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Open Access Minireview Article

Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Toxicological Properties of Ficus deltoidea: A Review of a Recent Research

Srinivasan Ramamurthy, Chidambaram Kumarappan, Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam, Jaswin Kaur Sangeh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2357-2371
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8281

Ficus deltoidea (Mas Cotek) is one of the commonly used medicinal plants in Malaysia and it belongs to the family of Moraceae. It is a shrub that reaches a height of six feet, used as an ornamental plant in the tropics or in the home and conservatories. This plant is native to Southeast Asia and Philiphines. It has been used to relieve headache, fever, pneumonia, heart problems, migraines, skin diseases, diarrhea, and toothache. It is also used as an aphrodisiac tonic. Decoction of the whole plant has been used as herbal drink by women after birth to strengthen the uterus and vaginal muscles. It also improves blood circulation and regains body strength as well as treats disorders related to menstrual cycle. This plant is basically a Malay traditional medicine which was very popular ever since it has good medicinal properties. Based on ethnobotanical approaches, F. deltoidea has been claimed to possess antidiabetic, antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, anti-melanogenic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihypertensive properties. Recently, there were a lot of investigations that was carried out to isolate some of the chemical constituents in F. deltoidea to understand how it influences the pharmacological properties of the plant. The plant contains flavonoid, tannins, triterpenoids and phenols. It has been investigated that generally F. deltoidea is safe and nontoxic. However, there are different studies that are still going on to investigate more about the toxicological effects and drug interactions in the long run of human consumption. Therefore, the objective of the review is to summarise the phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of this important medicinal plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Laboratory Evaluation of a Biorational Insecticide, Kinoprene, against Culex pipiens Larvae: Effects on Growth and Development

Kaouther Hamaidia, Noureddine Soltani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2263-2273
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9729

Aims: In the present study, the objective was to estimate the toxicity of an insect growth regulator with juvenile hormone-like activity, kinoprene, on Culex pipiens, the most abundant and investigated mosquito species. Effects of this compound on growth and development were also evaluated.
Methodology: A commercial formulation (Enstar 65% EC) was tested at different concentrations ranging between 162.5 and 650µg/L on newly molted fourth-instar larvae that were exposed for 24 h under standard laboratory conditions according to World Health Organization recommendations.
Results: Kinoprene exhibited insecticidal activity by direct action on the treated fourth-instar larvae but also by differed action on the other following stages of development. Mortality occurred after earlier inhibition of their development or by their inability to complete their ecdysis. The LC50 values were 1287.4µg/L for the direct action on fourth instar larvae, and 246.8µg/L for the differed action until adult emergence. Moreover, the compound disturbed growth and development since several morphological types and an increase in the duration of larval and pupal stages were recorded. In a second series of experiments, the effects of kinoprene were examined on morphometric measurements of larvae, pupae and adults, respectively. The compound affected body volume.
Conclusion: The overall results are discussed in relation to previous reports and suggested that kinoprene have potential as a biorational insecticide for controlling of mosquitoes in an environmentally-friendly manner to the aquatic ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prospective Estimation of Duration of Pregnancy in Women Attending Antenatal Care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

T. C. Okeke, J. O. Enwereji, H. U. Ezegwui, A. C. Adiuku-Brown, C. O. Adiri, O. A. Okezie

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2274-2282
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8603

Background: Accurate estimation of gestational age is of paramount importance in obstetric care. The most commonly used principle for determining gestational age and duration of pregnancy is Naegele’s rule, which is supplemented by ultrasound estimation of gestational age.
Aim: This study was to assess the accuracy of Naegele’s rule in pregnancy and comparison with ultrasound biometry.
Study Design: Hospital based prospective study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria: a 2-year study.
Methods: This was a prospective study of pregnant women selected at random with normal 28day cycle, who knew their last menstrual period (LMP) and were delivered in the labour ward of the UNTH Enugu, Nigeria between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008. The total number of respondents studied was 326 women. The respondents were divided into 2 groups: 163 for each group. Group A were those whose estimated date of delivery was based on Naegele’s rule and group B were those whose expected date of delivery (EDD) was based on ultrasound (USS). Data was analyzed with SPSS Version 15.0 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA), using Chi-square and T-test. The significant level was taken if P < 0.05 at 95% Confidence level.
Results: The mean age of the population was 29.8years. The mean duration of pregnancy for the two groups was 280 days. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in the age of the respondents p=0.832. There was no statistical difference also between the two groups in the parity of the respondents p=0.894.
The gestational age (GA) at delivery for DLMP was 280 days with (standard deviation [SD] 8.3 days) while the GA at delivery for DUSS was 280 days with SD 7.9 days.
Conclusion: The duration of 280days instead of 282days appears more applicable in our environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability of Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Karanjin Content in Pongamia pinnata and Its Relationship with Biodiesel Quality

