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Open Access Original Research Article

Water Quality Effects on Agronomic Parameters of Subsurface Drip Irrigated Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under Tunisian Climatic Condition

Amel Mguidiche, Boutheina Douh, Sami Bhouri Khila, Gharbi Sami, Mansour Mohsen, Abdelhamid Boujelben

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 720-727
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4798

Field experiment was conducted at the Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Meriem (Tunisia) during the growing season 2011-2012 to investigate the effects of water quality on agronomic parameters and water use efficiency (WUE) to produce potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Irrigation management treatments were fresh (1 dS m-1) and saline waters (4 dS m-1). Subsurface drip irrigation was used, a rate of 4 L h-1 applied at the same irrigation duration and interval. Statistical analysis showed that the degree of salinity has a highly significant effect on the plants height growth and leaf area. The relatively high content of salts for the treatment generated a highly significant difference on the average root length density 0.0214 and 0.0262 cm cm-3 respectively for the witness and treatment. Water quality has given us a highly significant difference on plant yield the average weight of about 1.24 ± 0.22 and 1.18 ± 0.32 kg m-2 respectively for the witness and treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Leptin and Lipid Profile among Women

Kawaljit Kaur, Sharda Sidhu, Gurcharan Kaur

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 728-735
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5195

Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the association between leptin and lipid profile among non-obese and obese women subjects.
Method: 60 non-obese and 60 obese women working in various educational institutes and hospitals in the age group of 30-60 years were selected. Their body measurement like height and weight were taken with standardized methods and BMIs were calculated as per World Health Organization guidelines. After ensuring fasting for 12 hours, blood sample of 5 ml was collected in sterile tubes from anti-cubital vein under aseptic conditions. Blood samples were allowed to stand and then centrifuged immediately at room temperature. Serum was separated, aliquots were made and samples were stored in freezer at -20o C for further analysis. Lipid profile and leptin levels were assessed as per protocols mentioned in the kits.
Result: Dyslipidemia coupled with hyperleptimia was observed among the obese subjects as compared to their non-obese counterparts. Correlation was observed among different components of lipid profile and leptin and this association was stronger in the obese subjects.
Conclusion: Hyperleptimia and dyslipidemia might be playing role in obesity. It is difficult to say if higher leptin levels leads to worsen the lipid profile or vice versa. Efforts to normalize lipid profile may lead to lower leptin levels and check obesity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), Moringa (Moringa oleifera), Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ‘Ugwu’ (Telfairia occidentalis) in the Lungs of Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Exposed to Cement Dust

T. Yahaya, J. Okpuzor, T. Ajayi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 736-746
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5440

The antioxidant effects of selected vegetables and spices were assessed in the lungs of albino rats exposed to industrial pollutants. Albino rats grouped into six containing 18 rats each were exposed to cement dust at 200 m from a cement plant in Nigeria. Group one was the control and groups two through six formed the test rats. The histology of lung tissues of the rats was examined before analysis and served as the baseline index. The test rats were then fed with 400 mg kg-1 extracts of roselle, moringa, ginger, ‘ugwu’ and a mixture of the extracts, respectively for 180 days. The control rats received only distilled water for the same duration. The rats were monitored for 180 days after which their lungs were harvested and histopathological analysis carried out again. The lungs of control rats showed severe interstitial fibrosis and cellular debris. Moderate fibrosis were observed in the lung tissues of rats treated with roselle and moringa extracts. The rats that were fed with extracts of ginger, ‘ugwu’ and the mixture of the extracts had mild septal fibrosis. The findings of the study demonstrated the antioxidant properties of the food plants modulated the effects of cement dust. Hence, the plants could be used as palliatives in polluted environments to lower the health problems associated with cement dust exposures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of STICS Model in Assessment of the Effects of Irrigation Practices and Soil Properties on Yield of a Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Cultivar in the Irrigated Area of Oued Rmel in Tunisia

Sami Bhouri Khila, Boutheina Douh, Amel Mguidiche, Françoise Ruget, Mansour Mohsen, Abdelhamid Boujelben

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 747-765
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5053

The progress in computer technology has enabled the development of crop models reproducing the behavior of a crop in a wide range of pedoclimatic conditions and technical itineraries. This work aims to study the impact of total available soil water in the root zone (TAW) on durum wheat yield (Triticum durumDesf.) as affected by irrigation regime in Mediterranean climatic conditions of Tunisia. In this work, STICS model was used to simulate effects of farmer’s irrigation practices in wheat in the pedoclimatic conditions of the irrigated area of Oued Rmel in Tunisia over a 20-year period. Assessment of irrigation practices in the study area was performed, compared to rainfed system, in terms of yield and produced biomass at harvest. The model was calibrated to simulate the growth and development of winter wheat using the field observed crop data collected from three growing seasons in two locations in Tunisia. To carry out the study, three types of soil (S1, S2 and S3) in the Oued rmel irrigation scheme were chosen on the basis of their available soil water in the root zone (TAW). The study showed that the model adequately predicts crop yield and biomass. Simulation results showed that the farmers’ irrigation practice results, in higher grain yield and dry matter at harvest as compared to rainfed system. Simulated grain yield was significantly higher in soil with high TAW than in the other soils. Results showed that the highest difference (30%) in simulated grain yield, between the two water regimes, was obtained in soil having high TAW. Depending on the soil type, simulated dry matter at harvest increased from 4% to 12% compared to rainfed system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Changes Associated with Exposure of Male Mice to Profenofos and Chlorpyrifos

