is because it has been established that twenty-six days will be required for the maturation of albino rat’s sperm
Study Design: An experimental layout involving the use of Wistar albino rat was employed for the study.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Pure and Applied Biology (Animal Laboratory) Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomosho Oyo state Nigeria between June 2009 and July 2010.
Methodology: Sixty adult male Wistar Albino rats were divided into six groups of 10 animals each. Each group was administered sulfonolipid at a concentration of 0.2ml of 0.16% for group A, 0.016% for group B, 0.0016% for group C with 0.2ml of 6mg/kg body weight of sodium arsenite, respectively. Group D served as negative control and, 0.2ml 0f 0.16% sulfonolipid was given only for positive control in group E, by gavage for 26 days. Group F were given water and feeds only ad libitum, also served as the normal control.The changes in sperm count, testosterone level and histological structure of testes were examined.
Results: A significant difference in epididymal sperm count of rat gavaged with sulfonolipid at a concentration of 0.2ml of 0.16%was observed (37.8±5.54×106 m/ml) when compared with those treated to sodium arsenite (23.76±7.50×106m/ml) only. No significant differences were observed in testosterone level among any of the groups. Sulfonolipid isolated from Sanilibacter rubber showed some significant activities on the severe effects of sodium arsenite on the histological structure of testis.
Conclusion: The administration of sulfonolipid extract at a concentration of 0.2ml of 0.16%alongside with sodium arsenite significantly reduced the toxic effect of the arsenic compound in the rats. However, effectiveness and potency of sulfonolipid can be better established through further investigations which may try to verify the fertilisation efficacy of the experimental animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dispersal and Variability of Chemical and Biological Indices of Aquaculture Pollution in Igoumenitsa Bay (NW Greece)

Paraskeyi Mpeza, Theodoros Mavraganis, Cosmas Nathanailides

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 873-880

The purpose of this work was to monitor nutrient enrichment around a fish farm site in Igoumenitsa Bay (NW Greece). Seasonal samples were collected from the waters and benthos surrounding fish farms in Igoumenitsa Bay, NW Greece. The study was carried out in Igoumenitsa bay between May 2011 and Dec 2012). Seawater samples were collected every month from different sampling sites which were: the open Ioanian sea, 60 meter south and North of the fish farms as well as in the water adjucent to the floating cages. The waters surrounding the fish farms exhibited profound increased mean annual content of phosphorus, which peaked during the summer months. This increase in phosphorus was also reflected in high primary productivity as indicated by increased chl-a content at the sites of the fish farms. A model of dispersion of wastes generated by the fish farms indicates that the major path of dispersion is towards the coast and over a range of more than 120 meters. The directions and velocity of water currents may result in the diffusion of nutrient from point sources such as the fish farms towards deepest part of the bay (South). The results indicate that benthic ecosystem around the fish farms is not significantly disturbed. Nevertheless, the levels of nutrients in the water body and the AZTI’s marine biotic index (AMBI) of the sampling points indicate a potential ecological risk during the summer period. Increased feeding and metabolism of the farmed fish during the growing season is combined with the natural seasonal hydrological conditions and result in a highly localized aquaculture induced eutrophication.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Cardinal Temperature for Germination in Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Sainfoin (Onobrychis vicifolia) and Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia)

Pezhman Allahmoradi, Mokhtar Ghobadi, Shayesteh Taherabadi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 881-887

Legumes have been used in agriculture since ancient times. Legume seeds or pulses were among the first sources of human food and their domestication and cultivation in many areas occurred at the same time as that of the major cereals. Nutritionally they are 2-3 times richer in protein than cereals grain and also contain oil. In order to determine the cardinal temperatures for germination in coriander, sainfoin and bitter vetch, a laboratory experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design. Different temperatures from zero to 45ºC were considered as experimental treatments. Germination was performed in incubator under dark conditions. Determining the cardinal temperatures was done with linear regression between germination rate and temperatures. The results showed that rate of germination increased with raise in temperature until optimum temperature and after that, it showed a corresponding fall with escalation in temperature. Each seed sample had its specific optimum temperature. The optimum temperatures of germination for coriander, sainfoin and bitter vetch were 24.83, 20.92 and 20.83ºC, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Aging Effects of Ketanserin; Ketanserin Extends Lifespan in Female Drosophila, Inhibits Cellular Senescence and Promotes Wound Healing In-vitro

