Open Access Short Research Article

TRAP1 is a Novel Interaction Partner of PML, Localized with PML in Nuclear Bodies and Relocating with PML to the Cytoplasm Following Stress

E. W. Stratford, O. Myklebost

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3026-3036
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8998

Aims: The aim of the study was to identify a novel interaction partner of PML and to study the localization of the novel protein complex in cells.
Study Design: Isolation of PML and interacting protein complexes by co-immunoprecipitation using a PML antibody and subsequent mass spectrometry analyses.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Guy’s Hospital, London between 2002 and 2005 and Cancer Stem Cell Innovation Centre and Department of Tumor Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo between 2011-2014.
Methodology: Interacting proteins of PML were isolated from K562 cell lysates by large scale co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. The complex formation was confirmed by standard co-immunoprecipitations and confocal microscopy. The cellular localization of the protein complex was further studied by confocal microscopy in different cell types and following exposure to stress.
Results: We have identified tumor necrosis factor receptor protein 1 (TRAP1) as an interacting partner of PML. A fraction of TRAP1 is localized to PML nuclear bodies (NBs) in human cancerous cells and normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating conservation across species. PML and TRAP1 are both implicated in regulation of cell death and survival, with PML acting as an inducer of apoptosis and TRAP1 as protector from cell death. Exposure to stress, results in relocation of TRAP1 - PML from NBs to cytoplasmic punctate structures, indicating a role for this complex in stress-response.
Conclusion: TRAP1 and PML interact in normal and cancerous cells. The complex may play a role in stress response.

Open Access Minireview Article

Combined Effect of Insufficient Watering, Moderate Cooling, and Organophosphorous Plant Growth Regulator on the Morphology and Functional Properties of Pea Seedling Mitochondria

Irina Zhigacheva, Elena Mil, Vladimir Binukov, Inna Generozova, Aleksandr Shugaev, Ludmila Fatkullina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3007-3025
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10255

Aims: In nature, plants are exposed to not one but several environmental factors. In this connection, the problem of studying the rearrangements of plant cell metabolism under exposure to several abiotic factors is of special importance. Various stresses lead to dysfunction of mitochondria that underlie the development of cell death and the whole organism. It is known that regulators of plant growth and development increase the resistance of plants to both biotic and abiotic stressors. One of such growth regulators is melaphen, a melamine salt of bis (hydroxymethyl) phosphinic acid. The aim of this work was investigation the effects of combined action of insufficient watering, moderate cooling to 10-14ºC and plant growth by regulator melaphen (melamine salt of bis(oxymethyl)-phosphinic acid) on the atomic force microscopy images of isolated mitochondria 5 day-old seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L).
Place and Duration of Investigation: Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia and Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, between June 2009 and October 2012.
Methodology: Functional state of mitochondria were researched by rate of mitochondria respiration, by the level of lipid peroxidation, the structural characteristics of mitochondrial membranes and by mitochondrial morphology, which was studied by method of atomic force microscopy.
Results: An atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique has revealed a statistically significant change in the shape of mitochondria (swelling mitochondria) exposed to insufficient watering and moderate cooling, which was associated with activation of lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial membranes and with disturbance of bioenergetics functions of these organelles. Treatment of pea seeds with 2x10-12 M solution melaphen prevents mitochondrial swelling and associated with that dysfunction of organelles
Conclusion: It was suggested that the effect of the drug on the morphology of mitochondria was associated with its antiradical and antioxidant properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Bacteria from Huancarhuaz Hot Spring, Peru

Carmen Tamariz-Angeles, Percy Olivera-Gonzales, Gretty K. Villena, Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2920-2930
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10699

