Open Access Original Research Article

Carcass Characteristics, Organ Morphology and Serum Profile of Broiler Chickens Fed Differently Processed Roselle Seeds (Hibiscus sabdariffa)

Maikano Mohammed Ari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 602-610
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6223

Aim of Study: To determine the effect of different processing methods of Roselle seeds on carcass characteristics, organ morphology and serum profile of broiler chickens
Study Design: A total of 135 Anak day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to three (3) experimental groups of three (3) replicates using completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of inclusion of differently processed Roselle seeds on carcass traits and serum indices of experimental birds. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA.
Place and Duration of Study: Livestock Complex, College of Agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria: February 2012 to April 2012.
Methodology: A total of 135 number Anak day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into three (3) experimental groups of three replicate each. Dietary treatments were as follows: D1, D2 and D3 representing Crushing of Raw Rosselle Seeds (CRRS); Hydrothermally Processed Rosselle Seeds (HTRS) and Fermented Rosselle Seeds (FRS) base diets at both starter(1- 28 d) and finisher phases(29- 50 d).
Results: The results obtained showed no significant (P=0.05) differences in the live weight, plucked weight and plucked weight percentage. However, carcass weight, carcass weight percentage and the following cut up parts; head, shank, neck, and back varied significantly (P=0.05). Variations (P=0.05) were recorded in the thigh, scubbed fat, gastro intestinal length (GIT) and gizzard weight of broilers fed experimental diets. The carcass weight and the primal cuts values (breast, thighs, drumstick and back) were best in D3 (1432.50g, 22.72g, 48 03g and 25.07g respectively) while scubbed fat and intestinal length were lowest with the same D3 group birds.
Conclusion: Roselle seeds can be added in broiler diets up to 25% without necessitating processing. However, fermentation showed significant improvement in carcass weight, primal cut up parts as well as reduced scrubbed fat and serum cholesterol when compared with crushing of raw seeds and hydrothermal processing methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring Margarine in Anhydrous Milk Fat by Chromatographic Tools

Roya Fathitil, Javad Hesari, Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi, Mahboob Nemati, Seyed Hadi Peighambardoust, Mostafa Aghamirzaei

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 611-624
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6442

Aims: The analysis of 10 anhydrous milk fat (AMF) samples randomly purchased from Tabriz area was carried out to determine the level of adulteration.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agriculture (Food Science Labs), Department of Medicine (Central Lab), between April 2010 and October 2011.
Methodology: For adulteration confirmation of the AMF Samples, admixtures of milk fat (MF) with different levels (5, 10 and 15% w/w) of margarine were prepared and analyzed. The authentication was performed employing GC with FID detector and RP-HPLC using fluorescence detector for fatty acid (FA) and tocopherol profiling, respectively.
Results: In market samples, abnormalities in fatty acid profile e.g. significantly high concentration of linoleic acid and low concentration of myristic acid were observed. In addition to high levels of total tocopherol, tocopherols of plant origin like β+γ-tocopherol and β+γ-tocotrienol and a compound X with ambiguous identity were also found in tocopherol profile of abnormal samples.
Conclusion: Thus, AMF adulterations arising from admixing with vegetable oils and fats could be successfully detected by applying HPLC for tocopherol profiling.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Respiratory Tract Infections to Honey and Lemon

G. O. Adeshina, B. M. Mshelia, J. A. Onaolapo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 625-637
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6026

