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Open Access Short Research Article

Quercetin Supplementation Reduces Maternal Hyperglycemia in a Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mouse Model

J. Claudio Gutierrez, M. Renee Prater, Steven D. Holladay

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 306-311
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5431

Aims: Pregnancy may be complicated by diabetes mellitus. The use of natural antioxidants may alleviate the increased glucose levels in the diabetic pregnancy.
Methodology: The combination of high Fat Diet (HFD) and streptozocin (STZ) was used pre-breeding in CD1 female mice to generate maternal hyperglycemia. A subgroup of the females received quercentin (Q) supplementation in their HFD.
Results: Hyperglycemic females supplemented with Q displayed significantly decreased blood glucose levels at gestation days 10 and 17.
Conclusion: These results suggest quercetin could have utility as a supplement for diabetic women during pregnancy, and could represent a protection for the offspring of diabetic mothers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improved RAPD Analysis of Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch from Sichuan Province along Yangtze River in China

Zhiqiang Mei, Luquan Yang, Tiandan Zhang, Haiqing Yu, Lin Gan, Lianmei Zhang, Manman Yang, Junjiang Fu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 51-60
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5015

Aims: To build up the foundation of the classification and breeding of Canarium album cultivars in China.
Methodology: The improved RAPD analysis was performed in nine samples by prolonging the ramp time from annealing to extension by using ten RAPD primers, out of twelve, which were selected randomly to analyze the genetic characteristics.
Results: The polymorphism of the nine C. album was 86%, and the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.65 to 1.00. Among the similarity coefficients of the cultivars, the similarity coefficient of sample No. 2, 3 and 6 was highest (1.0), while the similarity coefficient of sample No. 5 and 7 was 0.98, which indicated that they are the same cultivars. The similarity coefficient of sample No. 9 and 4 was the lowest (0.65), which indicated that they are the different cultivars.
Conclusion: Our study provides a theoretical basis for the breeding and classification of C. album in Sichuan Province along Yangtze River of China. Also this study suggests that the improved RAPD amplification could be an effective technique to analyze the polymorphism and genetic relationship in different organisms, especially, C. album.

Open Access Original Research Article

Valuing Nature: Public Perception of Value Added by Native and Invasive Non-Native Species to a Recreational Trail Experience

Peter K. McGregor, Nicola J. Morris, Trevor J. Renals

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 61-70
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5469

Aims: To assess the effect of four animal and four plant species on the perceived monetary value of users’ single experience of a recreational trail. To assess the effect on perceived value of identifying to users that four of the species are invasive non-native species (INNS) with adverse impacts on native species.
Study Design: An image-based questionnaire was used to assess perceived monetary value of the species before and immediately after being given information on their INNS status.
Place and Duration of Study: The Camel Trail, North Cornwall UK, used by about ½ million people annually, April and May 2011.
Methodology: Fifty one Camel Trail users completed the questionnaire.
Results: Trail users positively valued all eight species when first shown them. Mean values ranged from £0.066 to £0.104. However, species were valued significantly differently (non-parametric repeated measures ANOVA, H = 55.3, 7 DF, P < .0001). Users showed significant agreement on the rank order of the value of the eight species (Kendall’s coefficient of concordance, W = 0.155, χ2 = 55.3, 7 DF, P < .0001). After the four INNS were identified to users, these INNS were devalued by 115% to 180%. Again there were significant differences between species values (H = 16.9, 3 DF, P = .0007) and significant agreement between users on the rank order value of INNS (W = 0.11 χ2 = 16.9, 7 DF, P = .001).
Conclusion: Using a simple image-based questionnaire to assess perceived monetary value of species can provide evidence to assess the cost of managing INNS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fetal Myocardial Reduction in Hyperglycemic Mouse Pregnancy is Associated with Dys-regulated Expression of the Anti-apoptotic Gene Bcl-2 in the Developing Heart. Preliminary Results

J. Claudio Gutierrez, M. Renee Prater, Patricia Navarrete, Steven D. Holladay

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 71-78
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5085

Aims: We previously detected significant late-gestation ventricular myocardial reduction in fetal mouse hearts from hyperglycemic dams. Flow cytometric analysis of the myocardial cells showed an enhanced rate of apoptosis, suggesting dysregulated cell death as a mechanism associated with the myocardial defect. The present study therefore examined expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 in fetal myocardium from hyperglycemic mouse dams on days 14 and 17 of gestation.
Methodology: The hyperglycemia was induced in female Rockefeller (inbred CD1) mice, 6 to 8 weeks old, by pre-breeding streptozotocin (STZ) injection.
Results: Expression of Bcl-2 in the fetal myocardium from the diabetic dams was decreased by 53% and 51% at GD14 and 17, respectively.
Conclusion: These results suggest maternal hyperglycemia may damage the developing myocardium by altering expression of gene pathways that regulate cell death.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interchromatin Granule Clusters of Mouse Preovulatory Oocytes are Enriched with Some Components of mRNA Export Machinery

N. Pochukalina Galina, S. Stepanova Irina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 79-92
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5609

At the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase, the nucleus of mouse preovulatory oocytes contains multiple and prominent interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs). IGCs, also known as nuclear speckles, splicing factor compartments, or SC35-domains, are one of the most universal nuclear organelles. We have used mouse oocytes as an experimental model to study nuclear distribution of some factors involved in mRNA export: the core protein of the exon-exon junction complex (EJC) Y14, EJC shell protein Aly, and the essential mRNA export factor NXF1/TAP. RNA export proteins were detected by confocal laser microscopy and immunogold-labeling electron microscopy. We found that Y14, Aly and NXF1/TAP are located in the same IGCs together with actin and SC35 used as an IGC marker. The relationships of these proteins with IGCs occur in an RNA-dependent manner, since RNase treatment results in disappearance of the identified antigens from IGCs. After the suppression of transcription by DRB, intranuclear localization of the studied proteins varied considerably: NXF1/TAP, Y14 and Aly were detected only in the nucleoplasm, but not in the IGCs. The concept of the formation and retention of mRNA export complex and nuclear actin in the IGCs of mouse oocyte is discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genomic Molecular Markers for the DNA Fingerprinting of Sperm Derived from Epinephelus lanceolatus and E. fuscoguttatus

