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Open Access Case study

Gentian Violet-Induced Oral Irritation

V. Vucicevic Boras, D. Vidovic Juras, D. Gabric Panduric

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2202-2206
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9788

A 67 year old female was referred to the Department of oral medicine due to the lesions on the gingiva where she applied 1% aqueous gentian violet due to the gingival inflammation. She applied gentian violet during two days, two times a day. The pain was worsening as well as extension of the lesions. She was advised to stop applying gentian violet and was given mouthrinse consisting of hexetidinum, methylprednisolone and xylocaine to be used three times a day. After 10 days the lesions completely healed. This case highlights the fact the commonly prescribed agents might also induce oral toxic/iritational reactions in the oral cavity.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of some Nutritional Parameters in Elite Iranian Mutant Rice Lines

Mohammad Taher Hallajan, Ali Akbar Ebadi, Mohammad Mohammadi, Mostafa Aghamirzaei, Mohsen Ghodsi, Milad Ghamari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2073-2087
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7041

The cooking and eating quality of the rice grain is one of the most serious problems in many rice producing areas of Asia and Iran. The purpose of this study was an assessment of amylose content, gel consistency and gel temperature in some mutant Iranian rice lines in comparison with standard and commercial cultivars as indices of nutritional quality. As Iranian peoplelike rice with intermediate amylose, this factor must be included in developing new rice lines by gamma irradiation. In this study, 29 mutant lines of rice genotype “Tarom Mahalli” that had superior quantitative and qualitative traits were evaluated. Considerable nutritional variations were induced in some mutant lines by gamma irradiation. However, the cooking and eating quality parameters did not change in most of mutant lines than popular parental cultivar. Also, T test indicated significant differences between different classes of AC (Amylose Content), GT (Gel Temperature) and GC (Gel Consistency) of 29 mutant lines and 5 standard and commercial cultivars. However, these results indicated that there is not any correlation statistically between amylose content and other factors in these mutant lines. Meanwhile, line TM5 had the firmest texture after cooking than other studied genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Boundary Layer Blood Flow and the Initial Factors of Atherosclerosis by the Magnetic Resonance Imaging

M. V. Beraia, G. M. Beraia

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2133-2146
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9013

Aim: study the blood flow and vessel wall viscoelastic alterations at the boundary layer.
Study Design: Magnetic resonance angiography with the follow up flow quantification was carried out voluntary on the healthy persons.
Place and Duration of Study: MRI department of the Institute of Clinical Medicine in Tbilisi Rep. Georgia, between September 2012 and July 2013.
Methodology: In 12 healthy men (18-52 years of age) at the different sites of the aorta peak velocity, net flow, flow acceleration has been investigated by Magnetic Resonance Angiography.
Results: In the aortic arch in the end systole blood flow separates into the opposite directed streams resulting in the wave superposition. At the outer curvature of the isthmus, flow acceleration in the initial diastole is 6.26 times higher than that in systole. Net flow from systole to diastole increases 2.5±0.5 folds. From the end systole to the initial diastole there is a plateau on the net flow graph. At the outer curvature of isthmus, group wave at the boundary reflection, changes in phase at 180°. At the same time flow wave oscillation frequency at the outer curvature is two times higher (1.6Hz.) than that at the inner (0.8Hz).
Conclusion: During the heart cycle, blood motion at the boundary layer, forms the surface wave and facilitates the blood structural rearrangement and flow. At the end systole, at the outer curvature of the isthmus, pulse pressure at the reflection is in the resonance with the end systolic pressure drop. Amplitude of the wall stress increases. Forming standing wave leads to the dissipation of the wall’s mechanical energy. Here, at the initial diastole, group wave, due to the wave reflection, and frequency dispersion, facilitates to the structural rearrangement/denudation of the vessel wall.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial and Temporal Variability in Fish Diversity of Vellar Estuary (South East Coast of India)

S. Murugan, S. Ajmal Khan, P. S. Lyla, S. Manokaran, S. Raja, B. Akbar John

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2147-2162
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/4962

