Open Access Case study

Oral Adverse Reaction to Cefuroxime Axetil

V. Vucicevic Boras, V. Brailo, D. Vidovic Juras, S. Ljubojevic Hadzavdic, D. Gabric Panduric

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2471-2475
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10103

A 62 year old female patient was referred to the Department of oral medicine due to the severe oral reaction two days after she started to use cefuroxime axetil. Buccal and sublingual mucosa was very inflamed and covered with thick pseudomembranes. Patient was otherwise healthy and did not take any medication. She was advised to stop the suspected drug intake immediately and was given intramuscular methylprednisolone injection (40mg, i.e. 1mg/kg) as well as chlorhexetidine mouthwash with local anaesthetic (Xylocaine) to be used at home three times a day. After seven days the lesions healed completely. Two months after the adverse drug side effect, allergic tests were performed. In vitro tests (indirect degranulation of basophile granulocytes and blast transformation of lymphocytes) as well asepicutaneous test were negative to cefuroxime axetil.

Open Access Method Article

A Novel Iris Colour Classification Scale

Olga Simionescu, Mariana Grigore, Florentina Furtunescu, Dana Minca, Virginia Chitu, Mariana Costache

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2525-2534
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9906

Background: Eye colour can be a predictive factor for skin cancer. Several iris colour classification scales have been described, but are not widely accepted. Further investigation of the relationship between the iris and skin cancer requires a valid and reliable instrument for iris colour classification.
Objective: Development and validation of an easy and clinically reliable scale for iris colour classification.
Design: This is a descriptive case series study.
Participants: We analysed 211 irises digital photographs of patients with primary skin cancer taken with identical digital camera settings.
Methods: Three researchers independently rated the irises using a new scale based on three descriptive parameters (freckles, collarette, and periphery) and with two validated scales for comparison. For each parameter, we calculated the inter-ratter concordance (percentage of agreement; Cohen’s kappa), the validity (Spearman bivariate correlation coefficients) and the internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha).
Results: The three ratters had almost perfect concordance for all three scales and for each parameter of the novel scale. Internal consistency analysis revealed an acceptable Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.734 for the new scale total score.
Conclusions: The novel scale is a reliable and valid instrument for iris colour classification. It is easy to apply, interpret, and specifically relate to skin cancer risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Periodontal Pathogens in Screw and Cement Retained Prosthetic Appliances

B. Recani, N. Dulcic, S. Cimic, A. Catic

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2450-2461
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9011

Background: Although implants are widely used in everyday practice there are insufficient data on the type of suprastructure fixation (screw versus cement) of the prosthetic appliance and presence of microbial species.
Aim: The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between the type of prosthetic suprastructure fixation (screwed or cemented) and the presence of A. actinomycetemcommitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. intermedia, T. denticola and F. nucleatum. Furthermore, the aim of this study was to evaluate possible correlation between the presence of systemic diseases and the type of the investigated bacteria.
Materials and Methods: In fifty one dentate patient, 136 implants were inserted either in the upper or lower jaw in the place where molars were missing. Cemented suprastructure was put in 32 patients and screw retained suprastructure in 19 patients. Samples were taken with sterile paper points before abutment fixation and six months later (three times during ten seconds from the gingival sulcus) and analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plaque index, Papillla bleeding index and Community Periodontal Treatment Need Index as well as the presence of systemic diseases was recorded.
Shapiro – Wilks test was used when samples were smaller than 30 and Kolmogorov – Smirnov test when they were more than 30. P value under 0.05 was significant.
No differences in the presence of A. actinomycetemcommitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. intermedia, T. denticola and F. nucleatum with regard to the type of fixation (screwed versus cemented) were seen. There was a significant increase in bacterial count in persons with cardiovascular, rheumatic diseases and in those who took medications and were older. Preoperatively, there was no correlation between periodontal pocket depth with the number of the bacteria. Postoperatively, patients with more periodontal pockets of ≥4 mm harvested higher number of investigated bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrition Assessment of N-P-K in Mint (Mentha spicata L.) Cultivated in Soilless System

