Open Access Case study

A 5 Year Follow Up of Intentionally Replanted Tooth- A Case Report

Mithra N. Hegde, Nidarsh D. Hegde, Deepali Shrivastava, Aastha Puri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 520-526
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5419

Intentional replantation can be an alternative choice and to restore an original tooth to function in the mouth instead of replacing it with prosthesis. This case report describes intentional replantation of a maxillary first premolar and its 5 year follow up. A 42-year old woman with the chief complaint of pain and swelling in her gums in the upper right premolar area. Direct digital radiograph revealed the presence of a vertical fracture line with respect to the right maxillary first premolar, extending from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to the middle-third of the root, along with large periapical radiolucency. In view of the patient’s objection to undergo surgery, intentional replantation was suggested as an alternative. The patient returned for clinical and radiographic follow-up at 1, 5 months and 1 year and 5 years. At the last visit, after 5 years, no pain and symptoms and normal appearance of periradicular area was evident.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytoarchitecture of the Medial Geniculate Body of Three Species of Bats: Noctilio leporinus, Phyllostomus hastatus and Carollia perspicillata

Andrew Adogwa, Venkatesan Sundaram, I-sanna Gibbons, Abayomi Odekunle

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 460-472
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4961

The aim of the present study is to document cytoarchitectural details of Medial Geniculate Body (MGB) of the brain in three species of echolocating bats with different forage behavior. The brains were collected from six male adult bats of each species: Noctilio leporinus (fish-eating), Phyllostomus hastatus(carnivorous/ omnivorous) and Carollia perspicillata (fruit-eating) and were double-embedded and transverse serial sections were cut and stained with cresyl fast violet. The results showed that the mean length of the medial geniculate body was 1330 ± 115 µm in N. leporinus, 1210 ± 90 µm in P.hastatus and 790 ± 68 µm in C. perspicillata. The MGB of all three bats appeared to be divided into three divisions: dorsal (MGBd), ventral (MGBv) and medial (MGBm). These divisions were most distinct in the N. leporinus bat and least apparent in the C. perspicillata. In the N. leporinus, both dense-staining multipolar cells and light-staining round cells were located throughout the MGB. In the P. hastatus, the dense-staining multipolar cells were predominantly present in the ventral division of the middle third of the MGB, whereas light-staining round cells predominated at the rostral end of the MGB. Only light-staining round cells were seen throughout the MGB of the C. perspicillata. The large sized MGB and its clear subdivisions in N. leporinussuggests that it relies heavily on echolocation whereas P.hastatus and C. perspicillata use echolocation as well but also rely on hearing, smell and vision.

Open Access Original Research Article

Situation of the Diamondback Moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella and Its Parasitoids in the Cauliflower Fields of Tehran

Gholamhosein Hasanshahi, Habib Abbasipour, Alireza Askarianzadeh, Jaber Karimi, Fatemeh Jahan, Ali Hossein Rahimi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 473-486
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5466