Aims: To assess the effectiveness of lemon and/or honey on some causative agents of Respiratory Tract Infections, Isolation and identification of some infectious bacteria of respiratory tract infections, Collection of pure honey and lemon fruits, Determination of the inhibitory activities of honey, lemon and honey/lemon mixture at varied concentrations on the bacterial isolates by agar diffusion and broth dilution techniques, Evaluation of the rate of kill of the bacterial isolates by the agents (honey and lemon) and Comparative analysis of the susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates to the honey and lemon separately and in combination.
Study Design: Isolation, identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of the test Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, Zones of inhibition, Minimum Inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentrations and Rate of kill determination.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (A. B. U. T. H.), Zaria, University Hospital Services (U. H. S.) Samaru Campus Ahmadu Bello University (A. B. U.), Zaria, between March 2012 and April 2013.
Methodology: Agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods were employed to ascertain degree of susceptibility of the isolates to honey and/or lemon, and the standard antibiotics. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations were carried out. Rate of Kill was also carried out to know the death/survival rate of the bacterial isolates after exposure to the agents.
Results: Mean zones of inhibition (mm) of 14-32 (Ceftriaxone), 7-27 (Gentamicin), 8-35 (Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid), 12-27 (Levofloxacin), 7-21 (Azithromycin), 10-23 (100% v/v Honey), 10-24 (100% v/v Lemon), and 19-26 (Honey/Lemon mixture) were obtained. However, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations range between 1.95-125 µg/ml (Ceftriaxone), 1.56-100 µg/ml (Gentamicin), 3.91-125 µg/ml (Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid), 0.98-15.6 µg/ml (Levofloxacin), 3.13-100 µg/ml (Azithromycin), 20-65 µg/ml v/v (Honey), 15-35 µg/ml v/v (Lemon), 15-35 µg/ml (Honey/Lemon mixture). Furthermore, for the rate of kill; Lemon, Honey and Lemon mixture (20 µg/ml) effected complete killing at 120 minutes and 240 minutes respectively. Therefore, it was observed that lemon, honey and lemon mixture, Ceftriaxone, Levofloxacin and Gentamicin showed higher antibacterial activity. While Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid and Azithromycin had less antibacterial activity. At P-value P≥0.05 there is significant difference between Honey and Lemon mixture and Honey, but not with lemon.
Conclusion: It was observed that lemon, honey and lemon mixture, Ceftriaxone, Levofloxacin and Gentamicin showed higher antibacterial activity. While Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid and Azithromycin had less antibacterial activity. Better bactericidal activity was observed with Lemon and the mixture of Honey and Lemon than the Honey alone. This research therefore scientifically approves the use of Honey and Lemon as an alternative medicine by the populace in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling of the Effect of Backpack Load Position on the Lumbar Spine Curvature

Mahshid Amerian, Hamidreza Ghasemi Bahraseman, Karim Leilnahari, Mahmoud Khodalotfi, Mehrnaz Amerian, Aram Bahmani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 638-650
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6404

Aims: The aim of the study was to propose a simulated model for predict the lumbar spine curvature in standing from a healthy subject with a loaded backpack.
Study Design and Methodology: The anthropometric data of a schoolboy were used, and then the model was built in BRG. Life MOD (ver. 2007, Biomechanics Research Group, Inc., USA) based on these data. The backpack was loaded at 10, 15 and 20% of subject’s Body weight (BW) (stage 1). Then, three boxes (4, 4 and 12 Kg in weight) were attached in the backpack (stage 2). They were arranged in the sagittal, frontal and transversal planes and the position of the heavier weight was changed at each phase.
Results: Regression analysis between our numerical predictions of stage 1 and similar experimental literature led to a correlation gradient of 0.88 and 0.91 for L3-S1-horizon and T12-L3-S1 angles, respectively. The predicted G and H angles peaks at stage 2 were observed when the heavier box was in frontal plane at left or right side.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining a range of variable boundary conditions (e.g. altered due to changing the location of the heavier box) and applying a simplified three-dimensional model that can predict lumbar spine curvature changes in relatively short solution time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combinational Effect of Cajanus cajan, Silybum marianum and Andrographis paniculata on In vivo Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Albino Rats

Siddhartha Singh, Archana Mehta, Laxmi Ahirwal, Manish Kumar Dubey, Abhinav Mishra, Roshan Kumar, Vandana Bharti, Anand Rajoria, Sapna Sedha

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 665-674
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6022