Aim: The present study describes spatial and seasonal changes in fish species composition of 3 zones in Vellar estuary.
Sample: The95 species of finfishes recorded here (bony fishes 93 species and elasmobranchs 2 species) included 8 freshwater species, 9 estuarine species, 63 estuarine and marine species and 13 marine species.
Results: The number of species and diversity (Shannon-Wiener index, Margalef richness index, average taxonomic distinctness index and the total phylogenentic diversity index) decreased from the marine zone towards freshwater zone. Cluster analysis showed gradual change in species composition from the marine zone to the freshwater zone of the estuary. ANOSIM showed significant seasonal changes (Global R=-0.93; P=0.1%). Pair wise comparison between the seasons also showed significant differences except between post monsoon and summer. However the differences between the zones were not significant.
Conclusion: The higher diversity values and V statistics indicated the healthy nature of the estuary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Brioler Chickens and mRNA Expression of Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene Fed with Soybean

Reza Vakili

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2163-2173
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8781

Aims: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of processed full-fat soy bean on performance, Lipid blood carcass quality and mRNA expression levels of liver fatty-acid binding protein (LFABP) in broiler chicks.
Study Design: A total of 240 day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was used in a completely randomized design.
Place and Duration of Study: Islamic Azad University, Kashmar Branch Farm, 42 days.
Methodology: Experimental treatments included a control treatment (corn-soybean meal), levels 8 and 12% roasted full-fat soybean and levels 8 and 12% extruded full-fat soybean in rations .Each dietary treatment was assigned to four replicate pens holding 12 male broiler chicks. Roasting was conducted for 20 seconds at a temperature of 110°c and extruding for 90 seconds at a temperature of 170°C. Weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured at the end of each experimental period (10, 24, and 42 days of age). At the end of experimental periods, blood samples were collected from wing vein to measure the serum trigeliserids cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels.
Results: The effect of diets on feed conversion ratio was significant at each periods, as well as total period although it was just significant on increasing of growth rate and decreasing of feed intake at grower and finisher periods (p<0.05). Results of the carcass evaluation were not significant. Reduction of pancreas relative weight was only observed in treatments contained roasted and extruded soybean. Replacing extruded and roasted soybean with soybean meal caused a reduction trend of blood cholesterols, triglyceride and LDL, which was statistically significant. The results showed that the mRNA expression of LFABP in treatments containing 12% roasted full-fat soybean and extruded full-fat soybean was higher than the control (p<0.01).
Conclusion: The results showed improvement of performance by including roasted or extruded soybean in broiler diets. The mRNA level of LFABP would be increased by increasing the full-fat soybean levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition, Carcass and Sensory Characteristics of Grazing Lambs Meat, Supplemented with Different Protein Sources

J. Romero-Bernal, E. Morales Almaraz, A. Z. M. Salem, M. D. Mariezcurrena-Berasain, E. Jaramillo-López, M. González-Ronquillo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2174-2183
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8740

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different sources of protein supplementation on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Suffolk lambs in intensive grazing system.
Study Design: Samples of meat for chemical composition, carcass characteristics and meat quality were analyzed using a completely randomized design. An analysis by contrasts was carried out; C1) ryegrass hay (RGH) vs. fishmeal (FSM) and soybean meal (SBM) and C2) FSM vs. SBM treatments.
Methodology: Thirty male Suffolk lambs (37.2±5.4 kg live weight) were used to evaluate the carcass characteristics and meat sensory. Animals were grazed on perennial ryegrass 12h/d and supplemented (30 g/kg0.75 live weight) with RGH, FSM or SBM diets.
Results: Carcass performance was increased (P=.024) in FSM and SBM lambs vs. RGH (52.7 vs. 47.9 %). A tendency (P=.079) was observed for the chop thickness at the 12th rib for SBM or FSM vs. RGH lambs. Organoleptic characteristics did not present differences, except juiciness (P=.002). Meat fat content was the only variable that showed differences between treatments (FSM > SBM and RGH; P=.001).
Conclusion: The use of feed supplementation with diets containing SBM or FSM in grazing lambs, did not affect directly on the carcass conformation and the sensory characteristics of meat. Meat juiciness showed a variation regarding the type of feed supplementation used, without affect on meat tenderness, flavor and aroma. Meat fat content was higher in animals feed with FSM diets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Faecal Shedding of Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia coli Serogroups in Pigeons with Special Reference to E. coli O157