C. R. Juárez-Rosete, A. Olivo-Rivas, J. A. Aguilar-Castillo, R. Bugarín-Montoya, B. G. Arrieta-Ramos

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2462-2470
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9379

Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient removal of N, P and K in the biomass production of mint plants at the harvest time.
Study Design: A randomized complete block experimental design with five replicates and a time series arrangement was used. Data were adjusted by polynomial regression models with SAS statistical analysis system.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was set up in a shade house (35% shade) located in Xalisco, Nayarit in western Mexico during the spring-summer of 2011, using a commercial variety of mint.
Methodology: The harvest days were 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 days after transplant (DAT), dates on which shoots 15 cm in length, the required size in the international market, were obtained. Steiner solution was used at five concentration levels: 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125%. The growth medium was volcanic slag with 0.3-1 cm granulometry. Plant height, fresh and dry plant biomass and stem diameter were assessed at each sampling date. Nutrient removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was determined in the different samples in order to understand the absorption dynamics of these elements under commercial management.
Results: The results showed that the 100% nutrient solution (NS) concentration increased plant height (PH) by 34% during the first five cuts. Stem diameter (SD) had no significant differences among treatments. Above-ground fresh biomass (AGFB) and above-ground dry biomass (AGDB) were greater in the 100% NS treatment. Nitrogen, P and K (mgkg-1) removal was dependent on the ionic concentration of the nutrient solution.
Conclusion: The concentration of the nutrient solution modified fresh and dry biomass production in mint plants. The concentration of the nutrient solution must be increased for optimal yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Length-Weight Relationships of Five Fish Species from the Sakarya River, Turkey

Abdullah Ekrem Kahraman, Didem Göktürk, Erdinç Aydin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2476-2483
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7513

Aims: The study aimed to investigate the length-weight relationships for five fish species (Capoeta baliki, Capoeta sieboldii, Squalius cephalus, Silurus glanis and Esox lucius).
Place and Duration of Study: Samples were caught by trammel nets from the Sakarya River, in the northwestern region of Turkey, between October 2010 and February 2012.
Methodology: Fish samples were obtained by trammel nets (inner mesh sizes 32, 36, 40, 44, and 48 mm nominal bar length). Scientific names for each species were checked with the Catalog of Fishes [34]. Total length (TL) was measured to the nearest centimeter (cm) and body weight (W) was recorded in nearest gram (g). All length-weight relationships for five species were calculated using the equation W=a Lb [35]. The coefficients obtained were analyzed with ANOVA. The Student’s t-test was used for comparison of the slopes [36]. Furthermore, the physical and chemical characteristics of the studied area were monitored.
Results: A total of 1197 fish samples were collected in this survey. Five fish species belonging to three families, Cyprinidae (90.64%), Siluridae (5.35%), and Esocidae (4.01%), were examined. Estimates for parameter b of the length-weight relationship ranged between 2.444 and 3.222. There was no significant difference in b-value for S. cephalus (P>0.05). In contrast, the b-values of the other species were significantly different from each other (P<0.05). The growth type of S. cephalus and S. glanis was determined as positive allometry (b>3), whereas C. baliki, C. sieboldii and E. lucius showed negative allometry (b<3).
Conclusion: In this study, a large number of C. baliki specimens were examined for the first time. In addition, it was determined that the parameters of length-weight relationships for all studied species were substantially different from each other.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transmittance Properties of Contact Lens Multipurpose Solutions and Their Effects on a Hydrogel Lens

Kelechi C. Ogbuehi, Faisal M. J. Khan, Saud A. Alanazi, Turki M. AlMubrad, Uchechukwu L. Osuagwu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2484-2500
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7934

