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Open Access Original Research Article

Essential Oil Compositions and Antibacterial Properties of Mint (Mentha longifolia L.) and Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Zeynab Mohkami, Azadeh Ranjbar, Fatemeh Bidarnamani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2675-2683
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7899

Aims: This study was designed to investigate the chemical composition (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [GC-MS]) and antibacterial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria) activities of essential oils extracted from aerial parts of two medicinal plants, Mentha longifolia L. and Rosmarinus officinalis, by MIC and MBC assays.
Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Agriculture, Deputy of Research and Executive, University of Zabol, Zabol, Sistan & Blochestan province, Iran, 2013May to2013 October.
Methodology: The aerial parts of Mentha longifolia L. and Rosmarinus officinalis were collected during their flowering stage. Collected plant samples were air dried in shade and under room temperature conditions. 50 g of dried plants were crushed into smaller pieces, and hydrodistilled in a Clevenger–type apparatus for 3h. The extracted compounds were analyzed on a 6890 N Agilent gas chromatograph coupled with a 5975 C Agilent mass-selective detector. For antibacterial activities assay, Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) tests against E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and Staphylococcus aureus were were carried out by using Müller-Hinton broth on a tissue culture test plate. For detection of MBC, culturing was done at Nutrient Agar from wells with no bacterial growth and after 24 hr, incubation was done in 37ºC. The plates without bacterial growth were reported as Minimum Bactericidal concentration (MBC).
Results: 32 components accounting to 94.27% of the total oil were identified in Mint essential oil and 19 components accounting to 97.5% of the total oil were identified in rosemary essential oil. The major components were alpha-Ocimene, 1, 8-Cineole, Borneol, Geraniol and Camphor in rosemary and Pulegone, Isomenthone, beta- Pinene and 1, 8-Cineole in Mint. The essential oil of mint exhibited higher activity rather than L. monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus ureuse. Both oils had the same effect on E. coli.
Conclusion: The monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes confer the chemical profile of the analyzed essential oil of mint and rosemary samplescausing antibacterial effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Photocatalytic Effects of Acrylic Resins Incorporated with Nano-titanium Dioxide on Planktonic and Biofilm Growth of Four Cariogenic Bacteria

Abbas Bahador, Safia Khalil, Babak Pourakbari, Roghayeh Ghorbanzadeh, Mohammad Zaman Kassaee, Solmaz Ohadian Moghadam, Azad Khaledi, Ahmad Sodagar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2695-2708
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7166

Aims: The activities of cariogenic bacteria in biofilm on acrylic baseplates of removable orthodontic appliances and partial denture contribute to dental caries, inflammation of gingiva and periodontal disease. This in vitro study evaluates the photocatalytic antimicrobial activity of acrylic specimens (AS) containing NanoTiO2 under ultraviolet type A (UVA) illumination against four cariogenic bacteria.
Study Design: An in vitro study
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology and Department of Orthodontics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS); Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, between June 2011 and March 2012.
Methodology: Chemical-cure acrylic resins, Polymethylmethacrylates (PMMAs), were used to synthesize acrylic specimens containing NanoTiO2 (NanoT-AS). Antibacterial activity of NanoT-AS were assessed against Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus as well as Lactobacillus casei and co-cultures of the four species by adherence inhibition as well as planktonic and biofilm bacterial cells growth inhibition on NanoT-AS under UVA illumination (NanoTiO2+/UVA+).
Results: Exposure to NanoTiO2+/UVA+ reduced bacterial adherence by 43.8-96.5% depending on the microorganism type. NanoTiO2+/UVA+ showed 1.7-6.0 log decrease planktonic cultures in time-dependent manner over a 4h period (P<0.05). NanoT-AS inhibited significantly biofilm formation of all test bacteria and co-cultures by 44.2-93.1%, compared to unmodified PMMA (control) under UVA illumination. Some inhibitory activity of NanoTiO2+/UVA+ could be maintained even after the third generation of biofilm growth.
Conclusion: The data presented here are novel in that they prove that NanoTiO2+/UVA+ effectively inhibited adherence of cariogenic bacteria to NanoT-AS surfaces as well as strong antimicrobial activity in the planktonic phase and subsequent biofilm formation. This data shows NanoTiO2+/UVA+ has the potential to minimize cariogenic microorganism’s adherence and colonization on acrylic specimens and this novel acrylic resin formulation could be developed as a denture and orthodontic appliances base.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnosing Hepatitis Disease by Using Fuzzy Hopfield Neural Network

Mehdi Neshat, Azra Masoumi, Mina Rajabi, Hassan Jafari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2709-2721
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9183