Aims: To isolate and characterize lignocellulase producing thermophilic bacteria from a Peruvian hot spring.
Study Design: Combined sediment and water samples from the hot spring were subjected to direct plating, in situ baiting and ex situ enrichment. Endoglucanase and xylanase producing bacterial colonies were isolated and characterized.
Place and Duration of Study: Samples were taken from the Huancarhuaz hot spring, Peru (8º56’31.86”S, 77º47’00.53”W) in August 2010 and processed during 2011-2013.
Methodology: Samples were subjected to three isolation methods and bacterial colonies with different color, size and appearance, were isolated, purified by streaking several times and conserved in Tryptic Soy Agar slants at 4ºC. The agar staining method was used to isolate enzyme-producing strains which were then identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and further studied for endoglucanase and xylanase production.
Results: From 19 bacterial isolates only eight were selected for further study as they showed clearing activities on both carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan agar plates. By using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis, seven isolates were identified as Bacillus licheniformis and one as Cohnella laeviribosi which was the best xylanase and endoglucanase producer. Maximum endoglucanase activity produced by C. laeviribosi EHB4 was obtained at pH 6.0 and at 60ºC and only 50% of its activity was lost at 90ºC for 1h indicating that this enzyme is particularly thermostable.
Conclusion: This is the first report on the production of endoglucanase by C. laeviribosi. These findings indicate that Peruvian hot springs are good sources of thermophilic cellulase-producing bacteria and that C. laeviribosi EHB4 may contribute to the development of biomass bioconversion processes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Longer Incubation Periods are Energetically Costly for Turtle Embryos

David T. Booth

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2931-2937
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9998

Aims: To test the hypothesis that similar sized turtle eggs with longer incubation periods have a greater energetic cost of producing a hatchling compared with eggs that have a shorter incubation period.
Study Design: Eggs of the Eastern snake-neck turtle (Chelodina longicollis) were incubated at 26ºC and their oxygen consumption measured throughout incubation and these data compared to that from eggs of the Brisbane river turtle (Emydura macquarii) incubated at 26ºC.
Place and Duration of Study: The University of Queensland St Lucia Campus, November 2009 - February 2010.
Methodology: Eggs were collected and incubated at 26ºC and their rate of oxygen measured at regular intervals throughout incubation. Total energy expended during incubation was calculated by integrating the area under the rate of oxygen consumption versus time curve.
Results: Incubation period of C. longicollis eggs (83.1±0.5 d, N=12) and hatchling production cost (8.94±0.52 kJ/g, N=12, dry yolk-free mass basis) were significantly greater (P<0.001 and P=0.008 respectively) than the incubation period (61.8±0.3 d, N=11) and hatchling production cost (7.33±0.11 kJ/g, N=11) of E. macquarii eggs. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that longer incubation periods incur a greater energetic cost because embryo tissue has to be maintained for a longer period of time and results in a greater amount of energy spent on maintaining the embryo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Analysis of Denoising in MR Images with Double Density Dual Tree Complex Wavelets, Curvelets and Non-subsampled Contourlet Transforms

V. Krishnakumar, Latha Parthiban

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2938-2956
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9131

Digital images are extensively used by the medical doctors during different stages of disease diagnosis and treatment process. In the medical field, noise occurs in an image during two phases: acquisition and transmission. During the acquisition phase, noise is induced into an image, due to manufacturing defects, improper functioning of internal components, minute component failures and manual handling errors of the electronic scanning devices such as PECT/SPECT, MRI/CT scanners. Nowadays, healthcare organizations are beginning to consider cloud computing solutions for managing and sharing huge volume of medical data. This leads to the possibility of transmitting different types of medical data including CT, MR images, patient details and much more information through internet. Due to the presence of noise in the transmission channel, some unwanted signals are added to the transmitted medical data. Image denoising algorithms are employed to reduce the unwanted modifications of the pixels in an image. In this paper, the performance of denoising methods with two dimensional transformations of nonsubsampled contourlets (NSCT), curvelets, double density dual tree complex wavelets (DD-DTCWT) are compared and analysed using the image quality measures such as peak signal to noise ratio, root mean square error, structural similarity index. In this paper, 200 MR images of brain (3T MRI scan), heart and breast are selected for testing the noise reduction techniques with above transformations. The results shows that the NSCT gives good PSNR values for random and impulse noises. DD-DTCWT has good noise suppressing capability for speckle and Rician noises. Both NSCT and DD-DTCWT copes well in images affected by poisson noises. The best PSNR value obtained for salt and pepper and additive white Guassian noises are 21.29 and 56.45 respectively. For speckle noises, DD-DTCWT gives 33.46 and it is better than NSCT and curvelet. The values 33.50 and 33.56 are the top PSNRs of NSCT and DD-DTCWT for poisson noises.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Economic Value of Bees as Pollinators of Crops in Iran