Aims: The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lep.: Plutellidae) is one of the most important pests of cruciferous plants. Amongst the most important factors to reduce this pest population are parasitoids. The aim of present study was to Identify the parasitoids of the diamondback moth (DMB), computating the density of DBM stages and its parasitoids and their performance in different cauliflower fields of Tehran. Also the objective of this study was to elucidate the reactions of DBM parasitoids to host density. Correlation between different larval densities and parasitism rate of DBM parasitoids were calculated using a recall method in field conditions.
Place and Duration of Study: Place – Department of Plant protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Shahed university, Tehran, Iran. Duration – June, 2011 to November, 2012.
Methodology: Sampling was carried out every two weeks from late June until early November. From each field 20 plants were selected. All larval instars and pupae on each plant were collected, and were counted and recorded separately for each field. Also, collected DBM larvae and pupae were kept on the host plant under controlled conditions (60 ± 5% RH, 27 ± 2 °C and 14L:10D photoperiod). In order to do recall of larval parasitoids, different densities of 5, 15, 25 and 35 larvae were placed on each plant. For each density five plants were considered as five replication. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data on numbers of DBM larvae and pupa in different regions as well as the mean number of parasitoids and parasitism rate. The means were compared at the 5% level of significance using the Duncan studentized range test.
Results: In all studied areas, the larvae, pupae and the total number of larvae and pupae were determined as 3.05, 2.26 and 7.54 (per plant), respectively. The percentage of parasitism by D. anurumC. plutellae and O. sokolowskii in all regions and total parasitism by these three species were determines obtained as 12.67, 10.29, 13.27 and 36.23% per plant, respectively.
Conclusion: The number of larval and pupal stages based on unit density, was significantly different between all experimental regions and Shahed university station. The highest percentage of parasitism was caused by D. anurum in Tehran. Spraying did not reduce the DBM population in some fields in Tehran, but repeated spraying caused a reduction in the activity of the parasitoids of DBM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dates Quality Assessment of the Main Date Palm Cultivars Grown in Algeria

Acourene Said, Djafri Kaoutrher, Benchabane Ahmed, Tama Mohammed, Taleb Brahim

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 487-499
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5009

The present study deals with the characterization and evaluation of the morphological and biochemical quality of 54 date palm cultivars grown in Algeria. This work was done at Station of Algerian National Institute of Agricultural Research Touggourt Ouargla Algeria, between October 2007 and November 2010. We chose ten homogeneous palms tree for each cultivar. For each palm tree, 60 fruits without calyx are collected at rate of 6 to 7 fruits per bunch and on each bunch at various heights and orientations. Date fruits were harvested at a maturation stage. So, the obtained results show that the dates produced by Abdelazzaz, Bayd-El-kadhi, Baydh-Ghoul, Bent-Khbala, Deglet-Djdir, Dguel-Mghass, H'mira, Horra, Laadjina, Mezith, Sebaa-Bedraa, Takerboucht, Tantboucht, Tamsrit, Tanslit, Thaoudant, Timjouhert and Tindokan cultivars present the best morphological characteristics of the dates compared to the other cultivars. Sugars were the predominant components in all date palm fruits cultivars, ranging between 59.18 ± 1.68 to 92.04 ± 2.19 g/100g dry weight, followed by moisture i.e., 9.00 ± 1.16 - 44.00 ± 1.29 % and fiber, i.e., 2.00 ± 0.77 - ± 20.45 ± 1.48 g/100 g dry weight. However, they contain small amounts of protein i.e., 1.84 ± 0.38 - 2.75 ± 0.62 g/100g dry weight.The study of the date quality shows that the most of these cultivars present a combination of good and bad characters of fruit. At this effect, Cheikh-M’hamed and Deglet-Ziane cultivars present high sugars content and an acceptable moisture content but low dates weight and size. For these cultivars, the application of certain technical cultural practices could ameliorate the characteristics of their fruits. In conclusion, we could say that on the 54 cultivars studied, solely six ten such as, Aghares, Baydh-Elkadhi, Bouarous, Bouldjib, Dguel-M'ghas, Figuigue, Horra, Mezith, Ouarglia, Sebaa-Bedraa, Tacherouint, Tafazouine, Tamsrit, Tawragha, Timjouhert and Tindokan present a good physical and biochemical dates quality to knowledge, an elevated length, diameter and weight of the dates, an acceptable pH, an acceptable water content and a high sugars content.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Intact or Oil Free of Various Protein Sources

A. Faramarzi-Garmroodi, M. Danesh Mesgaran, A. R. Vakili, A. Hodjatpanah-montazeri, M. M. Manshadi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 500-508
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6073