Aims: Nowadays, computational intelligence is frequently used in diagnosis and determination of the severity of various diseases. In fact, different tools of computational intelligence help physicians as an assistant to diagnose with fewer errors. In this paper, a fuzzy Hopfield neural network has been used as the determination of severity of the famous disease of hepatitis.
Study Design: This disease is one of the most common and dangerous diseases which endanger the lives of millions of people every year. Diagnosing this disease has always been a serious challenge for physicians and thus we hope this study to be helpful.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, Mashhad University and hospital of imam reza, department of liver biopsy, Mashhad, Iran.
Methodology: The data was extracted from University of California, Irvine (UCI) and it has 19 fields with 155 records. It was used the fuzzy Hopfield neural network and the comparison of its performance with various neural networks Multilayer Perceptron (MLP). This trained by standard back propagation, Radial Basis Function (RBF) network, the structure trained by Orthogonal Least Squares (OLS) algorithm, General Regression Neural Networks (GRNN), Bayesian Network with Naïve Dependence and Feature selection (BNNF), Bayesian Network with Naïve Dependence (BNND) and Hopfield Neural Network (HNN).
Results: it was found that it has a good performance and was able to diagnose the severity of hepatitis with 92.05% accuracy.
Conclusion: In this article, it is tried to diagnose hepatitis more accurately by fuzzy Hopfield neural network. This network has a high convergence speed and does not have the main problem of the Hopfield network which may converge on another model different from the input data. The use of a suitable pre-processing tool on the data has contributed greatly to the better training of the networks. The training data was not used in network testing in order to get more realistic consequences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane Residues Levels in Commercial Marine Dry Fish from Different Regions of Bangladesh

M. Nahid Hasan, H. M. Rakibul Islam, Rubia Akter, Y. Mahmud, K. K. U. Ahmed, S. Siddiquee

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2722-2729
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9043

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) residual levels are available several commercially dry fishes. So these fishes were detected and determinate the contamination status of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The most popular dry fish-Ribbon fish (Lepturacanthus savala), Chinese pomfret (Pampus chinensis), Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) and Shrimp sp. (crustaceans) were selected for this study and these dry fishes were collected from nine different markets (three from each of Khulna, Chittagong and Cox's bazar district) of Bangladesh during December-March in 2013. A total number of 36 samples were selected for analyzing in the laboratory by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry electron captured (GC-ECD) detector. The ranges of DDT in all samples were 2.81 to 877.82ppb. The ranges of DDT in the samples of Bombay duck, Chinese pomfret, Ribbon fish and Shrimp were 13.7-874.35ppb, 2.81-877.82ppb, 3.73-253.68ppb and 4.27-585.97ppb respectively. The mean concentrations of DDT were found highest amount from retailer markets while compared to that from the producers markets. Results indicated that the concentration of DDT in dry fish from Bangladesh are higher and may cause chronic disease and potential long-term risk for human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Azo Dye Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Laccase-modified Red Mud: Adsorption Kinetics and Isotherm Studies

H. Nadaroglu, E. Kalkan, N. Celebi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2730-2754
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10080

Removal of acid red 37 from aqueous solutions has been studied using red mud waste material after its modification with laccase from Russulaceae (Lactarius volemus). Laccase was purified by using saturated precipitate (NH4)2SO4, diethylaminoethyl celulose (DEAE-cellulose) and immobilized on red mud. The removal of acid red 37 by the laccase-modified red mud has been demonstrated in order to explore its potential use as low-cost adsorbent. The adsorption kinetics of acid red 37 dye on the laccase-modified red mud with respect to pH, contact time, temperature and adsorbent dose were investigated. The optimum results were obtained at pH 4, contact time of 60 min and temperature of 30ºC. The Freundlich equation was found to have the highest value of R2 compared with the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes indicated that the adsorption of acid red 37 onto laccase-modified red mud was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Autumn Leaves of Maple, Bitter Orange, Oak, Boxwood, Yellow Poplar, and Brown Poplar Trees

Ali Kiapey, Mohsen Azadbakht, Ali Jafari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2755-2765
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9647

Aims: The results will be used to design and construct a collecting device, specially the main sucking part.
Study Design: In order to determine the physical properties of autumn leaves, twenty leaves from each tree of maple, bitter orange, oak, boxwood, yellow poplar, and brown poplar were collected with the same shape found on the ground (wrinkled or crumpled).
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Bio-System Engineering, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran, July and august 2012.
Methodology: The maximum length, width, and thickness, as well as mass of each leaf were measured in varied moisture, static friction coefficient, true density, bulk density, and porosity. To determine the mechanical properties of friction coefficient and discharge and filling angles, the limit velocity and shear strength were also measured in the leaves.
Results: Measurement of the leaves shear strength of maple, oak, bitter orange, boxwood, yellow poplar, and brown poplar showed the highest shear strength in brown poplar (0.085 MPa) and the lowest in maple (0.033 MPa). According to the measured aerodynamic properties of autumn leaves (maple, boxwood, yellow poplar, brown poplar, bitter orange, and oak), the velocity limit has increased by increasing moisture. The velocity limit increases by increasing moisture. Also the friction coefficient increased by increasing moisture.
Conclusion: Among the studied leaves, maple had the maximum mean of weight, the maximum length, and the maximum mean of thickness, while boxwood had the maximum density and the highest moisture. The highest and the lowest porosity belonged to maple leaves (96.17) and bitter orange leaves (95.88), respectively. The shear strength of maple, oak, bitter orange, boxwood, yellow poplar, and brown poplar leaves were 0.033, 0.034, 0.041, 0.038, 0.085, and 0.084 Mpa, respectively. The repose angle of filling and the angle of discharge of the six leaves in sum were 50º and 51º, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Wheat Stripe Rust Resistance Genes in Iranian Wheat Cultivars Using Molecular Markers

