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Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship among BCS and Fat Thickness in Horses of Different Breed, Gender and Age

P. Superchi, I. Vecchi, V. Beretti, A. Sabbioni

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 354-365
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6947

Aims: The aims of the study were to investigate i) the kind of the relationship among BCS and subcutaneous fat thickness (FT) in horses, as affected by breed, gender and age, and ii) the effectiveness of a combination of the two variables in order to better estimate adiposity.
Study Design: Body weight (BW), FT (at croup level, by means of an ultrasound device) and BCS (5 point scale) were recorded in 124 horses (55 Standardbred; 25 Italian Saddler; 44 Thoroughbred) of different gender (95 mares; 14 stallions; 15 geldings) and age (26 ≤4 years of age; 98 >4 years of age) at five commercial herds.
Methodology: After at least one hour from the morning meal, BW, by means of an electronic balance, and FT on the croup, at approximately 11 cm cranial to the tail head and 10 cm lateral to the midline, by means of an ultrasound device (Lean-Meater, Renco Corporation) were recorded. BCS was evaluated at the same moment on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 = emaciated and 5 = extremely obese).
Results: BCS was affected by breed (P<.05), while FT was independent of breed, gender and age (P>.05). Overall FT and BCS were moderately correlated (r=0.335; P<.01); correlation coefficients were higher in Italian Saddler (r=0.549; P<.01), stallions (r=0.631; P<.05), and young horses (r=0.539; P<.01). A new variable (FT_BCS), calculated as (FT*BCS)/(FT+BCS), is proposed. It resulted correlated both to FT (r=0.754; P<.01) and BCS (r=0.824; P<.01). Allometric coefficients of FT and BCS on BW were of the same sign, regardless of sex and breed, as mature horses tended to decrease FT and increase BCS with the increase of BW; coefficients for FT_BCS on BW gave a better fit than FT or BCS alone, as in Thoroughbred and in young horses they gave a better fit than both FT and BCS.
Conclusion: The study showed that, due to their correlation, BCS or FT alone could be not sufficient to describe horse body adiposity, but their association could be more useful; in the weight range between 470 and 500 kg, their combination is able to appreciate a deviation from linearity of the allometric equation with BW in geldings and Italian Saddler horses.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Data on the Ceratophyllum demersum L. as an Environmental Pollution Bioindicator

N. V. Ilyashenko, M. B. Petrova, N. V. Pavlova, E. A. Kharitonova, L. A. Kurbatova

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 366-377
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5672

Aims: To perform an experimental analyses of the chemical composition and anatomic structure of polluted higher aquatic plants with the aid of combined physical methods of characterization by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis to validate their use for environmental pollution bioindication.
Methodology: We used Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis for the detection of anthropogenic pollution in nature and in the model experiments on the chemical composition and anatomic structure of bioindicator plants (hydrophytes) Ceratophyllum demersum L.
Results: A correlation between the changes existing in the IR spectrum of the plant samples and anthropogenic pollution of the plant inhabitation is established. Deformation and epidermis cell disruption were revealed in the samples from polluted sites and under the influence of salts of heavy metals (Hg2SO4, NiSO4) and ammonium salts ((NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3).
Conclusion: By the use of combined physical methods it was proved that higher aquatic plants have a capability to respond actively on the water chemical composition changes by the increase of absorption bands intensity related to contaminants.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Parotoid Gland Secretion of Bufonids Inhibits the Activity of the Multidrug Resistance Target Pdr5p from Yeast Plasma Membranes

Flávia Abreu Felsemburgh, Juliane Siqueira-Francisco, Morgana Teixeira Lima Castelo Branco, Marcus Vinicius Magalhães de Almeida, Antônio Ferreira-Pereira, Lycia de Brito-Gitirana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 378-391
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4066