Kenneth F. Rodrigues, Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee, Shigeharu Senoo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 93-104
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6036

Groupers belong to the subfamily Epinephelinae of the family Serranidae. They are an economically important marine fisheries resource and are commercially cultivated throughout the tropical and temperate regions of the world. The aquaculture industry relies on artificial breeding of groupers in order to obtain fingerlings which are free of pathogens and demonstrate a uniform growth rate. Rapid validation of sperm and eggs is a major challenge to breeders. Single locus DNA markers are ideal for the authentication of germplasm as they generate single PCR amplicons which do not require further sequencing. This study focused on the development of single locus DNA markers for genotyping of sperm samples derived from two species of grouper, the Giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and the Tiger grouper (E. fuscoguttatus). Single locus molecular markers were developed using DNA sequences obtained from shotgun genomic libraries and tested against sperm samples derived from each of the species and the closely related groupers E. coioides and E. corallicola. A total of 54 molecular markers were developed of which six were found to be specific to E. fuscoguttatus and seven to E. lanceolatus. The remaining markers generated PCR products in all of the four species and were rejected as suitable candidates for genotyping. The markers developed as a result of this study are relevant to fish breeders and fish farmers as they species specific, inexpensive and augment traditional methods of identification based on phenotypic characterization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exogenously Applied H2O2 Promotes Proline Accumulation, Water Relations, Photosynthetic Efficiency and Growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Salt Stress

Farha Ashfaque, M. Iqbal R. Khan, Nafees A. Khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 105-120
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5629

Aim: To determine the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the alleviation of salt stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
Design of the Study: Wheat plants were grown with or without 100 mM NaCl and were treated with 0, 50 or 100 nM H2O2 treatments.
Place and Duration of Study: The experimental work was carried out in the naturally illuminated green house at the Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India between November to December, 2012.
Methodology: Plants were sampled at 30 days after seed sowing to determine physiological, biochemical and growth parameters.
Results: Treatment of plants with H2O2 significantly influenced the parameters both under non saline and salt stress. The application of both 50 and 100 nM H2O2 reduced the severity of salt stress through the reduction in Na+ and Clcontent; and the increase in proline content and N assimilation. This resulted in increased water relations, photosynthetic pigments and growth under salt stress. However, maximum alleviation of salt stress was noted with 100 nM H2O2 and 50 nM H2Oproved less effective. Under non saline condition also application of H2O2 increased all the studied parameters.
Conclusion: The treatment of 100 nM H2O2 maximally benefitted the wheat plants under non saline condition and alleviated the effects of salt stress. The treatment of H2O2 increased proline content which might help increased photosynthetic pigments and growth under salt stress. The mechanism of proline metabolism by which H2Otreatment may protect against salt stress will be investigated further.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling the Relationship between Environmental Temperature and Feeding Performance in Florida (USA) Nonnative Fishes, with Implications for Invasive-Species Response to Climate Change

Ralph G. Turingan, Tyler J. Sloan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 121-132
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5720

Aims: To determine the effect of environmental temperature on the feeding kinematics of two Florida (USA) invasive-fish species, pike killifish Belonesox belizanus and Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus, in an attempt to explore the adaptive response of whole-organism performance to climate change.
Study Design: Model I (Fixed-Effects Model) Linear Regression Analysis, y-Dependent Variable = Kinematics; x-Independent Variable = Environmental Temperature.
Place and Duration of Study: Fish Ecophysiology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology in May-December, 2011.
Methodology: Four each of B. belizanus and C. urophthalmus, collected from invasive populations in Florida were acclimated in 38 liter experimental aquarium, trained, and filmed using high-speed video while eating fish-prey at 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. Four films per invasive-fish species at each temperature were analyzed using MaxTRAQ digitizing software. In each film, three kinematic-excursion (peak gape, peak hyoid depression and cranial elevation at peak gape) and three kinematic-timing (time to peak gape, hyoid depression, and cranial elevation) variables were measured. Each kinematic variable was regressed against temperature to model the relationship between feeding performance and environmental temperature.
Results: All experimental fishes behaved normally and fed aggressively in each of the three experimental temperature regimes. It is evident in the feeding kinematics-temperature plots that fish-feeding at each temperature was variable and unpredictable. Out of the 12 regression equations generated to model the relationship between feeding kinematics and environmental temperature, only one (peak gape in C. urophthalmus) showed a significant slope (Peak Gape = 1.42 + 0.01 Temperature; R2 = 0.22; P< 0.01).
Conclusion: The models defining the relationship between feeding kinematics and environmental temperature are weak, as indicated by the extremely low values of the coefficient of determination (R2). Empirical evidence indicates that the feeding performance of invasive B. belizanus and C. urophthalmus is not affected by temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Effect of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts on Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum (Nectriaceae) Schlecht. Emend. Snyder and Hansen

MLMC Dissanayake

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 133-142
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5777

