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Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Monitoring of Ethnographic Ornamental Collections in the Museu do Índio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Ana Carolina Nogueira de O. da S. de Carvalho, Ozana Hannesch, Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1024-1035
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7174

Aims: To investigate fungal contamination in ethnographic objects from the Museu do Índio (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), from a particular indian community named Urubu-Kaapor. Results were compared to the same investigation on objects from other indian tribes, to determine possible cross-contamination between objects, if stored in the same repository in the museum.
Study Design: Selection and materials characterization of the objects from distinct ethnographic collections, followed by an investigation of the fungal contamination through the use of swab techniques and specific culture medium.
Place and Duration of Study: Museu do Índio, located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between April and December 2012.
Methodology: Samples: We included 5 ethnographic objects from Urubu-Kaapor indian community, probably non-contaminated due to its chemical constitution and state of conservation and 5 ethnographic objects from Xavante, Nambikwáras and Kamayurá tribes, probably contaminated with fungal colonies due to its chemical constitution and visual observations.
Results: Results clearly indicated that Urubu-Kaapor objects presented, after growth in proper culture medium, small colonies of fungus collected from their surfaces. The same observations were obtained from the Xavante, Nambikwáras and Kamayurá objects. However, the main difference between the levels of contamination was observed in the type of growth observed. Differently from Urubu-Kaapor objects, fungal colonies grown on other objects presented a higher diameter, associated to a high level of spores and filamentous forms. This could be explained based on the nature of the materials.
Conclusion: Ethnographic objects from Urubu-Kaapor collections should not be put together with the remaining ones from other indian tribes, due to the distinct level of contamination. If not controlled, fungal cross-contamination can take place, with the transfer of fungal spores from one piece to another. In a near future, the whole ethnographic collections would face the same level of microbial contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Obtainable Drugs for Fish Hatchery Operation and Grow-out Ponds in Bangladesh

M. Ariful Islam, M. Nahid Hasan, Y. Mahmud, M.S. Reza, M.S. Mahmud, M. Kamal, S. Siddiquee

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1036-1044
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7287

This study was carried out to evaluate the obtainable drugs, chemicals and antibiotics used in aquaculture activities in Bangladesh for increasing aquaculture production. This study was carried out using data collection method through questionnaire interview and personal contact. The study was carried out in Mymensingh Sadar upazila and Trishal upazila of Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July, 2011 to November, 2011. Data were collected through questionnaire interview, personal contact with hatchery and nursery owner as well as market survey with fish and shrimp farmers, retailers of animal medicine and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. About 46 questionnaires (16 pharmaceuticals companies, 14 drug traders/sellers, 10 fish farmers and 6 fish hatchery owners) were used to collect information. The study identified a number of commercial products with various trade names available in the market namely JV zeolite, geotox, green zeolite, orgavit aqua, fish vitaplus, AQ grow-G, oxyflow, oxy max and O2-marine which were most widely used. The survey discovered that 14 drug traders and 16 pharmaceuticals companies are actively involved in importing and marketing of the aqua drugs. Though Oxytetracycline and a potential sulfonamide are approved for the use of disease treatment but some off-labeled chemicals which had only trade name but no information about the active ingredient of these chemicals was discovered. The farmers of Bangladesh have little knowledge regarding the use of chemicals, their appropriate dose and method of application. For this perceptive the survey were taken so that the obtainable aqua drugs may be known as well as their appropriate dose and application method may be determined for safe aquaculture practices in Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Role of Selected Fungal Strains in the Removal of Phosphate and Nitrate in Synthetic Wastewater

T. A. Adelani-Akande, O. B. Akpor, B. I. Aderiye

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1045-1058
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6406