Aims: An in vitro gas production technique was conducted to investigate the effect of oil content of nine ruminant protein feedstuffs including whole soybean, soybean meal, flaked soybean, linseed, fish meal, canola meal, cottonseed meal, sunflower meal and corn gluten, on protein fermentation.
Study Design: Complete randomized block design
Methodology: Nine protein feedstuffs were chosen and 15 mg N of both intact or oil free dried and milled samples were inserted into 125 mL serum bottles. Buffered rumen fluid was added 10 g of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and incubated for 4 h. Then, 60 mL of the incubated medium was poured in each serum bottle to start the gas production procedure.
Results: Gas production constant rate of the feed samples diminished after oil extraction (0.026 vs. 0.022 respectively). Whole and flaked soybean displayed the greatest magnitude of gas production constant rate among the other feedstuffs (P=.05). Also, the extent of gas production for fish meal, flaked and whole soybean was numerically lower than the other feed samples. A fast gas production was observed for flaxseed among the oil free samples. A decline in gas production constant rate occurred after the oil extraction might be due to the suppression in protein degradability of feedstuffs evaluated.
Conclusion: The oil free samples generally produced, or tended to produce, less in vitro gas production constant rate than the intact samples. In addition, results of this study provided evidences that rumen fermentation patterns, as evaluated by gas production technique, is affected when different protein feed sources were incubated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Anti-enterococcal Activity of Disinfectants and Medicated Soaps on Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis Strains

O. M. David, I. B. Fakayode, O. Famurewa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 509-519
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5025

Background: Enterococcus faecalis has intrinsic resistance which aids its spread in the hospital environment. As a nosocomial pathogen with increasing resistance breaking its route of transmission and spread is therefore imperative.
Aims: In this study, six brands of disinfectants and eight medicated soaps commonly used in health care facilities and at homes were investigated for anti-enterococcal activity against eleven strains of E. faecalisten of which are vancomycin-resistant.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Ekiti State University, Nigeria between July, 2009 and February, 2010.
Methodology: Standard microbiological methods were used to determine the effects of the disinfectant and soap samples on the strains of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis.
Results: Two of the disinfectants, NXD and ZGC completely inhibited the test organisms even at the manufacturers’ recommended in-use concentrations. ZAL followed by VGL had the least anti-enterococcal property. Enterococcus faecalis DMOF 53 and E. faecalis DMOF 47 were the most resistant while E. faecalisDMOF 21 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212 (control) were the least resistant to the disinfectants. Vancomycin-sensitive strain, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 (control) was also resistant to some of the disinfectants. This shows that there is no correlation between resistance to antibiotics, vancomycin in particular and disinfectants. The disinfectants CRT, RBT, TMS and DTA, in that decreasing order, showed anti-enterococcal property while MSF and NVA showed the least effect on the enterococci. Strains recovered from the surface of the bland soap sample had confluent growth pattern which indicated the ability of the organisms to survive on its surface. Survival was least on CRT soap sample followed by DTL soap sample and most of the strains grew very well on the surfaces of most of the soap samples.
Conclusion: This study shows that most of the disinfectants are not effective at the manufacturers’ recommended in-use concentrations, and also that pathogens can be transmitted through the common use or sharing of soaps contaminated with the carriers of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Floristic Composition and Life Forms Study of Woody Plants in Magama Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria

H. Sani, B. L. Aliero, A. A. Aliero, H. G. Ahmed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 527-537
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4182