Aims: The study was aimed to screen antifungal activity of some medicinal plant extracts against F. oxysporum by screening fungistatic, fungicidal activities and minimum inhibitory dilution (MID).
Study Design: All the data were subjected to analysis of variance followed by mean separation through Duncan’s multiple range tests using computer software.
Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka between June 2012 and May 2013.
Methodology: In vitro studies were carried out to test the antifungal activity of 6 plant extracts; Oxalis corniculata L. (creeping wood sorrel), Ocimum gratissimum L. (wild basil), Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray (wild sunflower), Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (neem), Kaempferia galangal L.(aromatic ginger) and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger). All plant extract were screened for their fungistatic, fungicidal activities and minimum inhibitory dilution (MID) against F. oxysporum. 
Results: Results showed that radial growth of F. oxysporum was significantly impaired (P = .05) by all extracts except wild sunflower and creeping wood sorrel. F. oxysporum differed in their reaction to the different extracts but on the whole, growth inhibition increased with the concentration of each extract. At 25 %, the most active extracts were aromatic ginger, wild basil and neem, which are shows inhibition values of 91%, 89% and 83% for F. oxysporum respectively. The minimal inhibitory dilution (MID) were 3.125 % (v/v) for aromatic ginger and wild basil and 6.25% (v/v) for ginger. Out of six plants extract screened, wild basil, aromatic ginger and neem showed more than 80% fungal inhibition after 6 hour immersion and other extracts could not exceed 60% inhibition after any exposure time.
Conclusion: The study revealed that methanol crude extract of aromatic ginger, wild basil and neem exhibit strong fungistatic and fungicidal activities against F. oxysporum, whereas aromatic ginger and wild basil could be used as an effective antifungal agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Silico Mutagenesis Reveals Specific Binding Residues that Regulate KSRP – microRNA Precursor Interactions in Human

Sayak Ganguli, Abhijit Datta

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 143-153
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5745

Aims: The main aim of the study is to identify the key residues involved in interactions of KSRP and microRNAs of human.
Study Design: The KH type splicing regulatory protein acronymed as KSRP is a member of the FUSE binding protein family. The FUSE is an AT rich DNA element which is present 1.7kb upstream of the c-Myc oncogene promoter. KSRP also known as FUSE binding protein 2(FBP2). Various activities of KSRP has been reported by many workers over the years, however recent report suggest that KSRP is involved in a crucial step of the microRNA biogenesis pathway – the generation of precursor microRNAs from primary microRNAs. The premise of this work stems from the observation that much micro RNA has been implicated in numerous diseases and though antisense constructs have been projected as possible therapeutic agents against such microRNAs, protein inhibitors or Site directed mutagenesis (SDM) approaches should open up new intervention strategies.
Place and Duration: The work was done entirely at the DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency university, Kolkata for a period from June 2012 – May 2013.
Methodology: Comparative modeling followed by molecular dynamic simulation strategies based on flexible and rigid docking approaches were combined with in silico mutagenesis to analyze the interactions of KSRP and human “microRNAs”
Results: Results indicate that specific residues of the K type single stranded RNA binding domain play important roles in RNA binding and in their absence the binding affinities are affected.
Conclusion: In silico mutagenesis in protein structures can serve as important initial steps to understand the interactions of proteins and their substrates. In context of KSRP the protein active site residues were identified and these could serve as important targets for future experiments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Early Stages and Natural History of Memphis perenna lankesteri Butterfly (Nymphalidae, Charaxinae) from Costa Rica with the First Published Female Pictures

Jim Córdoba-Alfaro, Luis Ricardo Murillo-Hiller

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 154-162
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/3970

The early stages of Memphis perenna lankesteri (Hall 1935) are described and illustrated in this paper, with the first published female pictures. The butterfly larvae were found in Croton niveus (Euphorbiaceae) in Mansiones de Montes de Oca (9º 56´N, 84º 01´W), San José, Costa Rica, with an immature stages duration of x1.JPG 59 days (n=18). The larvae behavior, body shape larvae, host plant and female phenotype were discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Resin– Based Root Canal Sealer –AH Plus: A Cytotoxic Evaluation

Mithra N. Hegde, Aastha Puri, Shilpa S. Shetty, Nidarsh D. Hegde, Suchetha Kumari, Ganesh Sanjeev

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 163-173
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5641

Aims: To evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity of a resin-based root canal sealer, AH Plus, before and after electron beam irradiation and to assess the effect of three different doses of electron beam radiation (1 KGy, 3 KGy and 5 KGy) on cytotoxicity of the sealer.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Nitte University, Deralakatte, Mangalore, India and Microtron Centre; Department of Physics Mangalore University; Mangalore, India between July 2012 and November 2012.
Methodology: Gingival fibroblasts were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) and sub confluent monolayers of cells were obtained. The study included two categories- Irradiated and Non-irradiated. Both of them were further divided into four groups of paste A, paste B, Mixed and Set sealer of AH plus. Samples in irradiated category were further divided into 3 subgroups based on electron beam irradiation dose-1, 3 and 5 KGy. Sample elutes were prepared using standard extraction procedure. The elutes of all sealers from both the categories were added to the human gingival fibroblast cultures and their cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. The results were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using One–way ANOVA (Analysis of variance) test and Tukey’s HSD Test.
Results: Cell viability was minimum in Paste M irradiated with 5 KGy irradiation dose and maximum in non-irradiated SET AH Plus sealer. The results of the present study showed positive effect of irradiation in the epoxide paste of AH Plus sealer. The positive effect here is mainly based on experimental data of percentage cell viability and not on statistical significance. Multiple comparisons of different doses of electron beam irradiation on percentage of cell viability in all the samples showed a highly statistically significant difference at 3 KGy of electron beam radiation (value = 0.008).
Conclusion: Further research should to be performed with higher doses of electron beam radiation on epoxide paste in order to notice further improvement in physical as well as biological properties in order to generate an upgraded version of the present dental materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