F. Talaei, F. Atyabi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 888-902

Aims: The lifespan of an organism depends on intertwined mechanisms, difficult to fully unravel. 5-HT (serotonin) receptors are known to be involved in aging process and wound healing which is significantly slowed down through aging. The present research aims to unravel if Ketanserin, an inhibitor of 5-HT2 receptors, exerts anti-aging effects.
Study Design: Skin fibroblasts were chosen to study the effects of ketanserin on senescence and wound healing. Drosophila flies were chosen to study the effect of ketanserin on lifespan.
Place and Duration of Study: UMCG and TUMS, pharmacy department, one year.
Methodology: Skin fibroblasts were treated with Ketanserin and subjected to oxidative stress. To evaluate the potential of Ketanserin in preventing cellular damage and senescence, cell survival, ROS (reactive oxygen species) formation, Caspase 3/7, beta-galactosidase and thiol group contents were measured. Further, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway components were studied in treated and control cells using western blotting techniques. Scratch assay was also performed on fibroblast cell cultures. To evaluate the longevity promoting effects of Ketanserin, Drosophila were treated with Ketanserin and studied.
Results: Ketanserin increased Drosophila lifespan by 35% without inhibiting the overall growth. It inhibited mTOR and upregulated autophagy in skin fibroblasts and prevented H2O2 induced senescence. Ketanserin was found to promote wound closure in-vitro, probably through inhibition of cellular retraction and the increase in viable cell number. Further, Ketanserin inhibited ROS production and Caspase activity while increasing free thiol group levels in both Drosophila larvae and fibroblast cells subjected to oxidative stress.
Conclusion: Ketanserin shows to exert anti-aging effects in both cells and Drosophila. Further it has a positive effect on the wound healing process which is impaired in aging organisms. This is the first report showing that Ketanserin increases lifespan in an organism, although the exact mechanism remains to be still explored.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Isolated Nomuraea rileyi and Spinosad against Corn Pests under Laboratory and Field Conditions in Egypt

M. M. Sabbour, A. Abdel-Rahman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 903-912

Isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus, Nomuraea rileyi and spinosad were tested against the corn insect pests: Ostrinia nubilalis, Chilo agamemnon and Sesamia cretica under laboratory and field conditions. Results obtained showed that the LC50 of N. rileyi for O. nubilalis, C. agamemnon and S. cretica were 124, 146 and 159 conidia/ml under laboratory conditions. The corresponding figure for Spinosad was 166, 179 and 185 microgram/ ml (µg/ml. Under field conditions, results showed that during season 2011, the percentage of O. nubilalis, S. cretica and C. agamemnon infestations were significantly decreased in plots treated with N. rileyi to 25±3.2, 21±2.4, and 24±2.3 individuals after 120 days after the first application as compared to 97±3.3 in the control. When spinosad was applied in the field, the percentage of infestations was significantly decreased to 26±3.3 as compared to 99±1.3 individuals in the control during both seasons. During the harvest season, the corn weight was significantly increased to 3822±45.6 and 3940±60.4 kg/Feddan (Feddan=2400m2) in the plots treated with the fungus N. rileyi as compared to 2810±40.9 and 2710 ±73.2 Kg/Feddan in the control plots. Among plots treated with spinosad the yield significantly increased to 3000 ±60.7 and 3129 ±84.1 kg/Feddan during season 2011 and 2012, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioremediation of Chromium, Nickel and Zinc in Electroplating Effluent by Escherichia coli

G. Suresh Kumar, A. J. Thatheyus

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 913-920

Effluent samples from an electroplating industry located at Madurai, India were collected and analysed for chosen physico-chemical parameters. Among the heavy metals tested, zinc exhibited highest level with 739 ppm with a pH of 4.83. The bacterial strain isolated from the effluent contaminated site was identified as Escherichia coli and it was subjected to 15, 20 and 25% of effluent in minimal broth for 20 days. Optical density and pH changes were recorded daily and the levels of chromium, nickel and zinc were analysed after ten and twenty days of treatment. Significant reduction in the level of zinc was observed and the results are discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Commercial Prebiotic and Probiotics of Diet on Performance of Laying Hens, Egg Traits and Some Blood Parameters

Ahmad Mohebbifar, Seifollah Kashani, Meysam Afsari, Mehran Torki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 921-934