Purpose: The aim was to assess the compatibility of different multipurpose solutions (MPSs) with one type of silicone hydrogel (SiH) contact lens by, assessing the changes in both ultraviolet (UV) and visible light transmissibility of the hydrogel lens caused by the MPSs.
Methods: The light transmittance from 200-700 nm were measured for the lotrafilcon B blister pack solution (BPS), six MPSs namely, ReNuMultiPlus Multi-Purpose Solution (Bausch and Lomb Inc., Rochester NY, USA.); Complete RevitaLens Multi-Purpose (Abbott Medical Optics Inc., Quarryvale Co. Dublin, Ireland); All In One Light (Sauflon Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Twickenham, England); SOLO-care AQUA™ (Ciba Vision Corporation Duluth, Georgia, USA.); Biomedics All-in-one solution (CooperVision, Hamble, UK); and HippiaMultiPlus All-in-one solution (Interojo Inc., Kyeonggi-do, Korea), and a lotrafilcon B SiH lens (before and after storage), using a spectrophotometer.
Results: The UV transmitted through the BPS and the MPS were similar (p >.05, for all), except for the HippiaMultiPlus which was lower (p < 0.001) by 19.8%. Mean transparency values were statistically (p<.001) significantly different between the BPS and the MPSs. All MP solution/SiH lens combinations resulted in relatively high UV transmittance values especially in the UVC spectrum, and significantly increased (p <.001) the visible light transmittance values of the SiH lens. Greater changes in transparency were observed in the ReNu/SiH lens (28.5%) and the Complete RevitaLens/SiH lens (24.9%) combinations.
Conclusion: The six MPSs showed significant variations in the transmitted UV and visible light. Similar to the BPS, all MPSs were equally transparent, but showed very poor UVA & UVB attenuation, except for the Hippia MultiPlus. The MPS/SiH lens combinations did not significantly affect the lens transparency but it significant increased the lens transmittance of UV radiation, after storage. Further in-vivo studies are needed to validate if this effect is constant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Disturbance and Population Structure of Plant Communities in the Wildlife Reserve of Oti-Mandouri in Togo (West Africa)

Dimobe Kangbéni, Wala Kpérkouma, Dourma Marra, Kiki Martial, Woegan Yao, Folega Fousseni, Batawila Komlan, Akpagana Koffi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2501-2516
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9313

Aims: As a contribution to the sustainable management of protected areas in Togo, this study aims to analyze the impact of anthropogenic activities on plant communities in the wildlife reserve of Oti-Mandouri (North-Togo).
Study Design: The study area is located in the Sudanian zone, in northeast Togo.
Place and Duration of Study: The field work was carried out during April and June 2009, whilst processing data was done at Lab From July to October 2009.
Methodology: Total height and stem diameter at breast height (dbh) greater than 10 cm of all trees species were measured in 126 plots. In each plot, ecological parameters were recorded and the seedling and suckers (dbh<10cm) of species were counted.
Results: 116 woody species with dbh greater than 10 cm belonging to 33 families and 84 genera were listed. Presence/absence data of the overall species recorded in each plot was subjected to multidimensional scaling and results showed 4 types of woody vegetation: shrub savannas, tree savannas, wooded savannas and gallery forest. The most common families were Rubiaceae (14.28%), Mimosaceae (13.26%) and Combretaceae (11.22%). Species such as Combretum glutinosum (48.68%), Mitragyna inermis (36.84%), Acacia polyacantha (35.52%) and Piliostigma thonningii (35.52%) were relatively more frequent, but this potential floristic resource was almost threatened by human activities such as farming, grazing, burning, and tree cutting. The structure adjusted by 3-parameter Weibull showed reverse “J” shape for class diameter distribution with shape parameter varies between 1 and 3.6 showing a predominance of individuals with small diameter within the overall study area.
Conclusion: The results showed that this protected area is subjected to much degradation, and its conservation is important in the process of biodiversity conservation varices grades.