Hussein H. Abulreesh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2184-2191
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9501

Aims: The aim of this work was to investigate the carriage and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli serogroups and the prevalence of toxigenic E. coli O157 by rock pigeon in western Saudi Arabia.
Place and Duration of Study: A total of 600 faecal droppings of rock pigeons were collected from February 2012 to January 2013, from parks, playgrounds, houses roof tops and yards in Makkah city, samples were collected fortnightly.
Methodology: E. coli was detected by spread plate technique on sorbitol MacConkey agar. Confirmation of E. coli isolates was carried out by biochemical tests and PCR. Determination of E. coli serogroups was performed by latex agglutination kits. Disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
Results: The results showed low incidence (2.83%, n = 600) of toxigenic E. coli O157; and complete absence of O26; O91; O103; O111 and O145 serogroups in pigeon faecal droppings. Multidrug resistance was observed in O157 and non-O157 E. coli isolates from pigeons.
Conclusion: Free-living pigeons in western Saudi Arabia may not play an important role in the epidemiology of shiga toxin-producing E. coli. However, they could, in part, have an important role in the environmental contamination and distribution of multidrug-resistant E. coli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Performance of Martial Art Wushu Sportsmen by Measuring the System Complexity

Ali Tanbakoosaz, Mostafa Rostami, Farhad Tabatabai

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2192-2201
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8672

Aims: Multiplicity of the degrees of freedom in biological systems is the source of system variability and an indicator of the system health, its flexibility and its ability to adapt with different individual, environmental and functional limitations. Qualitative methods considered by researchers to evaluate the dynamics of nonlinear systems in the last two decades, estimate the level of system variability by quantifying the complexity of movement patterns. The present study investigates the ability of this criterion to evaluate the skill level of sportsmen in performing different maneuvers and to highlight the differences between groups.
Methodology: Sixteen martial art wushu performers, who were invited to Iranian national team, participated in this study. They were divided into two eight-member groups of elite and skilled athletes according to their previous accomplishments in sport. Their postural oscillations, while performing four balancing maneuvers of taolu form of wushu, were captured by a force plate and the complexity of the oscillations in anterior-posterior and mediolateral directions were calculated using the approximate entropy.
Results: The results showed a noticeable difference between the groups in anterior-posterior direction while there was no significant difference in complexity of mediolateral oscillations between the two groups. The results also indicated a considerable difference between the maneuvers.
Conclusion: The findings indicated that the athletes in the elite group are more skilled and have more flexibility in performing the maneuvers than the athletes in the other group and this capability results from their ability to better control the effective degrees of freedom in controlling the movements and to coordinate the subsystems to reach a stable and rich balanced position.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Perception of Farmers about Laser Land Levelling as an Appropriate Technology in Agricultural Sector of Iran

Seyed Jamal F Hosseini, Marziyeh Bordbar, Somayeh Rajabi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2207-2214
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9688

A descriptive survey research was undertaken to assess laser land levelling appropriateness as perceived by farmers in Marvdasht county of Fars province. The research population included farmers that implement laser land Levelling in their fields in Marvdasht County. Using random sampling, a sample of 111 was constituted. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which was validated by a panel of experts and the reliability index was established by a Cronbach's coefficient. Questions were designed to determine the level of change based on Bennett's Hierarchy of effects. The results indicated that there is a significant positive relationship between knowledge, attitude, opinion, and motivation factors and laser land levelling appropriateness. Multiple regressions indicated that 60 percent of the variance in the appropriateness could be explained by knowledge and attitude factors and it provides an important role for knowledge and attitude factors in laser land levelling appropriateness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioenergy Potentials of Elephant Grass, Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