S. Panpraneecharoen, C. Khamchum, P. Vaithanomsat, M. Thanasombat, V. Punsuvon

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2283-2294
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9218

Aims: To study the variability of oil content, fatty acid composition, karanjin and total carotene content in Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) and its relationship with biodiesel quality
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, from January 2011 to May 2013.
Methodology: The P. pinnata oil contents were extracted by Soxhlet apparatus and examined for fatty acid composition of the oil using gas chromatography (GC).The saponification number (SN) and iodine value (IV) were determined as described in ASTM D5558 and AOCS official method 1c-85.The cetane number (CN) of each of the FAMEs was estimated from SN and IV values. The karanjin content was determined using HPLC with UV-Vis detector. The total carotene content was determined using spectrophotometer.
Results: The variability of oil content was observed in 45 tree accessions of P. pinnata collected from three provinces in the southern of Thailand. The oil content was varied from 26.65 to 33.12 % (wt). Out of these, the fatty acid profiles of 20 accessions with varying seed oil content were examined. Large variations in the fatty acid content (% wt) were observed in stearic (C18), oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid with values of 3.88-13.84 % (wt), 37.15-47.42 % (wt) and 16.61-22.23 % (wt), respectively. Less variation in the fatty acid content (% wt) was observed for palmitic (C16), linolenic (C18:3) and behenic (C20) acids with values of 12.82-17.63 % (wt), 0.00-5.88 % (wt) and 6.30-12.87 % (wt), respectively. The saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters or biodiesel of oils varied from 196.81 to 207.69, 61.66 to 90.07 and 52.72 to 59.41, respectively. The fatty acid composition, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters. The fatty acid methyl esters of oil of P. Pinnata accessions RB3, RS11, RS15 (from Ranong), PK2(from Phungnga) and KB1 (from Krabi) were found to be the most promising (CN > 52.72) as biodiesel. Karanjin varying from 1.26 to 1.49 % (wt) was also found in these five selected samples. The low karanjin content enhances the quality of the biodiesel that support by purity of methyl ester obtained after transesterification.
Conclusion: All P. pinnata produced a high oil content greater than 30 % (wt), with CN>51 and IV<120, thus it meet the specific requirements of international biodiesel standards. The P. pinnata with low karanjin content can be ideal for biodiesel, too.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Taste Perception and Falciparum Malaria Infection in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria

C. Igbeneghu, Y. Owoeye, E. O. Akanni

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2295-2301
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8844

Aim: To examine the association between the ability to taste PTC and falciparum malaria infection.
Study Design: A cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osun State General Hospital and Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, Nigeria between March and November 2012.
Methodology: A total of 567 individuals (276 males and 291 females) of age ≥16 years participated in this study after clinical examination and informed consent was obtained. The participants consisted of three groups. The first group consisted of 242 patients with symptomatic malaria. The second group consisted of 151 individuals with asymptomatic malaria while the third group (control group) consisted of 174 apparently healthy individuals without malaria as of the time of investigation. A sample of 2mL of blood was withdrawn from each participant for examination of malaria parasite. Thick and thin Giemsa stained blood smear were prepared for malaria parasite identification. Tasters and non-tasters were determined among the participants using phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste strips.
Results: The number of tasters among symptomatic malaria subjects (81.8%) and asymptomatic malaria subjects (80.1%) was significantly higher than controls (70.1%). There were significant differences between symptomatic malaria subjects and controls (ᵡ2=7.81, p=0.005), between asymptomatic malaria subjects and controls (ᵡ2=4.30, df=1, p=0.038) but insignificant difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria subjects (ᵡ2=0.17, df=1, p=0.678).
Conclusion: Our findings show that among this study population, falciparum malaria is more associated with tasters than non-tasters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Water Stress and N Fertilizer Levels on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Forage Millet