H. M. El-bendary, M. H. Shaker, A. A. Saleh, S. E. Negm, M. E. Khadey, F. A. Hosam Eldeen

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 766-777
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4924

Aims: The histopathological effects of Profenofos, and Chlorpyrifos, as synthetic organophosphorus pesticides, on the liver, kidney, brain and spleen tissues in mice (Mus musculus) were determined by light microscopy. Recently the toxic effects of pesticides have been of public interest. The usage of pesticides is still the most effective and accepted means to protect plants from the pests and to increases productivity. The misuse of pesticides is connected with serious problems of pollution and health hazards. Profenofos and Chlorpyrifos is used widely in Egypt and they play a vital role in controlling Lepidopteron pests of cotton and vegetables [1].
Study Design: Mice were treated with Profenofos, and Chlorpyrifos sub-lethal concentrations (1/10, 1/40 and ADI LD50) orally to twice a week for 30, 60, and 90 consecutive days.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of chemistry Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt, between June 2012 and January 2013.
Results: Histopathological examination revealed various abnormalities in liver tissues, such as congestion of blood vessels, vacuolar degeneration of hepatic cells, focal infiltration and mononuclear cells, Moreover, all central veins and other hepatic blood vessels were dilated, some hepatic cells showed necrosis, disorganization with the formation of a denoid structure and some areas showed hepatocytomegaly with the increase of the number of cells showing double nuclei. Pathological finding in kidney showed perivascular edema with congestion of renal blood vessels, infiltration of mononuclear cells and around some of glomerular tubules, edema of Bowman's capsule and some renal tubules showed coagulation necrosis. Pathological finding in spleen showed disorganization of lymphocytes in lymphoid follicles and in white pulp, depletion of lymphocyts with sub capsular edema, and other cases showed increasing the number of megaterocytes with hemorrhages and haemosiderosis. Pathological finding in Brain showed menengial hemorrhages and congestion of blood vessels, with neuronophagia and satelletosis and sub meningial encephalomalacia, with neuronal degeneration of purkinjie cells were noticed and lesions, there was lyses of some neurons with demylenation of nerve fibers and privascular and pricellular edema. This investigation proves the toxic effects of Profenofos, and Chlorpyrifos at organ level.
Conclusion: The histopathological data showed that profenofos exhibited histopathological changes in liver, kidney, spleen and brain. Liver showed hepatic cell damage with degenerative changes. Kidney showed heamorrhages, edema, necrosis and glomeruli shrinkage. The spleen showed slight deplesion of the lymphocytes of the white pulp. The brain showed interstitial edema and severe necrosis. From these results we concluded that liver is the most sensitive organ and profenofos damage the structure of liver cells more severely than chlorpyrifos on albino mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Physiological Traits Related to Plant Water Status for Predicting Yield Stability in Wheat under Drought Stress Condition

Hojjat Hasheminasab, Ezatollah Farshadfar, Hadi Varvani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 778-789
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6689

The objective of the present study was to model the relationship between yield stability index (YSI) and some physiological traits related to plant water status. Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes with wide range of sensitivity to drought were used in a randomized complete block design with three replications under two different environments (irrigated and rainfed) in 2012-2013 at the experimental farm of College of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. The results showed that YSI had positive and significant relationship with relative water protection (RWP, r = 0.858**), relative water content (RWC, r = 0.594*), canopy temperature depression (CTD, r = 0.669**), stomata resistance (SR, r = 0.643**) and evapotranspiration efficiency (ETE, r = 0.818**), and negative significant correlation with relative water loss (RWL, r = – 0.822**) and excised leaf water loss (ELWL, r = – 0.543*) under drought stress condition. Also ETE (0.46*) and RWP (0.806) had the highest direct and indirect effects on YSI, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the predicting model for YSI explained 97.9% of the total variation within the measured traits. The residual plots analysis indicated no problem in the model with selected variables. On the other hand, t-test showed that some of the variables are not important to be present in this model. The results of path and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicated that ETE (R2 = 73.5%), RWP (R2= 11.9%), CTD (R2 = 6.9%) and RWC (R2 = 3%) were the best physiological traits related to water status for modeling of YSI.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synergism of Heavy Metals on the Respiration of Oreochromis mossambicus