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of adding commercial probiotics and prebiotic to diet on performance of laying hens, egg traits and some blood parameters.
Study Design: Data of feed intake (FI), egg production (EP), egg mass (EM), and calculated feed conversion ratio (FCR) were analyzed based on completely randomized design using GLM procedure of SAS.
Place and Duration of Study: All procedures used in this 7-week experiment were approved by the "Animal Ethics Committee of Razi University" and complied with the "Guidelines for the Care and Use of Animals in Research".
Methodology: Five iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets (ME =2720 Kcal/Kg and CP=150 g/kg) including basal diet (control) and basal diet supplemented by probiotics (PrimaLac®, A-Max and Yeasture) and prebiotic (Fermacto) were formulated. A total number of 90 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens were randomly divided in 15 cages (n=6). The experimental hens were 56-wk old with an average egg production rate of 90.6 ±4.8% and 1,460±24 g live body weight. Hens in every 3 cages (replicates) were assigned to feed on one of the 5 experimental diets.
Results: FI, FCR, EM, EP, egg weight, egg traits (egg index, yolk index, Haugh unit, yolk color, shell weight and thickness) and blood parameters were not affected by adding probiotics or prebiotic to diets.
Conclusion: Using Primalac, Fermacto, A-Max and Yeasture did not have beneficial effects on performance of laying hens. However, the effects of probiotics and prebiotic on suboptimal circumstances should be investigated in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foxtail Millet Responses to Bulk and Nano Zinc Oxcide Particles in Water Stress Conditions

N. Davoody, M. J. Seghatoleslami, S. GH. Mousavi, A. Azari Nasrabad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 959-973

Aims: This study was done to investigate the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles application on foxtail millet in water stress conditions.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Center of Islamic Azad University, Birjand branch, Iran in 2011.
Methodology: Experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. Two irrigation treatments (control and water stress) and seven ZnO fertilizer (control without ZnO, three levels of bulk ZnO (3000, 6000 and 12000 ppm) and three levels of ZnO nanoparticles (250, 500 and 1000 ppm) were as main plots and sub plots, respectively.
Result: The results showed that water stress declined peduncle length, stomatal conductivity, germination percentage and grain yield. Seed protein content increased under water stress but ZnO fertilizer treatments had not any significant effect on the mentioned traits. Effect of ZnO application on Relative Water Content (RWC) at the pre-anthesis stage was significant. The highest RWC before flowering were recorded in the ZnO nanoparticles treatment (250 ppm).
Conclusion: The insignificant effect of bulk and ZnO nanoparticles treatments can be attributed to a low level of requirement of this element in millet. Probably, nutrient imbalance in the soil may also have contributed to the prevention of any positive effects of zinc consumption on plant growth parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Garlic Powder on Methane Production, Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production of Buffaloes

R. Zafarian, M. Manafi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1013-1019

Aims: Use of natural feed additives to improve the milk production of buffalos.
Place and Duration of Study: National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India between May 2011 and July 2012.
Methodology: Garlic Powder (GRP) at 2, 4, and 6% of DMI was incubated for 24h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 roughage: concentrate wheat straw based diet. GRP at 2 and 6% DMI have resulted in decrease of molar proportion of acetate and butyrate but it has not effected on in vitro true dry matter digestibility and propionate production.
Results: Methane emission was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in presence of GRP. Further, GRP (at the rate 2% of DMI) was evaluated under in vivo conditions in Ten lactating Murrah buffaloes divided into two groups i.e. Control and Treatment group , and it shown very promising results on methane reduction. Methane was reduced up to 31% in case of GRP, without affecting digestibility of nutrients and milk composition in comparison to control group.
Conclusion: Overall milk production was remained similar in all groups but just after supplementation of GRP, and up to 12 weeks of supplementation, it remained significantly higher in treatment group as compared to control group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Toxicity Activities of Polar and Non-Polar Extracts of Albizia zygia (DC) Stem-Bark

Ganiyat K. Oloyede, Adeniyi O. Ogunlade

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1020-1031

Aims: To determine the secondary plant metabolites present in Albizia zygia (DC) stem-bark and investigate its antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicity activities.
Study Design: Methanol (polar) and hexane (non-polar) were used to extract the dried stem bark of A. zygia and biological activities were carried out.
Place and Duration of Study: Natural products/Medicinal Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, between July, 2012 and February, 2013.
Methodology: Chemical methods were used for phytochemical screening. Antioxidant screening was determined by scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical generated from hydrogen peroxide methods, agar well diffusion method was used for antimicrobial screening while brine shrimp lethality test was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts.
Results: Alkaloid, saponin, glycoside, steroid, resin and reducing sugar were found in both the methanol and hexane extracts while flavonoid and cardio active glycoside were observed only in the hexane extract. The methanol extract had the highest % inhibition at 1.0 mg/ml (93.28%) in the DPPH method and was better than that of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. But at 1.0 mg/ml, the n-hexane extract with % inhibition of 78.76% showed better antioxidant activity than butylatedhydroxylanisole (BHA) (40.12%) and α-tocopherol (21.69 %). The antimicrobial activities of the stem extracts of A. zygia against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellae pneumonae, Salmonellae typhi, Candida albicans, Rhizopus stolon, Aspergillus niger and Penicillum notatum showed that the methanol extract was more active than n-hexane extract at 50 mg/ml. Brine shrimp lethality test showed that the methanol extract with LC50 of 1.70 µg/ml was more toxic than the non-polar n-hexane extract with LC50 of 174.19 µg/ml.
Conclusion: This study underscores the importance of application of A. zygia in ethno medicine and extracts from A. zygia could be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Abiotic Factors and Infection of Fasciola gigantica on Oviposition of Vector Snail Lymnaea acuminata