With Whom Did You Drink Last Time? An Analysis of Adolescents’ Alcohol Use

Kristjan Kask, Anna Markina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 174-187
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5556

Aims: Adolescents’ use of alcohol in Europe is high. In this paper aspects of adolescents’ alcohol use, namely differences in gender, age and country clusters concerning social context of drinking, are examined.
Study Design: A secondary analysis of the survey data.
Place and Duration of Study: Adolescents from 25 European countries (N = 57,771) filled in the Second International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2) survey in 2006.
Methodology: A sub-sample from the larger ISRD-2 sample was drawn by selecting students from grades 7 to 9 in the age from 12 to 16. The dependent variables were social context of drinking light and strong alcohol, and last time use of alcohol. The independent variables were gender, age and country clusters (Northern, Western, Southern and Eastern Europe).
Results: Alcohol was used more with peers. Boys consumed alcohol more likely alone compared to girls. In Northern and Western Europe the proportion of drinking with peers was relatively high; in Southern Europe drinking with parents was high; in Southern and Eastern Europe drinking alone was high. The proportion of those adolescents who drank alcohol alone or with parents decreased by age; those who drank it with peers increased by age. Drinking alone in younger age is more prevalent in boys. A larger amount of alcohol was drunk with peers compared to alone or with parents.
Conclusion: Many prevention programs aim at family and/or school as important actors; however, for at least some group of adolescents an individual approach is needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antioxidant Evaluation of Moullava spicata (Dalzell) Nicolson Leaf Extract

K. Lohith, R. Vijay, K. C. Pushpalatha, Chandrashekara G. Joshi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 188-197
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/3370

Background: Moullava spicata (Dalzell) Nicolson is an endemic medicinal plant and its leaves are used to treat many diseases.
Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemical, antifungal and antioxidant status of Moullava spicata leaf extract.
Methods and Materials: The total phenolic content of leaf was measured by Folin-Ciolteau’s assay. Antioxidant activity of the plant was detected by using in-vitro 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid) (ABTS), Phosphomolybdenum reduction and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Antifungal activity was detected by Agar cup diffusion method.
Result: The phytochemical analysis showed that extracts of M. spicata contained pharmacologically important phytochemicals. Acetone extract showed higher total antioxidants activity and reducing power. However DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity were higher in methanol and acetone extracts respectively.
Conclusion: Present study showed pharmacologically significant phytochemical and high antioxidant status on leaf.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Olive Pulp Supplemented with Probiotics on Productive Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Parameters of Laying Hens

Meysam Afsari, Ahmad Mohebbifar, Mehran Torki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 198-211
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5212

This study was conducted to evaluate effects of diet inclusion of olive pulp supplemented by acommercial probiotic mixture (Yeasture®) including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei on performance of laying hens, egg quality traits and some blood parameters. A total number of 144 Lohmann LSL-Lite hens were randomly divided in 24 cages. Based on a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments, six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets (ME =2720 Kcal/Kg and CP=15 g/Kg) including: I- corn-soybean meal-based control-1 diet (C1), II-corn-soybean meal-based control-2 diet (C2), and III- corn-soybean meal-based diet with 160 g/kg olive pulp (E), with or without probiotic Yeasture® (0.0 and 0.06 g/kg) were formulated. Hens in every randomly-selected four cages (replicates) allotted to feed on each of 6 experimental diets. Collected data of feed intake (FI), egg production (EP), egg mass (EM) and calculated feed conversion ratio (FCR) as well as egg quality traits during this 7-week trial period were analyzed based on completely randomized design using GLM procedure of SAS.
Diet inclusion of olive pulp did not have significant effect on EP and EM and increased FI and FCR in compared to control groups. Dietary probiotic supplementation decreased EP and EM. Diet inclusion of olive pulp decreased Haugh unit, yolk color and shell weight in the first egg sampling (wk 3) in compared with control diets (=.05). In second egg sampling (wk7), dietary supplementation by probiotic decreased Haugh unit. Diet inclusion of olive pulp significantly decreased yolk color in second egg sampling (wk7). Including olive pulp to diet significantly decreased serum levels of cholesterol and HDL. Dietary supplementation by probiotic significantly increased cholesterol, HDL and LDL in compared with control groups (P =.05). There was no the significant interaction between dietary olive pulp and probiotic on white blood cell counts, except for monocyte percentage (P=0.01). Dietary treatments did not have significant effect on body weight (BW) and excreta pH.
From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that OP can be included in laying hens diets up to 16% with no adverse effect on performance; however, in terms of feed efficiency, Hugh unit, eggshell weight and yolk color, lower percentage of olive pulp in diets would be appreciated.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Trypanocidal Activity of Ethanolic Crude Extract and Phytochemical Fractions of Garcinia kola Seeds

T. O. Johnson, B. P. Omoniwa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 212-222
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5716

Aim: To determine the trypanocidal activity of the crude ethanolic extract and phytochemical fractions of Garcinia kola seeds in Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats.
Study Design: Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats were treated with the ethanolic crude extract, alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin and cardiac glycoside fractions of Garcinia kola seeds. Parasitaemia and Packed cell volume (PCV) were measured.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria between June and October 2011.
Methodology: 11 groups of four rats each were used. Group A rats were infected but not treated. Groups B, C, D, E and F were infected but treated with 50mg/kg crude extract, alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin and cardiac glycoside fractions respectively, while groups G, H, I, J and K were infected but treated with 100mg/kg of the extracts respectively. Parasitaemia levels of rats were observed daily under Light microscope at x100 magnification. PCV values were determined on days 4 and 8 using microhaematocrit centrifuge at 10,000xg for 5 min.
Results: At 50mg/kg the crude extract brought about a 37.50% reduction in the parasitaemia of infected rats, the alkaloid fraction 76.70%, flavonoid fraction 53.45% and saponin fraction 76.70%. At 100mg/kg the crude extract and the alkaloid, flavonoid and saponin fractions reduced parasitaemia of infected rats by 84.50%, 92.25%, 61.20% and 68.98% respectively. Treatment with the cardiac glycoside fraction showed no improvement in parasitaemia. Significant increases (P=.05) in PCV values were observed in all the treated groups on days 4 and 8 when compared with the untreated ones.
Conclusion: Available results from this research shows that ethanolic crude extract of Garcinia kola seeds and its alkaloid, flavonoid and saponin fractions at 50 and 100mg/kg demonstrated activities against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Abiotic Factors on Anti-reproductive Activity of Bait-containing Papain in Lymnaea acuminata