Elijah I. Ohimain, Presidor Kendabie, Raymond E. S. Nwachukwu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2215-2227
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8722

Aim: Wild strains of elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum, occur as invasive weed especially in disturbed freshwater swamps of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A study was undertaken to assess the productivity and bioenergy potentials of the grass.
Study Design: A completely randomized experimental design was used.
Place and Duration of Study: Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria and January–May 2012.
Methodology: Triplicate samples of the wild elephant grass were randomly collected at ten different locations from Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State. Liquid extract were recovered from the grass, while the resulting bagasse was dried.
Results: The grass was found to have a biomass productivity of 7-11t/ha. The liquid extract was analyzed and was found to have the following characteristics; pH (5.55–5.98), electrical conductivity (14,610-48,214 µS/cm), specific gravity (1.56–1.60), sugars (2.59–4.47%), and ethanol (1.36–2.85%), while the gross calorific heating value of the bagasse ranged from 15.76–17.07 MJ/kg.
Conclusion: With these properties, the liquid extracts of elephant grass could be used as alternative feedstock for sugar and ethanol production, while the bagasse could be used as fuel for power generation via conventional steam turbine cycle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Embedding of Pathology Reports in Pathology Images

Hassan Taghipour, Javad Taghipour, Heydar Ali Esmaili

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2228-2241
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9497

A pathology report contains Gross or Macroscopic description, Microscopic description and Diagnosis determined by examining cells and tissues under a microscope. In this paper, we propose a method to embed pathology reports in pathology images. In proposed method, adjacent pixel difference is used to embed data. The proposed algorithm is completely appropriate for pathology images. This algorithm has low computational complexity and high embedding capacity. The proposed method is reversible and the original image is restored after extracting data without any loss. The embedding of pathology reports in pathology images can be used in pathology exams, assessment of pathology residents, self-assessment programs, and constructing pathology archives and databases.

Open Access Original Research Article

NMR and Thermodynamic Studies of Pb2+ Removal by α-Keratin Nano-Structure in the Environment

Leila Mahdavian

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2242-2251
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9049

Aims: In this study is simulated removal of lead ions by human hair. Human hair that has formed of keratin and 14% of keratin is cystine. The approached of Pb2+ to cystine is simulated and calculated by Gaussian program package.
Study Design: Density functional methods use for the simulated of keratin and investigation of lead ions removal by keratin. A large number of computational physicists use these methods merely as a recipe, not reflecting too much upon their logical basis.
Methodology: The density functional theory (DFT) method with B3LYP/6-31G is used for calculation energy, chemical shift nucleus magnetic resonance (NMR) and thermodynamics properties for cystine in α-keratin of Human hair in the absence and the presence of heavy metal ions.
Results: Natural hair can be considered as an amphoteric gel containing alkaline and acidic groups with nearly equal and reciprocal strengths. Partial preference of alkaline group accounts for creation of a cation resin quality for hair. When a cation compound gets in touch with a hair having numerous contact sites, an electrochemical bond is formed between the hair and the positive charge.
Conclusion: The results shown, the active site of cystine in this interaction is -S-S- bond and NMR parameters have sharp peak in 2.91nm of ions related to cystine. The thermodynamics properties shown, this interaction is exothermic and spontaneous.