Seyyed Gholamreza Moosavi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2318-2326
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9261

Aims: This study was conducted to study effect of irrigation deficit and N fertilization on yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of forage millet cv. Nutrifeed.
Study Design: Experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete block with three replications.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in research field of Islamic Azad University, Birjand branch, Birjand, Iran in 2011.
Methodology: The factors included irrigation levels (100 and 50% supply of plant water requirement) and N fertilizer levels (0,75,150 and 225kg.ha-1) were the main and sub-plots, respectively.
Results: The results showed that the decrease in irrigation level from 100 to 50% supply of PWR decreased forage fresh yield 38.8% and total dry yield by 40.1%, significantly. The effect of N on total forage fresh and dry yield and yield components was significant. As N level was increased from 0 to 225kg.ha-1, forage dry yield increased by 81.2%. The complete irrigation treatment with the application of 225kgN.ha-1 had the highest production potential with total forage fresh yield of 49.3t.ha-1. WUE was significantly affected by N levels. As N level was increased to 225kg.ha-1, WUE was 67.52, 35.09 and 13.56% higher than that at N levels of 0, 75 and 150kg.ha-1.
Conclusion: In total, according to the results, complete irrigation with the application of 225kgN.ha-1 increased forage and protein yield per unit area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of an Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CC09 in Field Control of Rehmannia glutinosa Root Rots Disease

Yarong Xue, Lichuan Guo, Yunbin Fang, Chanhong Liu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2327-2336
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8983

Aims: To investigates whether a new bio control agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CC09 can be used to manage the root rot disease of Rehmannia glutinosa resulting from continuous cropping.
Study Design: Completely randomized block experiments with 3 replicates were conducted in the field where R. glutinosa had been grown for one-year.
Place and Duration of Study: Yangyue village, Linfen city, Shanxi province, from April 11 to September 21, 2010.
Methodology: Four treatments were performed in the trial: T1, seeds were soaked in the bio control agent strain CC09 for 30min; T2: spreading 50 ml of the bio control agent per area right before seed down; T3: seeds were soaked in 1000-fold dilution solution of of 80% carbendazim WP for 30min; T4: seeds were soaked in fresh water for 30min. The incidence of root rot disease (IRRD), disease severity (DS), disease index (DI), relative disease control efficiency (RDCE), the relative yield increase (RYI) and the soil bacterial population were investigated. The dynamics of rifr strain CC0910 in soil were performed in Petri dishes using the culture dependent method.
Results: Compared with blank control at harvest time, we observed not only 55.5% of disease control efficacy but also 28.6% yield increase in T1 treatment, 43.4% and 39.9% in T2 treatment. With the aid of rifr mutant CC0910 and culture-dependent method, we found the soil bacterial populations significant higher in T2 than that in T1 (P<0.05). Moreover, the strain CC09 in soil increased to the maximum in the first few days and then decreased to a relative stable density of 5×107 cells g-1.
Conclusion: As the new bio control agent CC09 can maintain high cell density in the soil, thus it could be used to control the root rot disease of R. glutinosa caused by continuous cropping.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Grafting of Selected Papaya (Carica Papaya L.) Lines in Kenya

Naomi Nzilani Mumo, Fredah Karambu Rimberia, George Edward Mamati, Agnes Wanjiru Kihurani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2337-2346
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9494