Aim: To evaluate the combinational activity of Cajanus cajanSilybum marianum and Andrographis paniculata for antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential.
Place and Duration: Department of Botany, Dr. H. S. Gour University (HSGVV), Sagar, Department of Zoology, HSGVV, Sagar, between September 2012 to April 2013.
Methodology: All three plants were subjected to Hydroalcoholic extraction. Adult albino rats were taken as experimental model for evaluation of hepatoprotective activity by measuring Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Alanine amino transferase (ALT) and total protein levels while liver was dissected out for measuring Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level for antioxidant activity.
Results: S. marianum extract at 400 mg/kg.b.w showed better result among all three individual extracts by significantly decreasing the levels of AST and ALT (64.35 ± 8.17, 39.47 ± 5.61 U/L, respectively) and increasing the level of protein to 4.78 ± 0.41 mg/dl as compared to toxic control which is near to the value of standard drug. While the combination of the extracts showed enhanced activity as compared to that of S. marianum extract and standard drug (61.24 ± 3.7, 34.17 ± 3.21 U/L and 4.63 ± 0.22 mg/dl for AST, ALT and total protein respectively). For antioxidant activity, S. marianum increased the activity of SOD to 17.42 ± 0.63, CAT to 45.24 ± 1.84 and GPx to 21.96 ± 0.39 U/mg protein. Whereas, the combination of all three extracts in the concentration ratio of 1:1 increased the level of SOD, CAT and GPx to the near value of standard drug (18.12 ± 1.3, 44.24 ± 1.11 and 22.12 ± 0.46 U/mg protein).
Conclusion: All three plants showed potent hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. Combinational study showed better results as compared to individual plant extracts and suggests that the polyherbal combinations may be used for enhanced activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance and Some Immunological Parameter Responses of Broiler Chickens to Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Extract Administration in the Drinking Water

Naser Moradi, Shahab Ghazi, Tahereh Amjadian, Hassan Khamisabadi, Mahmood Habibian

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 675-683
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5277

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root (licorice) extract (LE) administration through drinking water on the performance and some immunological parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 320 onedayold broiler chicks (Cobb 500) according to a completely randomized design were assigned into four treatment groups, namely 0LE, 0.1LE, 0.2LE and 0.3LE because the experimental treatments comprised a control (no inputs) and/or three levels of LE (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/L drinking water). There was not a significant difference in body weight; feed intake and feed conversion ratio among the birds given the control or the LE levels during the experiment (P > .05). Similarly, LE supplementation through drinking water had no significant (P > .05) effect on immunological parameters including antibody titers against Newcastle disease and Influenza viruses, heterophil and lymphocyte percentages and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as well as liver and lymphoid organ (bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen) weights.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Phytase Supplementation of Low Protein Diets on Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Blood Biochemical Parameters of Laying Hens

Seifollah Kashani, Ahmad Mohebbifar, Mahmood Habibian, Mehran Torki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 684-698
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4444

Effects of phytase supplementation of low protein diets on performance, egg quality traits and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens were evaluated by using 216 Lohmann LSL-Lite hens. Birds were randomly divided in 36 cages (n=6). Based on a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments, 6 iso-caloric experimental diets consisting three levels of crude protein (CP, 150, 138, and 126 g/kg) and phytase (0 and 300 FTU/kg) were formulated and fed to hens with 6 replicates per diet. Collected data of feed intake (FI), egg production (EP), egg mass (EM) and calculated feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg quality traits and blood parameters during 7-wk trial period were analyzed based on completely randomized design. Decreasing dietary crude protein significantly decreased EP, EM and FI and increased FCR (P < .05). In the first egg sampling (wk 3) egg index, yolk index, yolk color, egg gravity, shell weight and shell thickness were not significantly affected by dietary treatment (P > .05). Decreasing dietary CP significantly increased Haugh unit compared to the control group. In the second egg sampling period (wk 7), Haugh unit significantly decreased in the hens fed low protein diets compared to the control group (< .05). Phytase supplementation did not have any beneficial effect on productive performance of laying hens and egg quality traits (P > .05). There was no interaction between protein level and phytase on egg traits except for egg index (P < .05). There was no interaction between CP levels and phytase on blood parameters except for Heterophil count (P < .01). Interaction between protein levels and phytase on lymphocyte as well as heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio was significant (P < .05). In conclusion, feeding low CP diets significantly decreased blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL in compared to the control group (P < .05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Fractal Analysis of DNA by Nonlinear Genome Signal Processing for Exon and Intron Separation