Aims: Considering the well known biological effects of secretion of cutaneous glands in anurans and that Pdr5p belongs to the ATB-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters, which efflux a large variety of xenobiotic compounds, and play an important role in the multidrug resistance (MDR), the parotoid gland of two bufonids were used in order to evaluate their secretion activity on Pdr5p of plasma membranes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a potential inhibitor of MDR.
Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Integrative Histology and Laboratory of Microbian Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, between September 2009 and October 2011.
Methodology: Five male bufonids of Rhinella icterica and of R. ornata were used, and the parotoid gland secretion was obtained after manual gland comprehension and by dissection. ATPase assays as well as SDS-PAGE were performed, besides immunohistochemical analysis at light microscopy.
Results: Pdr5p ATPase activity was inhibited when the crude extract was obtained by manual compression from the parotoid gland in contrast to the isolated intake of the large granular alveoli, which showed no enzymatic activity. Moreover, the Pgp expression in acinar cells of both mixed and small granular glands as well as in a myoepithelial cells was visualized by immunohistochemistry, suggesting its participation in tissue defense against toxic compounds.
Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of crude extract obtained by manual comprehension was detected, while the isolated intake showed no effect on the Pdr5p ATPase activity. Both bufonid represent an important source of biomolecules, opening new perspectives of research on natural products.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross-sectional Study in an Urban Slum of Meerut on Education of the Head of the Family as an Important Deteminant of Alcohol Use

Rashmi Katyal, Vijender Agrawal, Rahul Bansal, Kapil Goel, Varsha Chaudhary

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 392-398
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4992

Objective: To assess the association between the education of the head of the family and alcohol use.
Study Design: A community based cross-sectional study. Participants: All males aged ≥15 years.
Sampling: Simple Random Sampling Technique.
Statistical Analyses: Data was analysed by using appropriate statistical tests by SPSS 19.0 version and the results were expressed in proportions. Chi-square test was used and if the cell frequency was less than 5, the result was obtained by Fischer’s Exact test.
Results: The association between education of the head of the family and alcohol use is statistically significant (p-value 0.026). The type and the size of the family hold no statistically significant association with alcohol use.
Conclusion: It can be very well concluded that as an educated head of the family has an impact on the use of addicting substances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Importance of Main Stream/Tributary Interface for Nutrient Dynamics and Microbial Communities in Upper River Subcatchment

Yovana Todorova, Yana Topalova

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 399-411
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5973

Aims: A significance of tributary confluence for dynamics of nutrients and microbial communities in main river channel was studied in the Iskar River upper subcatchment (Bulgaria).
Methodology: The fluctuations of physicochemical parameters, nutrients, abundance of total bacteria, oligotrophes and coliforms in main stream and tributary were estimated seasonally by standard methods in small spatial scale (<2 km).
Results: The P-PO4 concentrations in river and tributary waters were higher in cold seasons (between 0.14÷0.53 mg/L) compared to values observed in the other seasons. The quantity of nitrate nitrogen in tributary waters showed a statistically significant difference in comparison with the concentration in site upstream from the inflow but not in the site downstream from the inflow. Similar differences were observed in the nitrite dynamics even though this nitrogen form was less abundant. Ammonium nitrogen concentrations were generally in the range 0.03-0.6 mg/L in main stream waters and 0.15-1 mg/L in tributary waters. There were not statistically significant differences among sites but the seasonal profiles indicated the difference in ammonium concentrations during the autumn.
Conclusion: The results showed that tributary effect is more significant during the autumn and winter. The water quality of study area was disturbed in these seasons and the content of total suspended solids, phosphorus, ammonium and bacterial indicators for fecal contamination might be increased to a critical significance in sites with higher anthropogenic impact.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Road Traffic Accidents in Western Uttar Pradesh, India: A Hospital Based Study

Urfi ., Mohd Haroon Khan, Samia Kirmani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 412-422
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4830