Aims: The floristic composition and life forms analysis was conducted in Magama local government area of Niger state, Guinea Savanna of Northern Nigeria to generate a baseline data for the woody plants genetic resources.
Study Design: Sampling method was done in Auna, Ibeto, Nasko and Salka.
Place and Duration of Study: Magama local government area of Niger State for 2 years.
Methodology: Point–centered quarter method was used in data collection. Data generated was analysed using quantitative method.
Results: A total of 56 woody species from 45 genera and 28 families of angiosperms were encountered. The species Detarium microcarpum had the highest density of 1.7 per hectare, with dominance of 1.22 m2 ha-1and relative dominance of 13.9% followed by Piliostigma thonningii with density of 1.5 per hectare, dominance of 1.04 m2 ha-1 with relative dominance of 10.2%. The species with least density and dominance was Ximenia americana. The family Caesalpiniaceae had the highest dominance followed by Combretaceae, Mimosaceae and Sapotaceae. Mimosaceae had the highest species composition with nine species from five genera. Caesalpiniaceae and Combretaceae had seven and six species from seven genera and three genera respectively. The families Ochnaceae and Olacaceae had the least species composition. The dominant life form spectrums of woody species were dominated by microphanerophytes (53%), nanophanerophytes (39%) and mesophanerophytes (8%). The presence of 56 species, 45 genera in 28 families indicates a fairly diverse vegetation resource that should be given some level of protection for sustainability.
Conclusion: The study revealed that the vegetation of Magama Local Government is diverse and requires forest management practices by the local community in the conservation and sustainable exploitation of plant resources in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioremoval of Nickel Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa

M. V. Devika, A. J. Thatheyus, D. Ramya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 538-546
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5410

Soil samples were collected from an electroplating industry located at Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu and a nickel resistant bacterial strain was isolated and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa which can remove nickel effectively from aqueous solutions. When 200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm of nickel concentrations were tested for ten days, more than 90% removal was observed in 1000 ppm nickel concentration. Among the different cell preparations tested, immobilized cells exhibited highest removal followed by free cells and autoclaved cells after fifty minutes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimal Control of an Epidemic Model of Leptospirosis with Nonlinear Saturated Incidences

Syed Farasat Sadiq, Muhammad Altaf Khan, Saeed Islam, Gul Zaman, II Hyo Jung, Sher Afzal Khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 560-576
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6378

In this paper, we consider a leptospirosis epidemic model with non-linear saturated incidence by applying the optimal control techniques to eradicate the infection in the human population. Leptospirosis is the disease which effects human as well as Cattle. Our aim is to find such optimal control techniques for the eradication of leptospira in the host population. To do this, we define three control variables, one for human and the second and third one for Vector population. First we find the existence of the control problem and then we characterize the optimal control problem by using the well-known method of Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. The numerical simulations of both the system are solving by using backward Runge-kutta order four schemes. Finally, the numerical results of both the systems are presented for comparison.

Open Access Review Article

Effects of Cabbage Tissue and Calcium Hypochlorite on Soil Fertility and Yields of Selected Solanaceous Crops

E. K. Kago, Z. M. Kinyua, P. O. Okemo, J. M. Maingi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 547-559
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5573

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inorganic compounds treatment(s) namely: ChalimTM (CM), a chlorine-containing compound, metham sodium (MS) (positive control) and Co (negative control) versus organic compound such as Brassica tissue treatment (BT), on soil pH, micro and macroelements. Three levels of ChalimTM and that of Brassica tissue; one of MS and one for Co were used. The test crops included were; Tomato, capsicum and potato. All the plots were inoculated with R. solanacearum to a level of approximately 7.5×107 Colony forming unit (CFU) per plot. Soil samples were taken using zigzag method after which the selected parameter levels were determined at the beginning and at the end of each season for three seasons (2009-2010). The amendments were prepared and applied in the field plots measuring (4.5×2.7 M) in randomized complete block design at Kenya agricultural research institute National agricultural laboratories in plant pathology section and Department of Plant and Microbial Sciences, Kenyatta university. The effects of the soil amendments on soil physico-chemical properties and yields were determined. The findings established that, Brassica tissue, at highest level of application was the best soil amendment to be incorporated since more nutrients and yields were realized at that treatment as compared to the others. The various treatments differed significantly on their effect on the total yields. In tomato, the various treatments differed significantly (P<0.05) with plants grown on MS200 and BT5292 having significantly higher yields than the control. The study revealed that BT5292 increased the soil pH, yields, Nitrogen content, organic carbon, calcium and potassium concentration as compared to the other treatments and the control.