Neha Singh, Pradeep Kumar, D. K. Singh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1032-1039

Aims: The aim of the present study is establish a correlation between the abiotic factors and infection rate of Fasciola gigantica and their effect on the reproduction of vector snail Lymnaea acuminata.
Place and Duration of Study: Malacology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur in between November 2009 - October 2010.
Methodology: Fecundity of infected/uninfected snail Lymnaea acuminata was noted in different months of year 2009-2010.Fecundity was dependent on variant abiotic environmental factors and infection rate of Fasciola gigantica larvae in snail body. In infected snail the highest fecundity was observed in winter and lowest in summer. In order to ascertain that such a relationship between fecundity and abiotic factors is not coincident, the nervous tissue of the snail was assayed for the activity of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in uninfected and infected snails in each months of the year. It was noted that abiotic factors and infection parameter in snail body influence the influence the fecundity of the snails in each month of year 2009-2010.
Results: There was a significant positive rank correlation between total fecundity of uninfected/infected snails and corresponding AChE activity in the nervous tissue of same snails.

Open Access Original Research Article

Larvicidal Activity and Joint Action Toxicity of Certain Combating Agents on Culex pipiens L. Mosquitoes

Hossam El-Din M. Zahran, Maha A. Kawanna, Hanan A. Bosly

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1055-1065

Aims: The main objective of the present study was to investigate the larvicidal effect of some biological control agents like Beauveria bassiana and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (B.t.i.) and some natural control agents as Diflubenzuron, Azadirachtin and Emamectin benzoate on Culex pipiens mosquito. The toxicity of binary mixtures of these control agents was also assessed.
Methodology: The larval susceptibility test of C. pipiens was estimated when the third instar were treated with Azadirachtin, B. bassiana, B.t.i., Diflubenzuron, Emamectin benzoate and Deltamethrin (reference compound). Series of concentrations for each compound in addition to control were replicated four times. Mortality counts were carried out after 24, 48 and 72hr of treatment. To determine the joint toxic action of the tested compounds, the calculated LC12.5, LC25 and LC50 (after 72hr) were used alone (to calculate the expected mortalities) and in bi-mixtures. For each treatment, four replicates of 30 larvae/replicate were used. Percent mortalities of larvae were recorded after 72hr post-treatment. The joint action of different mixtures in terms of co-toxicity factor (C.F.) was estimated. Data of bioassay were analyzed using Probit program.
Results: Data showed that the LC50 of B.t.i., Emamectin benzoate, Azadirachtin, Diflubenzuron and B. bassiana were 0.044ppm, 1.24ppm, 3.02ppm, 10.32ppm and 4.122ml/L, respectively on the third instar of C. pipiens after 24hrs. Azadirachtin showed time related larvicidal activity. Diflubenzuron induced delayed effect on C. pipiens larvae. B. bassiana, had the lowest activity against this mosquitoes (LC50= 1.85ml/L) after 72hr of exposure. Data of joint toxic action of some mixtures such as (B. bassiana + Diflubenzuron) or (Diflubenzuron+Azadirachtin) revealed antagonistic effect while almost other binary mixtures showed potentiating effects. The mixture of LC12.5B.t.i. + LC12.5 Deltamethrin recorded the highest potentiating activity.
Conclusion: The study suggests that, the most effective tools for C. pipiens larvae eradication included B.t.i. followed by Emamectin benzoate, Azadirachtin, Diflubenzuron then B. bassiana. The use of some binary mixtures of these tested control measures can get better control, save the amount and reduce control cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Effect of Increasing Levels of Natuzyme® on Fermentation Responses of Corn Silage Based Diet