Objective: i. To study the socio-demographic profile of patients of Road traffic accidents (RTAs) with head injury, ii. To assess the variation in Road traffic accidents (RTAs) with head injury with month of year, day of week and time.
Study Design: A hospital based cross-sectional study.
Setting: Casualty and neurosurgery ward, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh.
Study Unit: All patients of RTAs with head injury in age-group 15-45 years who have registered themselves in casualty.
Sampling Design: Purposive sampling.
Study Period: One year from August 2010 to July 2011.
Statistical Analysis: Data analysed with SPSS 17.0
Results: Maximum number of patients belonged to 15-24 years of age-group. Majority of patients were males (81.2%) and only few were females (18.8%). Higher number of patients belonged to rural areas (59.8%). Majority of the patients were literate. 30.2% of the patients were unemployed. Maximum risk of RTA was found in upper-lower class (55.1%) i.e. class IV. Maximum cases of RTAs occurred in July, August and September which corresponds to rainy season. Highest number of accidents occurred on Friday. Accidents were equally distributed over other days with no statistical difference with regard to day of week. No significant variability was observed between weekdays and weekends. Most accidents occurred either between 4.00 -7.59 p.m. or between 8.00-11.59 p.m. and a continuous rise in number of accidents with time of day was noticed starting from morning and progressing upto night with peaking at 4.00-7.59 p.m.
Conclusion: Young males are at increased risk of RTAs. Increase in level of education provides no immunity to accidents. There is considerable increase in RTAs leading to head injury during rainy season. No significant day to day variation noticed. A definite rise in RTAs with time is seen and needs further research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal as Replacement for Oxytetracycline on Carcass Characteristics of the Diets of Broiler Chickens

A. D. Ologhobo, E. I. Akangbe, I. O. Adejumo, O. Adeleye

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 423-431
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6017

Aims: The need to seek for a goodoption to the costly oxytetracycline necessitated the reason for conducting this study. Hence, the study was carried out to assess the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a replacement for oxytetracycline on the carcass characteristics of broiler finishers.
Study Design: The design of the study was a completely randomised design.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment lasted for eight weeks. One hundred and eight one-day-old mixed-sex arbor acres birds were used for the study. The study was carried out at the Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Methodology: Previous studies used different inclusion levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal, while graded levels, different from previously reported levels of inclusion were used in this study. Four dietary treatments were formulated and each treatment had three replicates with nine birds per replicate. The experimental diets contained 250g of oxytetracycline per 100kg of feed for treatment 1 (T1), 200g, 400g and 600g of Moringa oleifera leaf meal per 100kg of feed for treatments 2 (T2), 3 (T3) and 4 (T4) respectively. Fresh feeds and clean and cool water were served for the birds ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The birds were raised on a deep litter system. At the end of the study, two birds were selected from each replicate, and slaughtered by severing the jugular veins with a sharp knife. Weights of various recognised parts and organs were taken and recorded accordingly. Proximate composition of the experimental diets and faecal samples were determined according to the standard method of (A.O.A.C.). Organoleptic test was carried out on the experimental broiler chickens to determine their quality in terms of taste, colour, and tenderness. Samples were prepared from the breast muscle of each replicate. Ten taste judges were used. After each treatment the judges were served cracker biscuit which was used to neutralize their bud before taking another treatment.
Data obtained were subjected to one way of analysis of variance using SAS statistical package, while significant differences among the means were separated using Duncan Multiple range test.
Results: The result revealed that the adding of Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diets of the experimental broiler chickens had no significant effect on the carcass qualities of the birds except for breast, drumstick, spleen and heart. Higher mean values of slaughter weights were however recorded for birds fed diets containing Moringa oleifera leaf meal.
Conclusion: It is thus concluded from the results of the study that feeding Moringa oleifera at the included levels in this study had no negative influence on the carcass quality but rather improved the breast and drum stick of broiler finishers. Hence, it is recommended as a good feeding ingredient for broiler birds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotypic and Phenotypic Correlations among Yield and Yield Components in Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) under Different Water Treatments in Eastern Algeria

A. Guendouz, M. Djoudi, S. Guessoum, K. Maamri, A. Hannachi, Z. Fellahi, M. Hafsi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 432-442
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/3426