Arun Kumar Srivastava, D. K. Singh, Vinay Kumar Singh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 223-237
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4163

Aims: To investigate the anti-reproductive action of papain against Lymnaea acuminata with respect to abiotic factors. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is the intermediate host of Fasciola species, which causes endemic fasciolosis in cattle and human population. Fasciolosis is a disease of ruminants worldwide which shows most widespread distribution in comparison to other vector-born parasitic disease.
Study Design: Baits were prepared from starch or serine (20Mm) in 2% agar-agar solution with papain the active component of Carica papaya (40% and 80% of 24h LC50). Each regimen of 5 liter water was kept in six aquaria separately, containing 20 snails in each aquarium. Bait containing papain was added in each aquarium except control. Control bait was without papain. After every 24 h, up to 96 h, the total number of eggs laid by the snails was counted in each aquarium. At every 24h spawns were observed for hatching and survival of embryos. Temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and dissolved free carbon dioxide of different regimen of water were measured, simultaneously. After 96h, the ovotestis and/ or nervous tissue were dissected out and protein [22], free amino acids [23], nucleic acids [24] and enzyme AChE [25,26] activity were then measured.
Place and Duration of Study: Malacology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur – 273009, U.P., India.The present study was carried outinbetween November- 2011 to October- 2012.
Results: Feeding of baits containing papain with starch and serine (40% and 80% of 24h LC50) caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. Maximum (1036 eggs/20 snails) and minimum (175 eggs/ 20 snails) fecundity were observed in June-2012 and February-2012, respectively. There was significant (P =.05) positive correlation in between the sublethal concentration of baits containing papain (starch/ serine) and variation of temp/pH/CO2 of water in each month of the year2011-12. Protein, amino acid, DNA and RNA in the ovotestis of L. acuminata were significantly decreased when they were fed to bait containing 80% of 24h LC50 of papain + serine in different months of 2011 and 2012. Maximum reduction in protein (26.31 % of control), amino acid (28.83% of control), DNA (42.34% of control) and RNA (34.10% of control) level were measured in the ovotestis of L. acuminata fed to bait containing 80% of 24h LC50 of papain + serine. Feeding of bait containing 80% of 24h LC50 of papain + starch caused maximum reduction in the level of protein (28.97% of control), amino acid (56.77% of control), DNA (42.05% of control) and RNA (29.31% of control) in the ovotestis of L. acuminata. There was a significant (P=.05) positive correlation between the fecundity in different months and the corresponding AChE activity in the nervous tissue of the snail. Feeding of bait containing 80% of 24h LC50 of papain + serine caused maximum inhibition in AChE activity (41.71% of control) was observed in snail exposed to in the nervous tissue of L. acuminata in December2011. Feeding of bait containing 80% of 24h LC50 of papain + starch caused maximum inhibition in AChE activity (31.92% of control) in the nervous tissue of L. acuminata in June 2012.
Conclusion: Papain altered the reproductive capacity of snails. The anti-reproductive action against L. acuminata significantly altered with respect to the change in the abiotic factors in different months of the year Nov-2011toOct-2012.

Open Access Original Research Article

Garlic (Allium sativum) Propagation Alternatives using Bulblets and Cloves of Different Sizes in a Semi-arid Sub-tropical Environment

M. L. Mhazo, F. C. Ngwerume, M. T. Masarirambi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 238-245
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4186

Aims: Garlic (Allium sativum) is increasing in popularity in Southern Africa. However, there is dearth of information on alternative propagules to use. The trial was carried out to find out the yield of garlic produced from aerial bulblets and two clove sizes.
Study Design: The treatments were laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated 3 times.
Place and Duration of Study: This trial was carried out at the Horticulture Research Centre, Marondera, Zimbabwe from April to August of 2007.
Methodology: The small cloves, large cloves and bulblets were sown in seedling trays and transplanted in the field at 30 days after planting in plots of 2m by 2m. The plant spacing was 40 cm between the rows by 10 cm within the row.
Results: There were significant (p<0.001) differences for time to shoot emergence and plant height at transplanting. The results showed that at 5 days after planting 89% of the large cloves emerged early followed by aerial bulblets at 47 % and small cloves at 34 %. Small cloves and bulblets took a longer time to emerge at 80 % and 76 % respectively at 14 days after planting. Large cloves produced the tallest mean seedlings (29.70 cm) at transplanting while bulblets had the mean shortest seedlings (20 cm). Large cloves produced plants with the highest flowering incidence of 61 % and small cloves had the lowest of 22 % while bulblets had 37 %. The flowering incidence was also significantly (p<0.001) different for the three types of propagation materials. There were no significant differences in yield between the large cloves, small cloves and the bulblets. The results indicated that bulblets can be used as garlic seed in the same way as cloves.
Conclusion: The yield from small cloves, large cloves and bulblets was not significantly different. Bulblets can be used to propagate garlic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Line Probe Assay as a Rapid Tool for Detection of MDRTB