The aim of this study was to evaluate success of In vitro grafting method in three selected Kenyan papaya lines. In vitro regenerated shoots of about 20mm were used where the upper 10mm tips were excised and used as scions while the remaining portion was used as rootstock. The rootstocks and the scions were used interchangeably. Number of leaves and length of grafts were recorded every week for six weeks. Number of scions that were alive after six weeks was also recorded. Grafted shoots were rooted on MS with 2.5mg/l IBA. The number of grafted shoots that were alive after six weeks ranged between 45% and 80%. The types of rootstock and scions affected the number of leaves and length of grafted shoots with lines 1 and line 2 grafted on their rootstock exhibiting the highest leaf number and shoot length. Papaya line 3 grafted on either line 1 or 2 rootstock and vice versa had a higher number of leaves and shoot length as compared with line 3 grafted on its own rootstock. Within 24 weeks, in vitro grafted plantlets were achieved. In vitro grafting of selected papaya lines was successful.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Anatomical Variations of the Median Nerve in Human Fetuses

Francisco Prado Reis, Ana Thaisa da Silva Leal, Ana Terra Fonseca Barreto, José Aderval Aragão

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2347-2356
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9542

Introduction: The median nerve is one of the most important terminal branches of the brachial plexus. Anatomical variations in the formation of the median nerve are common and have been reported by several authors.
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomical variations of the median nerve in cadavers of human fetuses, from its origin to the formation of the median nerve.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-five fixed human fetuses (50 upper limbs) were dissected by planes with conventional technique and classic instrumentation.
Results: The frequency of variation in formation of the median nerve was 28%. The more frequent anatomical variations were: a communicant branch between the median and the musculocutaneous nerves (10%) and a lateral cord which gave rise to a couple of lateral branches to formation of the median nerve (8%).
Conclusions: Anatomical variations of the median nerve and its roots described in this study confirm the frequent occurrence of these variations in the brachial plexus neuroanatomy. An unusual variation during the formation of median nerve was also described. The significance of such variations are relevant to surgeons, anesthetists and clinicians in the management of surgical exploration of the axilla, in the clinical investigations and in the nerve blocks procedures of the brachial plexus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proteome Analysis of Mutant Drought Tolerant Iranian Rice Using 2D Gel Electrophoresis

Mohammad Taher Hallajian, Hafiz Muminjanov, Sepideh Sadat Jamali, Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Mostafa Aghamirzaei

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2372-2395
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8159

Major regions of rice cultivation in Iran and Asia are affected by drought stress, especially at the end of the flowering stage. Therefore, it is inevitable to develop efficient crops by water utilization. The technique of proteome analysis by 2D-gel electrophoresis is useful to monitor comprehensive changes that occur in the protein relative abundance of tissues and organisms under stresses. Phenotypic analysis of mutant rice plants under drought stress was performed on standard evaluation systems of International Rice Research Institute. Protein extraction was done from studied samples in different times (control, fourteen days of stress, one day after rehydration, seven days after rehydration). Then, proteome analysis of the samples was performed by 2D electrophoresis. Molecular analysis of protein spots available in gel profiles of selective plants was done using Melanie software version 6.2. Inter class analysis of the samples indicated that protein relative abundance of 83, 88, 92, 118 and 180 spots in tolerant sample T1, seven days after rehydration was significantly increased than other samples. Moreover, inter class analysis represented that relative abundance of 7 and 8 spots in tolerant sample T3a, fourteen days after drought stress was more than 2-fold to other tolerant samples T1 and T3b, respectively. However, inter class analysis of tolerant sample T1, seven days after rehydration with tolerant samples T3a, fourteen days after drought stress and T3b, one day after rehydration and 4R, control condition sample, wild type sample B7, seven days after rehydration and sensitive sample S2, seven days after rehydration indicated that protein relative abundance of 88, 92, 118, 180 and 83 spots was significant statistically at 1% and 5% levels in student t-test, respectively. In conclusion, after proteome analysis of studied plants, twenty protein spots with No. 29, 30, 72, 91, 97, 107, 108, 112, 114, 132, 137, 143, 305, 311, 313, 345, 352, 366, 401, 405 and 466 were detected as candidate spots linked to drought tolerance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidepressant-like Effects of Elatostema umbellatum and Urtica dioica in Mice Using Forced Swim Test and Tail Suspension Test

Amir Modarresi Chahardehi, Darah Ibrahim, Farid Abolhassani, Shaida Fariza Sulaiman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2396-2405
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9986

Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidepressant action of Elatostema umbellatum and Urtica dioica as well as comparison them with conventional antidepressant drugs and to determine the possible mechanism of its antidepressant action using two methods of study.
Study Design: Prospective.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
Methodology: Alcoholic extracts of E. umbellatum and U. dioica were intra-peritoneal administrated in 78 albino mice (each group contains six mice) using two different methods of extraction (Soxhhlet and partitioning extractions) and antidepressant assays. The antidepressant activity was examined to obtain antidepressant-like effect using Forced Swimming Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) in mice.
Results: CEUD I and BEUD IIf2 led to reduction of immobility time, as the selected extracts with two doses (50 and 100mg/kg) administered were different compared to the control, in the FST method by 65.55% and 72.87% for 100mg/kg, respectively. However, fraction BEUD IIf2 showed the best result compared to our positive controls. Similar results of increased antidepressant effect, that was, of immobility time depending on the concentration administered, were obtained with the TST method. Also our data showed that there was no significant differences between doses (50 and 100mg/kg) except for HEEU I extract.
Conclusion: The results suggested that the antidepressant action of the butanol extract of U. dioica its fraction (BEUD IIf2) was mediated by an interaction with 5-hydroxytrptamine (5-HT). U. dioica showed a potential source for the isolation of important natural products with antidepressant-like properties. However, further studies are still required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Feeding Value of Single Cell Protein Produced from Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Fruits for Broiler Chickens

Huthail Najib

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2406-2413
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9524

Saudi Arabia produces about 0.5 million tons and about 130,000 tons of poultry meat and eggs respectively per year and depends mainly on imported protein concentrate for feeding these birds. Therefore, it is important to produce poultry feed using locally available materials. The objective of this research was to find the feed value of the microbial protein, produced from date waste to broiler chickens. Experiment was conducted using different levels of single cell protein yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (0, 5, 10 and 15 %) in the diets of broiler chickens. Diets were formulated to feed 120 day old broilers. The chicks were randomly distributed in to 12 battery pens each contained 10 chicks. The dietary treatments were assigned to the cages in such a way that each dietary treatment was assigned to 3 battery pens (replicates). Results of the chemical analysis showed that level of the yeast proteinwas 51.88 %. This protein was found to be rich in Lysine (1.02 %). Methionine level of the protein was not as high as the Lysine (0.27 %). Level of fat in the yeast was only 6.41 %; however, its content from Oleic acid was 43.2 %. Linoleic and Linolenic levels were 0.85 and 0.14 %, respectively. Performance of the birds revealed no significant differences(P>0.05) between the control birds and birds on 5 % level of the yeast in terms of final body weight and final cumulative feed conversion .However there was a clear indication that addition of 15 % single cell protein may be harmful to the birds. It was concluded that adding 5 % single cell protein, produced from Date Palm fruit waste to the broilers, produce no adverse effect to the performance of the birds and can be included in their diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Advance Prediction and Multivariate Analysis for Antioxidants and Agronomic Traits in Wheat

Lalehzar Ghaed-Rahimi, Bahram Heidari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2427-2449
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8987

Background: The Interrelationship of traits is important for structuring crop populations and modeling selection criteria for increasing grain yield.
Aims: Assessing interrelationship of traits under drought stress and normal irrigation conditions.
Study Design: Landrace varieties from different regions of Iran were selected for evaluating the interrelationship of traits under drought stress.
Place and Duration of Study: The Research Farm of Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran, between 2010 and 2012 growing seasons.
Methodology: Thirty five wheat genotypes consisting of 33 landrace varieties and two cultivars were cultivated as a split plot design in three replications in 2010-11 and 2011-12 growing seasons. Drought stress and normal irrigation conditions were considered as main plots and genotypes were cultivated in subplots.
Results: Cryptic relationships among antioxidants and agronomic traits were defined by 7 and 6 factors that explained 80% and 75% of traits variation under fully irrigated and drought stress conditions respectively. Factor 2 was defined as grain yield factor and it was a contrast between antioxidants and morphological traits. In factor 2, grain yield, thousands grain weight, spikelet and grain number had the highest loadings. Stepwise regression for grain yield (Y) and other traits under drought stress indicated that thousand grain weight (X1), biological yield (X2), harvest index (X3) and grain number (X4) entered to grain yield model as Y= 44.4+ 3.03 X1+ 0.389 X2+ 12.635 X3+ 2.639 X4. Except day to heading and canopy temperature, agronomic traits had positive correlations with grain yield. Cluster analysis showed that genotypes assigned to 5 clusters under drought stress and the highest grain yield (5.3 t ha-1) and harvest index (38.1%) belonged to the fifth cluster. The genetic coefficients of variation were from 1.3% (superoxide dismutase) to 19.0% (thousand grain weight) in 2010-11 and 1.52% (superoxide dismutase) to 17.2% (protein) in 2011-12. Canonical analysis showed that canopy temperature and heading were negatively associated with grain yield and with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as antioxidant enzymes under drought stress conditions.
Conclusion: Antioxidants and canopy temperature had lowest genetic advance under drought but thousand grain weight and harvest index had highest genetic advance and can be considered as selection index for drought tolerance improvement.