A. Faramarzi-Garmroodi, M. Danesh Mesgaran, E. Parand, A. R. Vakili

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1066-1073

Aims: To evaluate the in vitro effect of an exogenous commercial enzyme blend (Natuzyme®) on fermentation responses and methane production of corn silage based diet.
Study Design: Completely randomized design.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of animal science, Faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, between November 2012 and March 2013.
Methodology: Two hundred fifty mg of milled and dried corn silage based diet in 3 runs and four replicates was weighed into 125-ml serum bottles for an in vitro gas production trial. A solution of a commercial enzyme blend (Natuzyme®) was added 12 hour prior to commence of the incubation (96 h) to make treatments of 1.68 and 2.52 (g/kg). No added enzyme bottles were considered as control. Gas production parameters at 96 h incubation were estimated and half time of gas production (t1/2) was calculated. Another gas test was run according to t1/2. All the incubations for each treatment were terminated at t1/2 and gas and methane volume recorded. Apparent dry matter degradability was assessed by centrifugation and ml methane per mg dry matter apparently degraded was calculated.
Results: Gas production parameters were not affected by addition of the enzyme blend. Supplementation of a corn silage based diet with the enzyme as 1.68 or 2.52 g/kg dry matter of the diet increased apparent dry matter degradability by 21% compared with control. Gas production, methane volume and volume of methane per mg of dry matter apparently degraded were not influenced by incrementing level of Natuzyme®.
Conclusion: Natuzyme® at the doses applied in the current experiment was capable of improving apparent dry matter degradability of corn silage based diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Effect of Aloe vera Leaf Extracts on Growth of Aspergillus flavus

A. Babaei, M. Manafi, H. Tavafi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1091-1097

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the antifungal activity of different extracts of Aloe vera plant on the growth of Aspergillus flavus.
Study Design: Considering the wide dispersal of Aspergillus flavus across the globe and its massive contamination on feed and food stuff of animal and human beings, it is inevitable to find a solution to inhibit the growth of this fungus and subsequently production of aflatoxin.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Malayer University, between August 2012 and March 2013.
Methodology: Six different solvents such as acetone, ethanol, water, methanol, chloroform and ethyl ether were employed for extraction from Aloe Vera fresh leaves. Antifungal activity of the extracts was evaluated by Agar Plate Diffusion Plate method.
Results: The maximum antifungal activity (100%) observed was in acetone extract group in concentration of 2000µL; the complete inhibition of fungus growth was found (100%).
Conclusion: The acetone extract of Aloe vera can be used as an effective antifungal agent to inhibit the growth of A. flavus compared to other solvents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Birth Weight Correlation with Conception Interval and Other Factors in Bangladesh New Born

M. Shafiur Rahman, K. Saiful Islam, Md. Sabir Hossain, M. Ibrahim Hossain, Md. Fuad Hossain, Md. Ibrahim Khalil

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1098-1111

Aims: Low birth weight (LBW) is a major health problem and a significant contributor to neonatal death in both industrialised and developing countries. To examine the birth-weight status of newborns and to identity the relationship between birth-weight and other anthropometric parameters of newborns.
Study Design: Three districts of Khulna division from South-west region of Bangladesh were our primary study area. Pregnant women attending the selected hospitals and clinics for delivery purpose and their newborn babies during the study period were regarded as the study subjects. A multistage sampling procedure was adopted in selecting the ultimate sampling unit for the present study.
Place and Duration of Study: This cross sectional study was carried out among the mothers and their newborn babies at the South-west region of Bangladesh, during the time period January 2008 to December 2008.
Methodology: Data of socio-demographic factors, obstetric history, lemal morbidities, anthropometrics parameters of mother, hematological ors, and anthropometric parameters of the newborn baby subsections were collected in a questionnaire form. Anthropometric parameters of the newborns were recorded by the investigator within 18 hours of birth by standard techniques described byJelliffe and Jelliffe in 1989. All the newborns were weighed naked on a spring electronic balance with a maximum paucity of 15kg and a minimum of 125g and 5g subdivisions. The weighing machine was checked daily by known standard weight before weighing. Crown heel length (CHL) was measured to the nearest of 0.1cm on a manometer. Head circumference (HC) was measured between glabella anteriorly and along the most prominent point posteriorly within the 24 hours of delivery. Chest circumference (CC) was measured at the level of nipple at the end phase of expiration. Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was measured at the midpoint between the tip of acromion process and olecranon process of the left upper arm.
Data were analyzed using standard statistical methods, which include correlation-coefficient, analysis of variance, simple and multiple regressions, and sensitivity and specificity analyses for different cut-offs of the newborns (CHL, HC, CC, MUAC).
Results: The mean birth-weight was 2754.81±465.57g and 28.6% were low-birth-weight (<2,500 g) babies. All key anthropometric parameters of the newborns significantly correlated with infant birth-weight (P<0.05). Mid upper arm circumference and chest circumference were identified as the optimal surrogate indicators of LBW babies.
Conclusion: In the community where weighing of newborns is difficult, these measurements can be used to identify the LBW babies.