Aims: This study investigate the role of four fungi species in the removal of phosphate and nitrate in a low nutrient synthetic wastewater. Also investigated was the effect of initial inoculum size on the nutrient removal ability of the strains.
Materials and Methods: The fungal strains used for the study were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Absidia spp and Fusarium spp Four different initial inoculum sizes of each of the respective isolates were used for the nutrient removal studies. After inoculation with the test strains, aliquot samples were taken from the media at time zero and every 24h, for the estimation of total phosphate, nitrate and pH in the medium, using standard methods.
Results: All the strains showed nitrate removal ability, irrespective of the initial inoculum size used for inoculation. After 96 h, the percent nitrate removed ranged from 25.25% to 77.52%, 26.12% to 39.80%, 8.88% to 44.23% and 29.50% to 87.34%, in the presence of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Absidia spp and Fusarium spp, respectively. None of the fungi exhibited phosphate removal ability, except Aspergillus niger which showed very slight potential for phosphate removal. Despite the observed differences in nitrate concentration removed by the different strains, these differences were not observed to differ significantly between the initial inoculum sizes used for investigation (p≤ 0.05). Similarly, the phosphate concentrations in the presence of the test strains did not differ significantly between the different initial inoculum sizes (p≤ 0.05). The pH values of the wastewater inoculated with the fungal strains increased with time of incubation. This trend was also observed irrespective of the initial inoculum size used.
Conclusion: The study was able to provide an insight into the phosphate and nitrate removal efficiency of the test strains under the experimental conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Novel Scientific Appraisal of Elaeocarpus ganitrus the Rudraksha: Nano Silver Synthesis with Aspects of Variation in Concentration Antimicrobial Activity and In vitro Biocompatibility

Poushpi Dwivedi, Shahid S. Narvi, Ravi P. Tewari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1059-1069
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6302

Aims: The remarkable non-degradable distinctive feature of the Rudraksha bead renders reutilization of its resources and inexhaustibility of its potentiality to mediate innumerable silver nanoparticle syntheses. The present study is a step forward towards high prospects of manoeuvred nano silver manufactured for many essential applications.
Study Design: In this nanoregime we bring forth a glorious green route for flabbergasting silver nanoparticle fabrication, with the intervention of the five faced seed of the plant Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb, the Rudraksha bead. Aspects, of the variation in concentration of the precursor as well as the mediator on the physico-chemical nature of the silver nanostructure, its antimicrobial activity, together with the issues of its biocompatibility, have been dealt here.
Place and Duration of Study: Chemistry Department and Biotechnology Department, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, India, between April 2011 and August 2012.
Methodology: The Rudraksha extracts were prepared and biosyntheses of silver nanoparticles were conducted and different parameters were studied together with various characterization.
Results: The silver nanoparticles produced are chiefly spherical with variable size. There exists also variation in size and silver content depending upon the concentration of precursor and mediator. The antimicrobial activity of the nano silver produced is high with good biocompatibility.
Conclusion: The inexhaustible characteristic of the non-degradable Rudraksha facilitates incessant biocompatible nano silver production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tumour Suppressive and Organ Protective Effects of Aqueous Andrographis paniculata Leaves Extract on Benzene Induced Leukaemia Bearing Rats

Akanni E. Olufemi, O. R. Folarin, C. Igbeneghu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1070-1079
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6886

Aims: To investigate and compare the protective and ameliorative role of aqueous leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata and standard drug 5-Fluorouracil on select organs of male Wistar rats exposed to benzene carcinogen.
Study Design: Histological assessment of protective and ameliorative activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata and standard drug 5-Fluorouracil in some organs of experimental animals exposed to benzene carcinogen.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biomedical Sciences Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo. Nigeria between May and August 2012.
Methodology: 72 adult male Wistar rats weighing 150-180 g were grouped into six (A-E), each group comprised of 6 rats in replicate of two (n=12).
Group A (control) received distilled water and normal saline (0.5 ml/kg each), group B received benzene chromasolv (0.2 ml at 1:10 dilution (water/2-propanol), group C received aqueous Andrographis paniculata (10 mg/kg bodyweight), group D was administered 5 -fluorouracil only (5 mg/kg body weight) for four weeks, group E was pretreated with Andrographis paniculata for 4 weeks prior to the administration of benzene chromasolv and group F was post treated with Andrographis paniculata for 4 weeks after pre-exposure to benzene chromasolv for 4 weeks. Leukaemia burden was assessed using haematological parameters such as Packed cell volume, Haemoglobin concentration, Red blood cells count and Total leukocyte count in the control and treatment groups.
Results: Results showed that leukemia was induced within 4 weeks as a significantly elevated WBC (leukocyte) counts and anaemia over the group not exposed to benzene which served as baseline were noted (p< 0.05).Organ histology showed varying lesions of the heart (mild to marked) coronary congestion, severe vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of the hepatocytes with cellular infiltration by mononuclear cells, diffuse tubular degeneration and necrosis with renal interstitial hemorrhage observed in the groups exposed to benzene carcinogen, 5-Fluorouracil and co-treatments of these two agents. However, hepato-renal and heart histio-architectures were intact in the extract pre-treatment and post-treatment groups.
Conclusion: These results suggest that Andrographis paniculata might be more effective than some other drugs currently in use as cancer suppressive chemotherapeutic agents and also may be a novel bioagent for the treatment of acute or chronic injuries induced on the liver, kidneys and heart by toxicants and carcinogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Local Anesthesia Failures in Endodontics with Different Anesthetic Techniques and Agents