Open Access Review Article

The Evolution of Integrative Insect Systematics

S. N. Okiwelu, M. A. E. Noutcha

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2302-2317
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7697

Background: Traditional morphological taxonomy fails in some cases; even when it succeeds, the use of other disciplines significantly accelerates identification and enhances our understanding of the processes in speciation.

Arthropods: The arthropod tree of life is now divided into FIVE major branches: Pcynogonida, Euchelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea and Hexapoda. Crustacea and Hexapoda are in a clade, Tetraconata (Pancrustacea). Blattaria is more closely related to Isoptera; Strepsiptera is closely related to Coleoptera.
History of Entomological Classification: This history is segregated into four periods: Pre-Linnaean era, First century spanning Linnaeus’ “Systema Naturae” to Darwin’s “On the Origin of species”, Darwinian Era up to the Cladistic Revolution, Hennigian Era leading to today. Classification in the pre-Linnaean era was based solely on morphological characteristics. Binomial nomenclature was developed in the first century. Phylogeny of insect orders along the lines of Darwinian evolution was evident in the third period. Hennigian Era utilized only taxa that are monophyletic. Cytogenetics, electron microscopy and DNA sequencing are widely used. Integrative Taxonomy: In addition to morphological and molecular techniques, other disciplines (including Ecology, Behaviour, Reproductive compatibility, Life history, Zoogeography, Chemistry) are utilized. Integrated taxonomy does not replace traditional taxonomy but improves rigour.
Outcomes: Delimiting species by integrative taxonomy has yielded a better biodiversity inventory, by both increasing and decreasing species numbers. Increases have been especially due to the discovery of cryptic species. The arthropod tree of life has been re-evaluated.
Conclusion: The advances in systematics have been fuelled by: new sources of data from nucleic acid sequences, theoretical advances in the nature and analysis of systematic data, development of powerful, affordable computers and new statistical tools for data analysis, integrative taxonomy, etc. The disciplines of Insect Taxonomy and Insect Phylogenetics are complementary; thus programmes on Insect taxonomy should be inclusive.

Open Access Review Article

Shoulder Dystocia

T. C. Okeke, B. U. Anyaehie

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2414-2426
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8515

Background: Shoulder dystocia is an unpredictable, unpreventable obstetric emergency fraught with a universally accepted definition, no consensus management, and a wide variation in reported incidence worldwide.
Aim: The aim of this review is to create awareness to Obstetricians and residents in training, guidelines and a plan of action to the management of this obstetric emergency.
Methods: Review of pertinent literature on shoulder dystocia, selected references, conference papers, technical reports, journal articles, abstracts, and internet articles using Medline, Google scholar and Pubmed databases were critically reviewed.
Results: Shoulder dystocia is associated with 1% risk of serious long term disability or death in the neonates. The relative infrequency of shoulder dystocia and lack of standardized management means that few Obstetricians are truly experienced in the management of this obstetric emergency. Multiple maneuvers can be applied in an attempt to alleviate the dystocia.
Conclusion: Shoulder dystocia is highly unpredictable obstetric emergency which requires that all labour ward practitioners must possess a detailed knowledge of the condition and how to overcome it.