Open Access Review Article

Embedding the Future of Regenerative Medicine into the Open Epigenomic Landscape of Pluripotent Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Xuejun H. Parsons

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 323-349

It has been recognized that pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) must be transformed into fate-restricted derivatives before use for cell therapy. Realizing the therapeutic potential of pluripotent hESC derivatives demands a better understanding of how a pluripotent cell becomes progressively constrained in its fate options to the lineages of tissue or organ in need of repair. Discerning the intrinsic plasticity and regenerative potential of human stem cell populations reside in chromatin modifications that shape the respective epigenomes of their derivation routes. The broad potential of pluripotent hESCs is defined by an epigenome constituted of open conformation of chromatin mediated by a pattern of Oct-4 global distribution that corresponds genome-wide closely with those of active chromatin modifications. Dynamic alterations in chromatin states correlate with loss-of-Oct4-associated hESC differentiation. The epigenomic transition from pluripotence to restriction in lineage choices is characterized by genome-wide increases in histone H3K9 methylation that mediates global chromatin-silencing and somatic identity. Human stem cell derivatives retain more open epigenomic landscape, therefore, more developmental potential for scale-up regeneration, when derived from the hESCs in vitro than from the CNS tissue in vivo. Recent technology breakthrough enables direct conversion of pluripotent hESCs by small molecule induction into a large supply of lineage-specific neuronal cells or heart muscle cells with adequate capacity to regenerate neurons and contractile heart muscles for developing safe and effective stem cell therapies. Nuclear translocation of NAD-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 and global chromatin silencing lead to hESC cardiac fate determination, while silencing of pluripotence-associated hsa-miR-302 family and drastic up-regulation of neuroectodermal Hox miRNA hsa-miR-10 family lead to hESC neural fate determination. These recent studies place global chromatin dynamics as central to tracking the normal pluripotence and lineage progression of hESCs. Embedding lineage-specific genetic and epigenetic developmental programs into the open epigenomic landscape of pluripotent hESCs offers a new repository of human stem cell therapy derivatives for the future of regenerative medicine.

Open Access Review Article

Biochemical and Molecular Basis of Varietal Difference in Plant Salt Tolerance

Aryadeep Roychoudhury, Mayukh Chakraborty

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 422-454

World agriculture is facing a lot of challenges like producing 70% more food for an additional 2.3 billion people by 2050. However, the productivity of crops is not increasing in parallel with the food demand. The lower productivity is attributable to various abiotic stresses, of which increased soil salinity is one of the foremost causes. The negative effect of salinity is caused by Na+ and Cl- ions producing the critical conditions for plant survival. The obvious outcome of salinity includes membrane damage, nutrient imbalance, altered levels of growth regulators, enzymatic inhibition and improper metabolic functions, including photosynthesis which ultimately leads to plant demise. Crops vary significantly in their threshold limits of salt tolerance. A well-focused approach combining the molecular, physiological, biochemical and metabolic aspects of salt tolerance is essential to alleviate the drastic effects of salinity and develop salt-tolerant crop varieties. The exploitation of genetic differences of available germplasm has the greatest significance, because it helps to identify the genotypes performing well even under saline conditions. Screening of crops for tolerance can strengthen the breeding programs by identifying genotypes with high salt tolerance and yield potential. This strategy involves comparative investigation of various morphological, physiological, biochemical, enzymatic and ionic responses, together with the study of differential expression pattern of genes/proteins concerned with salt tolerance at different developmental stages under salt stress in salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant cultivars. If the response is greater in the salt-tolerant line, it suggests a role in stress tolerance. Many pitfalls are associated with such approach, i.e., climatic variation, varied physiochemical properties of soil and amount of precipitation, which reduces the effectiveness of screening under field conditions. Even then, such studies can readily identify the salt-tolerant genotype, leading to the identification of novel genes or markers contributing towards salt tolerance, when overexpressed in the susceptible cultivars. The tolerant genotypes, thus screened can be recommended for cultivation in marginal salt-affected areas. This review focuses on the biochemical and molecular basis of varietal differences in salt tolerance among the cultivars of various plant species.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Foliar Fertilization of Some Vegetables Crops

Dimka Haytova

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 455-465

The main aim of this review is to provide an overview of the foliar fertilization studies in Bulgaria, comparing them with current research trends and to indicate future benefits of foliar nutrient spray investigations and their importance for agronomic science and practice. The application of foliar sprays is an important crop management strategy, which may help maximizing crop yield and quality. Foliar fertilization is used as a means of supplying supplemental doses of macro- and micro-nutrients, plant hormones, stimulants, and other beneficial substances. Observed effects of foliar fertilization have included yield increases, resistance to diseases and insect pests, improved drought tolerance, and enhanced crop quality. Plant response is dependent on species, fertilizer form, concentration, and frequency of application, as well as the stage of plant growth. Foliar applications are often timed to meet the demand of nutrients at specific vegetative or fruiting stages of growth, and the fertilizer formula is adjusted accordingly. Applications may also be used to aid plants recovering from transplant shock, hail damage, and other damaging environmental conditions. It is proposed that this treatment should be recommended in integrated plant production, because it is more environmentally friendly and may increase productivity and quality of crops. In the present paper, a brief review of the research on foliar fertilization, the advantages of this fertilization method and applied foliar fertilization of vegetables studies in Bulgaria are discussed. It is concluded that foliar fertilization has a definite place in vegetable crop production and that foliar nutrient sprays will be widely used in the future.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Molecular Diagnostic Techniques in Friedreich’s Ataxia