S. Shabin, Aditya Shetty, Ganesh Bhat, Mithra N. Hegde

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1080-1091
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5668

Management of hot tooth in endodontic is often a challenge to the clinician. Adequate anesthesia after injection mainly depends on three major factors: (1) Dentist (2) Patient (3) Local anesthesia. Most of the times, hot tooth management requires different anesthetic techniques and combination of different anesthetic solutions. The purpose of this article is to focus on different techniques and different anesthetic solutions that can be used for the management of hot tooth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Oral L-carnitine Supplementation on Lipid Profiles and Anemia in Patients under Hemodialysis in Gonbadkavoos, Iran

Samira Eshghinia, Abdoljalal Marjani, Behrouz Ebrahim Zadeh Kor

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1092-1098
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7538

Aims: L-carnitine is an amino acid derivative, produced endogenously in the kidneys and liver or derived from meat and dairy products in the diet. Impaired L-carnitine synthesis by the kidneys contributes to the L-carnitine deficiency in dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral L-carnitine supplementation on lipid profiles and anemia in hemodialysis patients.
Study Design: Thirty and four eligible patients were assigned to either L-carnitine or placebo groups based on the random. The patients in the L-carnitine group received 1 vial 1g (10 ml) of L-carnitine oral supplement 3 day a week after dialysis, for 16 weeks and the patients in the placebo group received 10 ml distilled water as in the same manner and duration. Blood sample was collected at the onset and after 16 weeks intervention for laboratory evaluations of biochemical and hematological parameters.
Place and Duration of Study: Hemodialysis patients were chosen in Motahary Hospital in Gonbadkavoos, Iran, between September 2012 and March 2013.
Results: The concentration of very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride were significantly decreased in L-carnitine group, whereas, none of these differences were statistically significant in placebo group whereas other measured biochemical parameters were not shown significant changes in both group.
Conclusion: It seems that further experimental investigations are needed to clarify the effects of LC on lipid profiles, anemia and other factors in hemodialysis patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Lythrum salicaria against Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Ertugrul Guclu, Hayriye Genc, Mustafa Zengin, Oguz Karabay

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1099-1105
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7357

Aims: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are extremely problematic pathogens. Treatment of hospital infections caused by these pathogens is very difficult. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of a traditional medicinal plant, Lythrum salicaria against these problematic bacteria.
Methodology: Liquid extract of L. salicaria was prepared in methyl alcohol. A total of 30 A. baumannii and 27 P. aeruginosa strains which had been isolated from hospitalized patients as a nosocomial pathogen was used. The antibacterial activity of test materials was assessed by agar well diffusion test method.
Results: Mean inhibition zone diameter against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were found 16.09 mm (minimum 12 mm, maximum 20 mm) and 18.3 mm (minimum 10 mm, maximum 25 mm), respectively.
Conclusion: L. salicaria extract showed good antibacterial activity against these pathogens. Further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are needed for topical and oral usage of this traditional plant as a drug against multidrug-resistant pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Rumen Fermentation and Gas Production: Influence of Different by-product Feedstuffs

M. H. Delavar, A. M. Tahmasbi, M. Danesh-Mesgaran, R. Valizadeh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1121-1128
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6413

Aims: To determine the chemical composition and estimation of nutritive value of different by-product feedstuffs (BPF) using in vitro gas production technique.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Science, between February 2013 and June 2013.
Methodology: In an anaerobic batch culture system, 50 ml of buffered rumen fluid was dispensed into a 125-ml serum bottle containing 0.2 g dry matter (DM) of the experimental treatments. Experimental treatments included five by-products (pomegranate peel and seed, apple pomace, walnut hull, almond hull). All bottles were purged with anaerobic CO2, sealed and placed in a shaking water bath for 96 h at 38.6ºC. Gas production of each bottle was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96h of the incubation and then gas released. The batch cultures were repeated in three incubation runs. The biomass residues were centrifuged and the pellet was dried at 65ºC for the determination of the residual DM and in vitro DM disappearance (IVDMD).
Results: The total tannins and phenol content were higher (P<0.01) in almond hull and pomegranate peel than in the other BPF. The total tannins content ranged from 0.34% in apple pomace to 9.78% in almond hull. The total phenol of pomegranate peel, pomegranate seed, apple pomace, walnut hull and almond hull were 10.9, 1.20, 0.76, 3.80, and 10.6%, respectively. The rate (c) and cumulative gas volume (b) was significantly higher (P<0.01) for apple pomace than the other feedstuffs. There were significant differences (P<0.01) among feedstuffs about lag time. Apple pomace showed higher (P<0.01) organic matter digestibility (OMD), in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), metabolizable energy (ME), short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and lower (P<0.01) pH than the other feedstuffs.
Conclusion: The higher values obtained for the potential gas production in apple pomace will indicate a better nutrient availability for rumen microorganisms (P<0.01).