Rajani Ranganath, G. S. Vijay Kumar, Veerabhadra Javali, Ravi Ranganath

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 246-257
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5650

Aims: To evaluate genotypic Line Probe Assay (LPA) for rapid detection of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB) directly from sputum samples in comparison with Drug Susceptibility Testing (DST) on phenotypic MBBacT liquid media.
Study Design: Data analysis from 86 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains was done using SPSS version 17.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, JSS Medical College, Mysore, Karnataka, between January 2011 to January 2012.
Methodology: MDRTB rate detected by LPA assay from 92 samples by noting the mutations in hot spot region of rpoB gene, katG and inhA regulatory region and compared with DST on MBBacT liquid media.
Results: Out of 86 MTB isolates, resistant rates for Rifampicin (RIF) and Isoniazid (INH) were 41.8%, 39.53% by LPA and 45.34%, 55.81% by MBBacT. LPA assay showed sensitivity and specificity as 92.35%, 100% for RIF resistance detection and 70.83%, 100% for INH resistance detection, 94.74%, 100% for MDRTB detection compared to conventional DST results.
Conclusion: This study showed that LPA has high detection rate for RIF resistance. However to improve the detection of INH resistance in MTB strains additional probes are to be included in LPA. LPA has good sensitivity and specificity for MDRTB detection with turnaround time of less than 48 hours.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detecting Chemical Molecular Structure Differences among Different Iranian Barley Cultivars Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Hojjat Gholizadeh, Abbasali Naserian, Reza Valizadeh, Abdol Mansour Tahmasbi, Peiqiang Yu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 258-268
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4838

Objectives: To characterize protein molecular structure using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analysis and identify the structure differences among barley cultivars.
Place and Duration of Study: Six barley cultivars: (1) cv. Yousef, (2) cv. Nosrat, (3) cv. CB.79.10, (4) cv.Makooie, (5) cv. Abidar, and (6) cv. Sararood were provided from Crop Development Center Karaj, Iran. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, Canada), between May 2012 to November 2012.
Methodology: The spectral data were collected from feeds using JASCO FTIR-ATR-4200. The molecular structure spectral analyses involved protein amide I, amide II, α-helix, β-sheet, total carbohydrate, the ratio of amide I to amide II, α-helix to β-sheet, and starch to amide I.
Results: Molecular spectral techniques were able to identify spectral differences associated with the molecular structural differences among barley cultivars. It was found that protein molecular structure in terms of amide II, the ratio of amides I to II and the ratio of α- helix to β-sheet significantly differed among cultivars. Makooie had the greatest peak area and height amide II and the ratio of α-helix to β-sheet. It had the lowest ratio of amide I to amide II and the ratio of starch to amide I. Carbohydrate molecular spectral intensities were also varied among barley cultivars, but it was not statistically significant. CB.79.10 had the greatest peak area CHO. The infrared absorbance intensity ratio of starch to amide I was different among barley cultivars. It was higher for CB.79.10 indicating that CB.79.10 is more heterogeneous than those of other barley cultivars.
Conclusion: The biological function differences between barley cultivars may be related to molecular structure difference and biopolymer conformation between the cultivars of barley. Further study is needed to quantify protein and carbohydrate related molecular spectral features of barley in relation to nutrient supply and availability of protein and carbohydrate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis among Seed Yield Traits of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Accessions in Ethiopia

Itefa Degefa, Yohannes Petros, Mebeaselassie Andargie

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 269-284
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5473

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the association of different yield related traits to seed yield of mungbean
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Haramaya University Rare research site and Hirna Research site during the 2012 cropping season.
Methodology: Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications was used for both locations. Each genotype was planted on a 1.2 X 2m plot consisting of four rows, which accommodates ten plants per row and thus 40 plants per plot.
Results: The result showed that seed yield per plot was significantly associated with harvest index, seed yield per plant and biomass at both locations. However, at Hirna, number of secondary branches and number of pods per plant were also significantly associated with seed yield per plot. Path analysis indicated that harvest index and biomass were the main determinants of yield per plot at both Hirna and Rare. Analysis over locations also supported that harvest index and biomass are the main determinant of yield per plot.
Conclusion: The present investigation indicated that a large scope of simultaneous improvement in seed yield through selection could be achieved using the traits identified as predictors of yield in mungbean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatotoxic and Antidiabetic Potentials of Aqeuous Bark Extracts of Ficus asperifolia on Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

B. P. Omoniwa, T. O. Johnson, O. Soji-Omoniwa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 285-295
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5699

Aim: The aim of this research was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous bark extract of Ficus asperifolia on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and also to investigate its toxicity potential on the liver of albino rats.
Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out in the Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria between June, 2011 and September, 2011.
Methodology: F. asperifolia bark was pulverized and percolated in distilled water. The mixture was filtered after 48 hours extraction using Whatman No 1 filter papers. The resulting filtrate was concentrated on a water bath and the concentrate used for the preparation of the doses used (i. e. 400mg, 800mg and 1200mg/Kg body weight). Alloxan- induced diabetic rats were treated with the different doses of the extract for 7 days and their fasting blood glucose concentration tested every day for 7days. The animals were sacrificed 24 hrs after the 7th day administration and their serum used for the analysis of Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride, High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein and Very Low Density Lipoprotein. Rats were also treated with the different doses for 1, 7 and 21 days. They were sacrificed 24 hours after the administration days. Their serum were collected and used for the analysis of Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, Total Cholesterol and Albumin.
Results: Administration of aqueous bark extract of F. asperifolia caused a significant reduction (P= .05) in blood glucose concentration in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Serum Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein and Very Low Density Lipoprotein Concentrations were also significantly decreased (P= .05) in the diabetic rats while High Density Lipoprotein was significantly increased (P= .05). Liver marker enzymes Aspartate Aminotransferase and Alanine Aminotransferase serum activities and serum Total protein were significantly increased (P= .05) in the treated animals when compared to the control group. Serum albumin concentration also fluctuated significantly (P= .05) following extract administration.
Conclusion: Results available from this study shows that aqueous bark extract of F. asperifolia possesses antidiabetic properties but also possesses hepatotoxic effects at the doses tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sowing Date and Plant Density on Yield and Yield Components of Lentil (Lens culinaris cv. Sistan)