Pravin D. Potdar, Aarthy Raghu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 659-677

Friedreich’s ataxia is a commonly inherited neurodegenerative disease with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, and was described by Nikolaus Friedreich first in 1863. Friedreich’s ataxia is caused due to hyperexpansion of the intronic GAA trinucleotide repeats or mutations in the FXN gene on chromosome 9q13. This gene codes for a mitochondrial protein, frataxin, which is highly conserved in many species and has functions in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. Friedreich’s ataxia mainly results from a deficiency of the frataxin protein, due to mutations in the FXN gene. Formation of sticky DNA, formation of DNA-RNA hybrid and epigenetic changes, including methylation of DNA and histone modifications, are the proposed mechanisms for disruption of FXN gene expression. Most cases of Friedreich’s ataxia are homozygous and caused due to expansion of the GAA trinucleotide repeat in the first intron of the FXN gene, however, some cases can be heterozygous, with GAA expansion in one allele and point mutation or deletion in the FXN gene on the other allele. Therefore, diagnosis of the disease based on only the clinical symptoms becomes difficult. Molecular diagnosis is, therefore, important, in order to detect GAA repeat expansions as well as mutations in the FXN gene. This review represents an overview of the molecular diagnostic studies in Friedreich’s ataxia, including an overview of the disease, as well as the gene and protein involved in the disease and techniques that can be useful in diagnosis of the Friedreich’s ataxia. The described methods include tools that are based on analysis of DNA as well as analysis of mRNA and protein levels. A brief description of mutations found in compound heterozygous Friedreich’s ataxia patients, is also provided.

Open Access Review Article

Functional and Evolutionary Genomics of Protein Disulphide Isomerase (PDI) Gene Family in Wheat and Its Wild relatives: A Review

Arun Prabhu Dhanapal, Enrico Porceddu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 935-958

Mature wheat grain contain 8-20% proteins. The storage proteins of wheat determine the characteristics and unique properties of its flour in the process of pasta and bread-making and eventually the quality of the finished products obtained. The storage proteins play an integral role in determining the visco-elastic properties of wheat dough, a feature of high quality wheat. The genes, encoding storage proteins as well as factors that may affect their deposition, such as molecular chaperones and foldase enzymes, are of particular interest to wheat industry. Genomic, cDNA and promoter sequences of the three homoeologous gene encoding the “typical” PDI has been already cloned and characterized. Recently, eight new non-homoeologous wheat genes were cloned and characterized in bread wheat. Study characterizing the variability in a 700 bp region comprising 600 bp of 5’ upstream putative promoter region and 100 bp of the first exon of the typical PDI gene in 15 accessions of Triticum urartu (AA), Aegilops speltoides (BB) and Aegilops taushcii (DD), from diverse origin and Triticum aestivum cv Chinese Spring (AABBDD) has also been completed recently. This review explains how functional and evolutionary genomics tools aid in the study of a gene family and its promoter.

Open Access Review Article

Bioremediation: A Sustainable Tool for Environmental Management – A Review

Sonal Bhatnagar, Reeta Kumari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 974-993

Bioremediation is considered as one of the safer, cleaner, cost effective and environmental friendly technology for decontaminating sites which are contaminated with wide range of pollutants. Various industrial and anthropogenic activities resulted in increased contaminated sites due to unawareness regarding production, use and disposal of hazardous substances. The process of bioremediation uses various agents such as bacteria, yeast, fungi, algae and higher plants as major tools in treating oil spills and heavy metals present in the environment. A continuous search for the new biological forms is required to regulate increasing pollution and environmental problems faced by man residing in an area. As microorganism shows wide range of mechanisms, there are still few mechanisms which are not known, therefore bioremediation is still considered as a developing technology. Thus, there is an urgent need to for us to review and modify the available options for environmental clean up. The objective of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive review on various sources of bioremediation agents and their limitations in treating pollutants present in the environment.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Diabetic Neuropathy