P. S. Navaraj, A. K. Kumaraguru

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 805-816
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5292

This study highlights the impact of heavy metals from electroplating industrial waste water on the respiration of the fish - Oreochromis mossambicus. Bioassays were conducted separately with chromium, nickel and mixed electroplating effluent on the fish. Results revealed quantum decrease in oxygen consumption levels in fish exposed to the highest concentrations of electroplating industrial effluent when compared to those exposed to chromium or nickel. The Two way ANOVA analysis exhibit significant influence of heavy metals in electroplating effluent on the respiration of fish. Synergism of heavy metals in electroplating effluent is projected in this work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Production of Biogas and Bioethanol from Millet Husk

A. Abba, U. Z. Faruq, U. A. Birnin-Yauri, M. B. Yarima, K. J. Umar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 817-827
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4375

The potentiality of millet husk in production of biogas and bio-ethanol was investigated. Proximate analysis was carried out on the millet husk and the husk had the following proximate composition: ash (33.83±0.67%), moisture content (10±0.03%), organic matter (56.17%) and Carbon-Nitrogen ratio (42.31%). It was observed that, addition of cow dung improved the quality and quantity of biogas generated. The volume of biogas in seeded digester was found to be higher; it had total volume of 7333.33 cm3 and 5733.33 cmof pure methane against 5400 cm3 total volume and 4200 cm3 of pure methane, in unseeded digester. Different concentrations (1-5%) of sulphuric acid were used to determine the yield of total reducing sugars and ethanol when the sugar was fermented, the result reveals that 3% sulphuric acid concentration yielded higher percentage of reducing sugars (21.40%) while the highest volume of distillate of ethanol by fermentation of hydrolysate was obtained with 3% H2SO4 (21.7 cm3) with 0.70% purity. Based on cheap cost of production, easy production and use, biogas was found to be better than bio ethanol.

Open Access Review Article

Biogas from Animal Manure – Perspectives and Barriers in Bulgaria

Aleksandar Zahariev, Dimo Penkov, Anna Aladjadjiyan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 709-719
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6505

This paper aims to review the perspectives and barriers before production of biogas from animal manure in Bulgaria.
The share of methane emissions from the agricultural sector in Bulgaria occupies 18 % and stored animal manure is its biggest source. The use of animal manure for production of biogas could reduce these emissions. Biogas market in Bulgaria is not well developed yet, but the potential of biomass for biogas production is promising. Residues and waste from animal production as well as crop residues are important renewable energy sources for Bulgaria as raw materials for biogas production. Animal manure availability from cattle- and pig- and poultry farms in Bulgaria are presented. The content of N, P and K in the manure is discussed in view of further use of the residues of biogas production as soil nutrients. Advantages and barriers to biogas production in Bulgaria are discussed.
Presented data reveal a promising resource for biogas production by anaerobic digestion. The total energy of methane from pig manure is estimated to the value 6703 PJ. Additionally about 25188 PJ from cattle manure are available, and from poultry roughly other 3684 PJ.
The comparison of needs of N, P and K for soil fertilization with the quantities of these elements, available from animal manure allows concluding that the biomass residues from biogas production could play considerable role in soil fertilization.
To fasten and enlarge the introduction of anaerobic digestion of manure it is necessary to formulate as mandatory requirement in applying for subsidy: every farmer should build concrete platforms for storage of fresh manure (from pigs) and lagoons (though open). It assures also the ecological advantage to prevent nitrogen contamination of soil, and groundwater.

Open Access Review Article

Advanced Imaging Techniques in Endodontology: A Review

Aditya Shetty, Mithra N. Hegde, Raksha Bhat, Uday Mahale, Ganesh Bhat, Darshana Devadiga

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 790-804
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5791

Variations in the external morphologic features of the crowns of the teeth accord with variations in the shape and size of the head. The length of the crown varies with the size and sex of the person and is generally shorter in females than in males. As the external morphology varies from person to person, so does the internal morphology of the crown and root. Anatomical variability of the teeth is often a complicating factoring root canal treatment and many different methods have been used to investigate the tooth morphology. Every root canal has its own individual form, therefore guidelines are required in both endodontic practice and for the purpose of research. The currently accepted concepts of root canal treatment require knowledge of root canal length. The success of endodontic treatment depends on the identification of teeth requiring treatment and then the recognition of the root canal system, so that it can be cleaned, shaped and obturated. False assumptions about the root canal anatomy of the teeth may lead to misdiagnosis, missed canals, improper debridement and breakage of instruments during root canal treatment. However, in order to achieve this, it is imperative that the operator should have detailed knowledge of the root canal anatomy of the tooth being treated. This review article emphasizes on the various techniques used in endodontics for studying the root canal morphology.