Seyyed Gholamreza Moosavi, Mohamad Javad Seghatoleslami, Mohamad Reza Delarami

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 296-305

Aims: This study was conducted to study the effects of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of lentil cv. Sistan.
Study Design: Experimental design was factorial based on randomized complete block with three replications.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in a personal farm in Zabol, Iran, in 2009.
Methodology: The factors included sowing date at four levels (November 21, December 5, December 19 and January 2) and plant density at four levels (18, 24, 36 and 71 plants. m-2).
Results: The results of analysis of variance showed that sowing date significantly affected pod number per plant and per m2, seed yield per unit area and per plant and harvest index, but its effect was not significant on seed number per pod, 100-seed weight and biological yield per unit area and per plant, while the change in plant density significantly affected all of them at 1% level. The interaction between sowing date and plant density did not significantly affect the measure traits. Means comparison showed that the delay in sowing from November 21 to January 2 decreased pod number per plant, pod number per m2 and seed yield by 15.6, 14.7 and 10.3%, respectively. Also, with the increase in population from 18 to 72 plants. m-2, pod number m-2 increased by 2.15 times and seed number per pod, seed yield and biological yield increased by 11.4, 104.4 and 178.9%, respectively, but pod number per plant and 100-seed weight decreased by 45.6 and 16.7%, respectively. The delay in sowing date as well as the increase in plant density/m2 significantly decreased harvest index.
Conclusion: In total, according to the results of the current study it is recommended to use sowing date of November 21 with the population of 72 plants. m-2 in order to realize optimum yield of lentil in Sistan, Iran.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gene Encoding and Bioinformatics Analysis of Protein Structure of β-Galactosidase from Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps Putton

Samin Seddigh, Maryam Darabi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 312-324
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6194

Aims: To identify the partial sequence of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) enzyme of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Putton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), which is a key pest of wheat and barley in the wide area of the world and its relationship with other creatures.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Protection, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran, and Department of Entomology, Science and Reaserch Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Between March 2012 and July 2013.
Methodology: A part of β-galactosidase (βgal) gene was isolated from E. integriceps (designated as Ei-βgal-JQ889818), containing 328 bp. Nucleotide sequences were translated into 109 amino acids by translation tools. Twenty-six beta-galactosidase protein sequences from twenty-seven insect species, two animal samples including human and mouse, two bacteria samples including Escherichia coli and Synechococcus sp. and a sample of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana were aligned. Homology search was done by BLAST to identify the most similar protein sequences to Ei-βgal-JQ889818.
Results: Protein structure analysis revealed that the deduced Ei-βgal-JQ889818 had extensive homology with other insect βgals and contained two catalytic domains of βgals. The predicted 3-D model of Ei-βgal-JQ889818 has a typical spatial structure of βgals and is partly similar to βgals. Phylogenetic tree analysis of Ei-βgal-JQ889818 showed that there is a close relationship among Arabidopsis thaliana, Acyrthosiphun pisum and Mus musculus.
Conclusion: Accordingly, βgals should be functional proteins involved in the biosynthesis of lactose and are derived from a common ancestor. This research will lead us to know more about the role of βgal as a digestive enzyme through its phylogenetic relationship.

Open Access Original Research Article

Boron (H3BO3) Toxicity in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Germination

Alihan Cokkizgin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 325-336
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6114

Aim: The beneficial and harmful effects of the chemical compound depend on the organism physiology but high levels of boron have harmful effects for most of the plants. Chemical compound limits life cycle activities. In the study, the toxic effects of Boron (H3BO3) on the germination of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds were investigated.
Study Design: The experimental design comprised complete randomized blocks (CRD) with 3 replicates. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance using the Statistical Analysis System software and treatments means were considered significantly different at p<0.05. Mean separation was evaluated by Least Significant Difference. Correlation coefficients between all possible combinations were determined and the results indicated that all the studied parameters had significantly positive or negative relationship.
Place and Duration of Study: The present experiment was conducted at Gaziantep University Vocational School of Higher Education in Nurdagi, Gaziantep/Turkey between July and August 2012.
Methodology: Gina and Sarikiz common bean cultivars were placed in the temperature adjustable plant growth cabinet at 25°C with 1-2-3-4-5% Boron Concentration and distilled water-as control-(2,5 µS/cm). In this study Germination percentage (GP), germination index (GI), seed length (SL), vigor Index (VI), difference from control (DFC) and fitotoxicity parameters were investigated.
Results: Germination Percentage, Germination Index, Seed Lenght, Vigor Index, Difference from Control and Fitotoxicity parameters varied between 0.00-90.00% , 0.00-5.09, 0.00-5.64cm, 0.00-505.43, 0.00-100% and 0.00-100% respectively. Significant differences were found between cultivars for Germination Percentage, Germination Index, Seed Length, Vigor Index. On the other, the only significant difference in interaction (Variety X Boron Concentration) was detected in vigor index.
Conclusion: Increasing in boron concentration could decrease germination of common bean. Fitotoxicity has negative and significant relationship with Germination Percentage, Germination Index, Seed Lenght, Vigor Index however other all possible correlation combinations was significant and positive.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Analysis of Salt Tolerance in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