Open Access Original Research Article

Latent Infection of Olive Leaf Spot Disease on Palestinian Olives

Hajaj Hajjeh, Mazen Salman, Ruba Abuamsha, Mohamad Abueid, Mohammad Jawabreh, Abd-Almonem Hawamda, Basima Abu Rumaileh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2517-2524
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9845

Olive Leaf Spot (OLS) or peacock disease is one of the most destructive diseases on olive trees in many parts of the world. The disease is caused by the fungus Spilocaea oleagina and can reduce the growth and yield of olive trees (Olea eurapaea L.). Investigations were carried out during October 2011 and October 2012, to determine the latent incidence and severity of OLS infection in Palestine. Five growing regions (Tulkarm, Qalqilyah, Salfit, Nablus and Jenin) were visited routinely every two weeks to collect olive leaves from two groves in each region. In each grove, 100 new and another 100 old leaves from 5 trees were collected and transported to the laboratory. Disease incidence was determined by recoding the per cent of infected leaves per tree. OLS was found in all study areas with Salfit and Qalqilyah the most infected. The grade of latent severity in these regions (2.3 and 2.1 in old and new leaves, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the other regions. Interestingly, the highest latent severity and incidence in all regions (new and old leaves) occurred in March during the winter season. The rate of visible incidence and severity (70 and 4%) in old leaves was higher than that in the new leaves (40 and 3%). This survey might provide reliable information on the prevalence of OLS in Palestine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anatomical Study of the Sural Nerve Complex in Human Fetuses

Francisco Prado Reis, Cybele Maria Bomfim Santos, Igor Prado Oliveira, Debora Dias Barreto, Vera Lúcia Correa Feitosa, José Aderval Aragão

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2535-2546
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10020

Introduction: The posterolateral region of the leg and dorsolateral as well as the and medial region of the lateral side of the foot are usually described as innervated by the sural nerve. This nerve is of great importance in neurosurgery, plastic surgery and peripheral nerves grafts, having significant diagnostic value in tissue biopsy and neurophysiological assessment of several causes of peripheral neuropathy.
Objective: The present study aimed to study the anatomy of the sural complex in human fetuses, considering its occurrence frequency, type, level of formation and distribution of the sural nerve and other components of the sural nerve complex.
Materials and Methods: 40 lower extremities of 20 human fetuses, six males and 14 females with ages ranging from 22 to 36 weeks, were used. All fetuses were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde solution and dissected using dissecting instruments with the assistance of a 4X magnifying glass.
Results: The formation of sural nerve was found in 22 of the 40 lower limbs dissected and present in three of the five types described. The medial sural cutaneous nerve was the branche from the sural complex present in all cases.
Conclusions: Given the anatomical variations found in this study, it is possible to conclude that it is significantly difficult to establish an anatomical standard for the complex of the sural nerve. Therefore, this finding is worthy the attention of professionals who, from the clinical or surgical experimental viewpoint, deal with the components of this complex, specially the sural nerve.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining the Association between RDW and Traditional Markers of Inflammation

Heydar Ali Esmaili, Hassan Taghipour, Ezatollah Saburi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2547-2552
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9651

Objectives: Determining the association between RDW and the two widely used markers of inflammation; ESR and hs-CRP.
Materials and Methods: The laboratory tests including CBC, ESR, and hs-CRP were performed on 984 subjects, and the results were recorded. The association between RDW, ESR and hs-CRP was determined using Linear Regression Analysis and Correlation Coefficient of Pearson.
Results: There were correlation between RDW and both hs-CRP and ESR in entire study population. The result of Linear Regression Analysis and Correlation Coefficient of Pearson for determining the association between RDW and hs-CRP was Y= 1.61x + 12.67, and r=0.28 (p<0.001), respectively; and for RDW and ESR was Y=0.913x + 12.74, and r=0.23 (p<0.001).
Conclusion: According to strong association between RDW, ESR and hs-CRP, RDW can be used as potential marker of inflammation.