Jaspinder Kaur

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 994-1012

Purpose of Review: Diabetic Neuropathies are a heterogeneous by their symptoms, pattern of neurologic involvement, course, risk covariates, pathologic alterations, and underlying mechanisms that result into mono- and polyneuropathies, plexopathies and radiculopathies. It also ranges from subclinical functional impairment of cardiovascular reflexes and sudomotor functions to severe cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary dysfunction. Orthostatic hypotension, Resting tachycardia, and Heart Rate unresponsiveness to respiration are the hallmarks of Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy greatly affects all areas of a patient’s life, including mood, sleep, self-worth, independence, ability to work, and interpersonal relationships. This review provides an overview of definition, etiopathogenesis, clinical assessment, diagnosis and management of the patients with Diabetic Neuropathies.
Summary and Results: Good clinical history and complete physical examination are the basis of assessment followed by therapeutic and laboratory studies. Strict glycemic control along with early detection and control of hyperlipidemia and hypertension, daily aspirin, smoking cessation and alcohol consumption in moderation may help to prevent, delay, or slow the progression of Diabetic Neuropathy. The main classes of agents used to treat Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic pain include Tricyclic antidepressants, Anticonvulsants, Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors, Opiates and Opiate-like substances, and topical medications. However, only two medications are approved specifically for the treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic pain: Pregabalin and Duloxetine. Management must be individualized for each patient based on efficacy, side effects profiles and drug accessibility including cost.

Open Access Review Article

Copeptin: A Neuroendocrine Biomarker in Acute Myocardial Infarction

Ahmed Elshafei, Gamil Abdalla, Ossama Abd El-Motaal, Tarek Salman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1040-1054

Copeptin is a novel neuroendocrine peptide recently introduced to the field of acute medicine biomarkers. It is 39 amino acids glycopeptide cosynthesized with arginine vasopressin (AVP) and released together in stoichiometric pattern from the hypothalamus upon stimulation of AVP release. Due to difficulties of AVP assay, copeptin largely replaced it in clinical assay as surrogate biomarker because copeptin has easier and more valid measurement methods. In acute stress condition, copeptin rises and reflects stress level exactly like AVP which was largely known as mediator of non-specific stress conditions beside its prominent role in water homeostasis. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an acute stress state in which plasma copeptin rises. Early identification of AMI is a problem due to the delayed appearance of the cardiospecific troponins which start to rise within 6-9 hours from the onset of chest pain. In the recent years many studies concluded that, when copeptin is combined with cardiac troponins in diagnosis of patients presenting with acute chest pain in early hours, it accelerates early rule in of AMI and rule out of non-MI patients. This review article discusses the biochemical and physiological basics of copeptin beside its clinical diagnostic value in AMI according to results and conclusions of some studies carried out on copeptin in AMI diagnostic field.

Open Access Review Article

Methanolic Extract of Xylopia aethiopica Ameliorates Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage in Male Wistar Rats

O. S. Folorunso, B. F. Ogungbe, C. E. O. Ikanone

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1074-1090

Aims: To examine the ameliorative effect of the methanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage male Wistar rats.
Study Design: Twelve male rats were randomly grouped into four. “A” = Control, “B” = Paracetamol-induced hepatotoxic (PCM-IHT), “C” = 200 mg/kg b.w treated and “D” = 400 mg/kg b.w treated.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Lagos State University, Ojo Lagos, Nigeria between November 2011 and March 2012.
Methodology: “A” received 3.0 ml of distilled water, “B” received 350 mg/kg b.w/day of Paracetamol, “C” after been induced (B) was treated with 200 mg/kg b.w/day and “D” after been induced (B) was treated with 400 mg/kg b.w/day of the plant extract. Two days after the last treatment, the serum was used to assay for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) using Randox commercial enzyme kits.
Results: The activities of ALT and AST reduced from 85.83±3.4 U/L and 148.2±9.75 U/L in the induced groups to 39.33±1.67 U/L and 68.84±5.72 U/L when treated with 200mg/kg and 35.67±2.46 U/L and 38.26±3.0 U/L when treated with 400 mg/kg respectively. There was no significant difference when 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w treatments were compared with the control (ALT = 38.0±0.40 U/L and AST = 53.71±2.70 U/L) (P>.05). Similarly, the activities of ALP and ACP reduced from 240.8±3.98 U/L and 152.2±7.91 U/L in the induced groups to 126.0±7.62 U/L and 56.17±1.55 U/L when treated with 200 mg/kg and 188.5±4.71 U/L and 93.55±2.18 U/L when treated with 400mg/kg respectively. The 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w treatments appeared to be significantly different from each other but with former being positively correlated with the control (ALP = 135.8±6.74 U/L and ACP = 61.96±4.12 U/L).
Conclusion: The methanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica possessed hepatoreparative property especially in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity; however, its toxicity needs to be examined.