M. Nakhaei, A. Baghizadeh, G. Mohammadi-Nejad, P. Golkar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 337-346
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5909

Aim: The mode of agronomic traits inheritance was investigated in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in salt stress as a new report in this study.
Place and Duration of Study: This experiment was carried out in Agricultural Research Farm of Shahid Bahonar University at Ekhtiarabad, Kerman, Iran, in 2011 -2012.
Methodology: Five generation including P1, P2, F1, F2 and F3 that derived from the cross of IL.111 (salt sensitive) × Mex.22-191 (salt tolerance) were used in a randomized complete block design with two replications.
Results: According to generation mean analysis, different types of gene action was obtained for studied traits. The additive model [d] was fitted for branches/plant, seeds/capsule and seed yield/plant. The simple additive - dominance model [d, h] was fitted for number of seeds/plant. Also, dominance× dominance epistasis [l] was added to fit the model as [d, h, l] for capsule/plant and dry weight/plant. The genetic model of [d,h,i] and [d, i] was fitted for genetic control of plant height and seed weight, respectively.
Conclusion: Obtained results could be suitable for designing of breeding strategies to improve seed yield of safflower in salt stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Improvement for Body Weight of Japanese Quail

Sheida Varkoohi, Keyomars Kaviani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 347-353
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5281

Aims: The small size of quail is a limited factor in many countries, because there is not a general consumption culture according to such products, so increase in the size of quail products is a necessity for such countries. In current study, selection for Japanese quail body weight at four weeks of age was performed at three generations to estimate the response to selection and realized heritability.
Study Design: Phenotypic selection
Place and Duration of Study: Animal research station of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran, between February 2012 and November 2012.
Methodology: The selected line was chosen to increase body weight, and control line was maintained as a random-bred control. In each generation, 25 sires and 50 dams were used as parents for the next generation. Three generations of selection were performed and there were two hatches per generation. Genetic responses, realized heritability and slopes of cumulative genetic response were calculated.
Results: Results showed that response to selection and realized heritability for four week body weight after selection through three generations was 10.9 and 0.47 respectively. The mean of body weight in selected and control lines of last generation were 177.6 and 161.2, respectively. This is 10.2% cumulative genetic improvement. Results showed that genetic improvement in body weight were 4.7 and 6.2 for second and third generations, respectively.
Conclusion: this study demonstrates that 4wk body weight in Japanese quail has increased after three generation of selection and there was good genetic improvement for body weight.

Open Access Review Article

Utilization of Saponins, a Plant Secondary Metabolite in Enteric Methane Mitigation and Rumen Modulation

Sunil Kumar Sirohi, Navneet Goel, Nasib Singh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5323

Methane (CH4) emission originated from the livestock is a major concern globally as it is a potent greenhouse gas and also accounts for 3-10% loss of ingested feed energy for productive purposes. Interventions for CH4 mitigation based on plant secondary metabolites (PSM) have been considered as safe, economical and effective strategies. Saponins, a multifunctional PSM, exhibited immense medicinal importance in traditional medicine system as well as in experimental biological systems. Last few decades witnessed a steady increase in interest towards application of saponins as rumen fermentation modulating agent as well a promising methane inhibitor. Saponins containing plants and their purified saponins have shown encouraging results in in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate their toxicity profile, metabolism and mechanism of action at molecular level. This review focuses on the current status of role of saponins in ruminant nutrition.

Open Access Review Article

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Cancer: An Update on Their Similarities

Frederic Delom, Delphine Fessart

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 20-37
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5296

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by an increase resistance of the vascular wall from pulmonary arteries leading to vascular lumen occlusion, right ventricular failure, and death. PAH has been described for many years, as a cardiovascular disease affecting the lungs. Whatever the initial cause, pulmonary arterial hypertension involves the vasoconstriction of blood vessels connected to and within the lungs. In addition, the increased workload of the heart causes hypertrophy of the right ventricle, making the heart less able to pump blood through the lungs, causing right heart failure. Recently several groups have demonstrated that PAH is a disease of excess proliferation and impaired apoptosis similar to neoplasia. Although the fundamental cause remains elusive, many predisposing and disease-modifying abnormalities occur, including endothelial injury/dysfunction, bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2 gene mutations, decreased expression of the K+ channel (Kv1.5), transcription factor activation [hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 )], expression of survivin, and increased expression/activity of both serotonin transporters and platelet-derived growth factor receptors. Together, these abnormalities create a cancer-like, proliferative, apoptosis-resistant phenotype. From these observations, it has been established some similarities between PAH and cancer.
Therefore, in this review, we will discuss the essential alterations in pulmonary arterial hypertension as compared to cancer cell which has been alluded to as the “cancer paradigm”. Based on these similarities, we can imagine that future therapies used to treat cancer could also work for PAH.

Open Access Review Article

Dynamics of Spermatogenesis

V. Divya, V. Girish Kumar, S. Nandi, S. G. Ramchandra

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4289

Spermatogenesis is the lengthy and chronological process. Spermatogenesis is characterized by three specific functional phases: spermatocytogenesis, meiosis, and spermiogenesis; and it involves spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids respectively. Various growth factors play important role in spermatogenesis and up to 178 genes and proteins are being reported which play important role in the process of self renewal and meiosis during spermatogenesis. The duration of spermatogenesis can only be approximated for any species and it has been considered to be about 4.5 times the cycle length of a given species. Various factors play important role in controlling the spermatogenesis like hormones, age, drugs, diet etc among which hormone testosterone elicits an action through hormone response elements, thus altering gene expression. Thus spermatogenesis is a dynamic process with well organized cellular and molecular events resulting in release of large number spermatozoa with ability to continue life on this planet earth.