Open Access Original Research Article

Insecticidal and Fungicidal Activity of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) Extracts and their Fractions

Moustafa A. Abbassy, Mamdouh A. Marzouk, Entsar I. Rabea, Amany D. Abd-Elnabi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2252-2262
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9511

The insecticidal and fungicidal activities of acetone, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether extracts of Ulva lactuca was tested against mosquito larvae, Culex pipiens and cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis and three phytopathogenic fungi: Aspergillius niger, Penicillium digitatum and Rhizoctonia solani. The results indicated that the acetone extract was the most potent extract against C. pipiens however ethanol and chloroform extracts were most active as larvicides against S. littoralis. Methanol and ethanol extracts showed the highest pupation inhibition (%) of cotton leafworm, however, petroleum ether and methanol extracts were the most potent inhibitors for adult emergence and larval growth. Results of the antifungal activity indicated that methanol extract was the most potent against A. niger, P. digitatum and R. solani. The most potent methanolic extract was fractionated over silica gel column chromatography. All of the resulted fractions were tested for their antifungal activity. Fraction 7 (methanol 100%), exhibited more antifungal activity against all of the tested fungi.

Open Access Review Article

A Paradigm Shift in Medical, Dental, Nursing, Physiotherapy and Pharmacy Education: From Traditional Method of Teaching to Case-Based Method of Learning- A Review

Abraham A. A. Osinubi, Kemi O. Ailoje-Ibru

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2053-2072
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9053

Background: The most commonly used pedagogy in Nigeria and most other countries is the didactic method of teaching. This method is useful for covering underlying concepts, principles and systems. The traditional method of teaching places the burden of promoting learning fully on the teacher, unless it is integrated with other techniques such as problem-based learning and case-based learning (CBL). However, the advantages of CBL over the traditional method of teaching have not been adequately evaluated and this also reflects on the dearth of available literature in this area.
Aim: The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate, analyze and synthesize the available literature evidence base about CBL in order to highlight its merits/benefits, barriers and possible shortcomings so as to guide Medical Colleges and Faculties of Pharmacy in Nigeria in taking a decision on whether or not to begin to explore the possibility of introducing CBL in their medical, dental, physiotherapy, nursing and pharmacy curricula.
Methods: The study was literature-based. The review was focused on CBL for both preclinical and clinical health professional programmes including Medicine, Dentistry, Physiotherapy, Nursing and Pharmacy. Papers were required to have outcome data on effectiveness. The search covered the period from January 1990 to December 2013 and the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, International Education Research Database, Web of Knowledge (WoK) and ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database.
Results: The traditional modes of teaching of science and medical subjects focus mainly on the transmission of content by disciplinary experts. By nature, these teaching processes by themselves are not effective at equipping the students in the areas of communication, critical thinking, creativity, self-directed and collaborative learning. CBL adequately addresses most of these deficiencies in pedagogy.
In their effort to find solutions and reach decisions through discussion, learners sort out factual data, apply analytic tools, articulate issues, reflect on their relevant experiences, and draw inferences they can relate to new situations that are often not given within the scope of a lecture but that could be very vital in professional practice. In the process, they acquire substantive knowledge, become innovative and develop analytic, collaborative and communication skills.
Conclusion: Colleges and faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy should consider the inclusion of CBL in their curricula for the teaching of medicine, dentistry, physiotherapy, nursing, pharmacy and other allied programmes.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Malaysian Plants Used for Screening of Antimicrobial Activity

Mohammed Arifullah, Paritala Vikram, Kishore Kumar Chiruvella, Munvar Miya Shaik, Ilfah Husna B. Abdullah Ripain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2088-2132
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8258

Medicinal plants have very high potential as antimicrobial drugs for treating various human diseases. Although a number of plants have been screened, the search for antimicrobial substances from plants is continued as better and safer drugs to combat bacterial and fungal infections are still needed. Here, we attempted to summarize the antibacterial and antifungal properties of Malaysian medicinal plant extracts against a diverse range of organisms evaluated by disc diffusion and agar well diffusion techniques. Altogether, we provide information on a total of 93 medicinal plants used traditionally in Malaysia for antimicrobial screening during the last 4 years. We believe this combination of insights would provide information of medicinal plants (extracts) containing various secondary metabolites which are effective in controlling infectious diseases. This review also might be of great interest for researchers in isolation and separation of bioactive compounds existing in plant extracts by purification methods.