Open Access Original Research Article

Mutagenic Effects of MH and MMS on Induction of Variability in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.)

Rafiul Amin Laskar, Samiullah Khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1129-1140
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6553

Aims: An experiment was conducted to find out the comparative response of MMS and MH on Vicia faba L. var. Nepal Selection with a view to determine the mutagen and treatment causing maximum bio-physiological and cyto-morphological variation as compared to the control for genetic improvement of crop.
Study Design: Induced mutation breeding study.
Place and Duration of Study: Mutation Breeding Laboratory, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aliagrh, during Rabi seasons of 2010 to 2012.
Methodology: The dry and healthy seeds of uniform size were treated with four concentrations viz, 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03%, 0.04% of the mutagens (MH and MMS) independently for 6 hours. The observations were made on seed germination, seedling height, total chlorophyll content, morphological variation in leaf and flower arrangement, pollen fertility in M1 generations and quantitative traits such as days to maturity, plant height, leaves per plant, pods per plant, seeds per plant, 100 seed weight (g) in M2 generations.
Results: The results of the present investigation clearly revealed that MH and MMS both induced similar type of mutation in broad bean but extent and frequency of variation greatly varies. Biological damages namely reduction in seed germination, seedling height and pollen fertility were more in 0.03% and 0.04% MH compare to MMS and also total chlorophyll content was lowest at 0.04% MH. The recorded inhibition percentage shows the higher effectiveness of MH compare to MMS in inducing mutation in M1 population. Frequency of morphological variations and cytological aberrations was observed to be more in higher doses of MH than MMS. Further in M2 generation, early maturing mutants were obtained from 0.01% & 0.02% MH and 0.02% & 0.03% MMS treated plants. Plant height and leaves per plant decreases with increasing doses but 0.04% MH treatment gives dwarf variants with reduced height with few small leathery leaves. Yield and attributing traits showed positive mutation at 0.01%, 0.02% & 0.03% MMS compared to control.
Conclusion: Lower or intermediate doses of both the mutagens were found to be useful to improve the genetic background of broad bean, especially in seed yield and early maturity. MH and MMS both induced similar type of variation but degree and frequency of variation is more in MH treated populations in all the parameters studied in Vicia faba L.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Effect of Vit E, VitB6, Calcium and Omega-3 on the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Clinical Randomized Trial

Zafari Mandana, Aghamohammady Azar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1141-1149
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7503

Aims: The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of Vit E, B6, omega-3 and calcium on the treatment of this syndrome.
Study Design: A double blind clinical randomized trial study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of midwifery, of Islamic Azad University, sari, branch Iran. Between March 2012 and October 2012.
Methodology: Two hundred girls with moderate and severe form of premenstrual syndrome were selected randomly and were divided into five groups. Group 1 received 1g of calcium during 7 final days of the cycle for three cycles. Group 2 received 100 mg of Vit E daily for three cycles. Group 3 received 1g of capsule of fish oil for three months. Group 4 received 40 mg of Vit B6 daily for three months. And group 5 received daily one tablet of placebo for three months and also filled Rosignol Bonlender check list during the use of the drugs. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, and severities of symptoms were compared before and after the intervention in each group and after the treatment in all five groups.
Result: Severity of physical, mental and physical and mental symptoms in patients who received Vit E, VitB6, calcium, omega-3 and placebo reduced (p< 0.05)
Conclusion: It E, Vit B6, calcium, and omega-3 are effective on PMS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fatty Acids and Mineral Profiles of Biodegraded Oil-rich Wastewater

A. T. Odeyemi, B. I. Aderiye, E. I. Adeyeye

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1150-1172
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6832