Zahra Pourkhorshid, Ali Dadkhodaie, Ali Niazi, Bahram Heidari, Esmaeil Ebrahimi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2766-2778
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9821

Yellow or stripe rust is one of the most important and destructive wheat diseases all over the world. The best strategy to control this disease is genetic resistance through combining several resistance genes which results in achieving long lasting resistance. Marker assisted selection has provided a suitable means towards this strategy. The aim of this study was to identify the race specific seedling genes Yr5 and Yr10 and the race non-specific APR gene Yr29 in a selection of 40 Iranian genotypes using STS and SSR markers. Therefore, genomic DNA was extracted from these genotypes, the susceptible cultivar Avocet ‘S’ as negative control, and the genotypes with corresponding resistance gene (positive controls). PCR was performed using YrSTS7/8, Xpsp3000 and Xwmc44 markers for Yr5, Yr10 and Yr29, respectively. The results indicated the presence of Yr5 in only 6 genotypes. The presence of a 260 bps band also showed that Yr10 was present in 12 genotypes while Yr29 was present in 13 cultivars. As all these three genes are effective against yellow rust pathogen in Iran, it will be an advantage to transfer them to promising lines and develop durable resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structures of Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) Gene Promoter from C4 and C3 Flaveria species Using Sequence Analysis by Bioinformatics Tools

Eghtedary Naeini Abdolreza, Etedali Fatemeh, Mortazavi Seyed Elyas, Sobhani Najafabadi Ahmad, Golabadi Maryam, Gharyazi Behzad, Malboobi Mohammad Ali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2779-2794
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9876

Aim: This research can be used to design and subsequently to study stable- tissues- specific gene expression in other plants, and potentially may be used in altering plants with C3 photosystem into C4 through genetics.
Study design: In silico analysis by bioinformatics tools was used to analyze the promoter regions of Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) genes in genus Flaveria (Asteraceae).
Methodology: Detailed promoter gene studies of the C3 and C4ppcA1 genes in Flaveria sp. have been deposited by EMBL/GenBank data. To find regulatory elements in promoter sequences, PLANTCARE and PLACE database were applied. Moreover, ClustalW2 & MAFFT were used for multiple sequence alignment.
Results: The results revealed that light-inducible promoters of PEPC genes in Flaveria species have cis-elements for organ- and cell-specific expression, which may be subdivided into six classes: 1) Elicitor specific, 2) Component specific (hormone-responsive elements), 3) Light responsiveness, 4) Binding site specific, 5) Condition specific (stress-responsive elements) and 6) Plant tissues specific.
Conclusion: The distal region (DR) of promoter behaves as an enhancer-like expression module and is able to confer a mesophyll expression while the proximal region (PR) is responsible for a quantitative expression. Coordinated motifs indicate that the response of pepc gene is controlled by light in coordination with hormones and stresses and potentially may be used in altering plants with C3 photosystem into C4 through genetics.

Open Access Review Article

Whole Cell-based Biosensors for Environmental Heavy Metals Detection

Siok Chin Teo, Ling Shing Wong

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2663-2674
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9472

Biosensors have emerged as new alternatives in environmental toxicity assessment. In the development of biosensors for heavy metals detection in environment, whole cells are highly favored as these cells are able to reflect the real toxicity effects of heavy metals to living organisms. For heavy metals detection, the integration of several types of cells such as bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae into biosensors development has been widely reported. The usage of other cells such as plant cell, protozoa, and yeast has been reported as well. Although these biosensors are highly sensitive to heavy metals, the detection is still limited to the heavy metals which are bioavailable to the cells. Besides, the response of whole cells to wide range of heavy metals makes them excellent tools for wide spectrum screening but lack of specificity in detection. Whole cells are living entities with complex biochemical processes, which make the optimization of whole cell-based biosensors a tedious process, while maintaining the stability and storability are still challenging tasks. Although naturally occurring cells are highly favored, some reports show that recombinant cells can be a choice with better performance. In this paper, the usage of whole cells in biosensors for heavy metals detection and some of the current issues which are tied to the development of these biosensors are reviewed.