Ali Karmi, Ali Najafi, Peyman Gifani, Sahand Khakabimamaghani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 699-708
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6453

Aims: To provide a new reasonable measure for distinguishing between coding and non-coding regions of DNA sequences based on its fractal nature and self-similarity.
Study Design: After conducting background studies on the fractal structure of DNA sequences, the application of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis for identifying coding and non-coding regions in those sequences was investigated. Finally, the propositions were tested on a standard dataset of 195 genes.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: We use a common data set, “HMR 195”, which has been used in conventional tools, between December 2012 and July 2013.
Methodology: The Fractal Scaling Exponent (FSE) of the numerical signal, produced by converting a DNA string to a numerical sequence via a number mapping algorithm, was calculated for exons and introns of 195 genes. This calculation was repeated twice: once for computing the optimal values of FSE, and once for non-optimal FSEs. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for investigating the significance of difference between the average FSE of exons versus that of introns in both optimal and non-optimal cases.
Results: ANOVA indicated a significant gap between the optimal mean FSE of exons (0.65) and introns (0.72). The difference, although smaller, was significant for non-optimal values as well.
Conclusion: Throughout this study, the FSE is proved to be a reliable measure for distinguishing between coding and non-coding regions of DNA gene sequences based on our experiments. Accordingly, this metric can be used for predicting exons/introns when embedded within current tools such as TestCode. However, its contribution to the predictive accuracy of current methods requires more investigation in the future works.

Open Access Review Article

Biological Network Inference: A Review of Methods and Assessment of Tools and Techniques

Jimmy Omony

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 577-601
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5718

The topic of reconstruction of genetic networks is of great interest to the scientific community today – particularly those in the biological sciences. Essentially the need for network reconstruction is motivated by the need to find relationships between regulation mechanisms for genes, the need for discoveries in medicine, drug and pharmaceutical industry, the need for improved agricultural crops. All this requires a concerted effort from multi-disciplinary sciences, e.g. physics, mathematics, biology and chemistry – which have led to disciplines such as Systems Biology and Bioinformatics. Mathematical and statistical modeling has particularly been very instrumental for engineering and software development has been very useful in biological networks inference. Sometimes the link between theory, modeling and data acquisition is unclear. The goal in this article is to discuss tools and techniques for biological network inference and the areas of application. The pros and cons of network reconstruction methods are also provided. The number of scientific articles on network inference is overwhelming. Additionally, there is a dilemma in methodology choice, which is attributed to the scarcity of novel ways to compare the performance of the existing methods on experimental data. Applications of data visualization tools, modeling and simulation, data analysis and storage are given.

Open Access Review Article

The Role of Propolis in Inflammation and Orofacial Pain: A Review

Merlini Rajoo, Abhishek Parolia, Allan Pau, Fabian Davamani Amalraj

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 651-664
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6111

In recent years, the use of natural products and holistic or alternative medicine has gained popularity among the public, due to the potential side effects and safety concerns of conventional allopathic formulations. Natural products have been used since ancient times in folk medicine, involving both eastern and western traditional medicine. Among these natural products, a resinous bee product named propolis has gained popularity. It has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. Due to these properties there has been an increasing interest in the use of bee propolis in contemporary dentistry. In dentistry propolis has been tried out almost in every field such as to treat oral cancer, recurrent ulcers, fungal infections, in restorative dentistry as a cariostatic, desensitizing and pulp capping agent, in endodontics as an intra-canal medicament, intra-canal irrigant, in dental trauma as a storage media for an avulsed tooth, in oral surgery to treat dry socket after tooth extraction, in prosthetics to treat denture stomatitis, in periodontics to treat gingivitis, periodontitis and to control bone resorption. Despite having numerous advantages and uses, the role of propolis in orofacial pain is probably the least understood. Hence, this review highlights the anti-inflammatory and pain relieving mechanisms of propolis at the molecular level in orofacial pain.