The present study was conducted on the experimental site of ITGC (Technical Institute of Field Crops) station of Setif, Algeria; during 2010/2011 cropping season. The study was carried out to study the performance of durum wheat genotypes in relation to yield and yield component and evaluate genotypic and phenotypic correlations between yield and yield components under different water deficit conditions. Three irrigation treatments were obtained by irrigation at specified stages and no irrigation. These treatments were: no irrigation during all growth stages (I0); 20 mm irrigation during vegetative plant growth (Tillering stage) (I1) and 40 mm irrigation during reproductive plant growth (heading stage) (I2). Analysis of variance revealed that number of spike per m-2 (NS m-2) and grain yield (GY) were very significant (P < 0.001) affected under irrigation regime treatment whilst number of grain per spike (NG S-2) was shown highly significant (P <0.01). Grain yield reductions were 6 %, 12.4 % under the I1 and I0 treatments respectively, when compared with the optimum irrigation treatment (I2). Water limitation decreased NS m-² by 14.11% and 9.67 % in the I0 and I1 treatments compared to the I2. Water limitation decreased NS m-² by 14.11% and 9.67 % in the I0 and I1 treatments compared to the I2. Grain yield showed significant and positive genetic and phenotypic correlation with number of spikes per meter square (NS/m²) under all conditions of growth. Harvest index and number of grains per meter square showed significant genetic and phenotypic correlations with grain yield under rainfed and irrigated conditions. The differential response of cultivars to imposed water stress condition indicates the drought tolerance ability of wheat cultivars. The significant genetic and phenotypic correlations among grain yield and yield components suggest that grain yield could be effectively increased by maximum genetic expression of grains spike-1, number of spikes per meter square, number of grains per meter square and harvest index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Molasses Distillers Condensed Soluble on Nutrients Digestibility, Performance and Some Blood Biological Parameters in Lambs

Mohammad Mehdi Moeini, Saeid Veyskarami, Fardin Hozhabri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 443-450
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5482

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary molasses distillers condensed soluble (MDCS) on nutrients digestibility, performance, carcass traits and some blood biological parameters in Lori male lambs. A total of 24 male lambs (aged 8 months, 31.16±1.10 kg) were randomly assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate. The experimental animals were daily offered a basal diet with 0, 5, 10 and 15 percentage of MDCS/Kg DM of total ration, which were mixed with wheat straw and alfalfa hay. The results of the study indicated that the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of alfalfa hay were increased (P<0.05) by using the MDCS. The in-vivo apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and NDF of experimental diets were increased (P<0.05) by incorporation of MDCS at the level of 15%. There were no significant differences among treatments in average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), carcass characteristics and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Serum metabolites and liver enzymes were also not affected due to incorporation of MDCS in the diets. In conclusion, MDCS can be used as a source of protein and energy for ruminants, which can be mixed with hay or concentrate and could safely be used as a feed ingredient up to 15% to the male lamb’s diet without any detrimental effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dietary Energy Source on Ruminal Fermentation, Venous Blood Gases and Various Blood Metabolites of Baluchi Sheep

A. R. Vakili, A. Mortezaee, M. Danesh Mesgaran

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 451-459
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6065

Aims: Present study was to determine the effects of dietary energy source diets such as glucogenic and lipogenic nutrients on ruminal fermentation characteristics, venous blood gases and concentration plasma metabolites in Baluchi sheep.
Study Design: Latin square design with 3 periods (28 days).
Place and Duration of Study: Department of animal science, Faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, between March 2012 and May 2012.
Methodology: Experimental diets were a glucogenic, a lipogenic or a mixture of glucogenic and lipogenic diets (50:50). The animals were fed diets consisted of 50% chopped alfalfa hay and 50% concentrate. Ruminal fluid samples were collected before the feeding until 8 hour post feeding at day 24 of the each experimental period. Blood samples were taken from jugular vein before the feeding, 2, 4 and 6 h post feeding at day 26 of each period. In order to determine venous blood gases and pH, jugular blood samples were collected using heparinized syringes before and 4 h after feeding on day 27.
Results: Results indicated that glucose and insulin concentration was decreased in sheep consume lipogenic diet (P<0.05). There were not significant differences between diets in regard of both ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration. Furthermore, blood pH and venous blood gases did not differ among diets (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Feeding the mixture of glucogenic and lipogenic diets (50:50) improved plasma glucose and insulin concentration, while ruminal and blood pH were not altered. This phenomenon indicates the potent synergistic beneficial effect of mixed diet to supply energy source.