Aims: Biodegradation of oil-rich wastewater evidenced with the production of fatty acids was enumerated and qualified.
Study Design: The study site is Falegan restaurant situated within the metropolis of Ado-Ekiti, the capital of Ekiti State. The restaurant is located at about 20km from Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Microbiology, and Department of Chemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, between September 2010 and August 2011.
Methodology: The oil-rich wastewater and palm oil were cultured using standard methods and the growth measured using gravimetric procedure. Fatty acids enumeration was done using higher performance liquid chromatography. Mineral analyses were carried out on the wastewater samples, using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, while Potassium and Sodium were analyzed using a Flame Photometer.
Results: In wastewater the percentage weight difference between the first and twelfth days indicated some substantial growth differences in Pseudomonas sp. (w) and Staphylococcus sp (x) with each having a 100% weight increase. While in palm oil, there were some appreciable increases in weight difference noticed for isolates Pseudomonas sp. (j), Staphylococcus sp. (r) and Bacillus sp. (p), and Klebsiella sp. (m) with values of 28.3%, 7.84%, 4.44% and 6.98% respectively. The weight increase of each of the microbial cells in palm oil culture was usually lesser than what was obtained in the oil-rich wastewater culture. The largest variation among the microbiological activities in the biodegradation of palm oil fatty acids was obtained on the 7th day. The value on this day was 52.1% which almost doubled the values obtained on day 4 and 24h but almost quadruplet on the 12th day. Generally, Klebsiella spp (m) appeared to be the most outstanding in its biochemical use of the minerals; whereas Staphylococcus sp. (r) appeared to utilize the minerals minimally.
Conclusion: The biodegradation of the oil-rich wastewater was discussed extensively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integration of Mutation and Conventional Breeding Approaches to Develop New Superior Drought-tolerant Plants in Rice (Oryza sativa)

M. T. Hallajian, A. A. Ebadi, M. Mohammadi, H. Muminjanov, S. S. Jamali, M. Aghamirzaei

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1173-1186
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/5935

Present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of developing new superior drought-tolerant plants in rice by mutation breeding. Major regions of rice cultivation especially in Iran and Asia are affected continuously by drought stress especially at the end of flowering stage. To identify resistant plants, water stress was imposed on mutant rice plants in the field in flowering stage. In total, 23 tolerant mutant plants under drought stress were obtained after three generations of selection on mutants. Only 17 M4 lines had high yield and were selected as resistant. Also, morphological parameter evaluations of 29 mutant lines grown under natural conditions indicated that 14 lines were early flowering by 7 days or more and the height of 8 mutant lines had been decreased by 30 cm or more than control. Also, 11 lines had yields of more than 5000 Kg/ hectare. On obtained results of phenotypic evaluations of mutant plants under drought stress and normal conditions, 11 lines were selected for descent test and yield experiments in several regions and years.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Antioxidant in Testicular Integrity

B. J. Dare, F. Oyeniyi, O. T. Olaniyan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 998-1023
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4453

Spermatogenesis is an extremely active replicative process capable of generating approximately 1000 sperms a second with correspondingly high rates of mitochondrial oxygen consumption by the germinal epithelium. This process generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) through reactions with drugs and environmental toxins, or when the level of antioxidants is diminished results in oxidative stress. Excessive production of free radicals or ROS can damage sperm, testes and can cause serious chemical damage to biomolecules (DNA, proteins, and unsaturated lipids) which ultimately lead to cell death and cause infertility. The cell has several protective mechanisms that minimize the toxic potential of these reactive oxygen species. These include the low oxygen tension in the tissue and also the elaborate array of antioxidant enzymes and free radical scavengers it contains; to ensure that the spermatogenic and steroidogenic functions of this organ are not impacted by oxidative stress.

Open Access Review Article

Studies on Metabolism of Capsanthin and Its Regulation under Different Conditions in Pepper Fruits (Capsicum spp.)

Syed Noor Muhammad Shah, Shi-Lin Tian, Zhen-Hui Gong, Mohamed Hamed Arisha

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1106-1120
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6542

Capsanthin is a natural pigment gains great attention because it used world widely in the food, cosmetic and dye industries and readily metabolized in the body. Its functions are anti oxidative, anti tumor, anti cancer and have inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis in the human body. The demand for capsanthin is increasing day by day in the growing industries, while its supply is low. So it required great attention to increase yield of capsanthin content to meet public demand. In this paper we have focus on chemistry of capsanthin, classical genetics, regulator genes in synthetic pathway and environmental stress. This paper will provide research review ideas for the researchers to improve capsanthin content and fruit quality.