Mohammad Mousaei Sanjerehei

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2957-2964
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10200

Assessment of the economic value of crop pollination by bees necessitates the need for conserving the insect pollinator diversity. A decline in the population of insect pollinators in ecosystems can result in a decrease in crop production, vegetation cover, an extinction of a number of plant species, and as a result the degradation of ecosystem services and health. The economic value of bee pollinators was determined based on the portion of the value of crops attributed to pollination by bees. This value was calculated based on the yield and the value of each crop, the dependency of each crop on bee pollinators and the proportion of wild native bee and honey bee pollinators. The economic value of crop pollination by bees was 6.59 billion dollars, of which, 5.72 billion dollars is attributable to the pollinators that are honey bees and 0.87 billion dollars is attributable to native bees. The value of the crops pollinated by bees was estimated to be 25% of the total value of crops. The value of crops pollinated by honey bees was 54 times the value of honey production by bees. Based on the economic value of bee pollinators, the use of organic farming techniques, the use of less toxic and highly selective pesticides and herbicides, construction of nest boxes for pollinators and introduction of a variety of native plant species can help to conserve high level of diversity of bee pollinator species and the pollination services.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Egg Production System at Al-Karak Governorate in Jordan

Sami K. Al-Khamaiseh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2965-2982
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9907

This study aimed at analysing eggs’ production system in Al-Karak governorate, Jordan for better development of poultry layer farm. Analysis of strengthens, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT) was performed utilising collected questionnaire data. The SWOT analysis aimed at finding factors that increase the production and maximise the profit by improving supply chain into value chain. The results of this study indicated that self-owned farm (n=10) raised 72,000 layer birds, representing 3% of total number of the layer farms in the country. Farmers are totally dependent on their farms for employment and income to support their families and to meet household needs. The farms possess basic facilities including a proper conventional housing. The farming started by raising 16 week-age-pullet purchased along with feeds and poultry equipments. The production period of layers ends by the 80th week of age. Overall egg production of theses layer farms is inadequate for local consumption of Al-Karak governorate. The daily egg production is estimated at 51,000 eggs, leads to a daily shortage of about 106,000 eggs. Therefore, it is an indication that scope of layer farming development for self sufficiency is needed.
The current weakness of layer farming is inexistence of corporative to enhance production (up to 51,000 egg/ day) and instable market. Therefore, formation of cooperative of layer farms to produce and stable market is an opportunity that strongly requested by farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Light Emitting Diode High Intensity on Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) Seedlings

G. Paniagua Pardo, C. Hernández Aguilar, F. Rico Martínez, A. Domínguez Pacheco, C. Martínez González, M. Martínez Canseco

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2983-2994
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10526

Aims: To evaluate the effects of high intensity LED light with different wavelengths (red, blue, green and magenta filter) in physiology and absorption spectrum of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) seedlings, with exposure times of 12 hours, in order to improve the growth of vegetables.
Study Design: Four treatments of light (red, blue, green, magenta filter) and one control (white light). The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications of 14 seedlings per experimental unit.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at IPN - ESIME Zacatenco University, Mexico DF, between October 2013 and November 2013.
Methodology: Seedlings were grown with alternating cycles of light (12hours) and darkness (12 hours). The period of growth of lettuce and broccoli was 29 and 15 days respectively. Physiological variables (fresh and dry weight, average length of hypocotyl, leaf number) and absorption spectrum of these vegetable seedlings were evaluated.
Results: Seedlings of broccoli with green light and lettuce with red light exposed to high intensity LED light, showed statistically significant differences in average length of hypocotyl with increments of 33% and 42% compared to control respectively. The highest fresh and dry weight in broccoli seedlings was obtained in red light treatment with increases of 15% and 10% respectively, while in lettuce seedlings was 50 and 41% but with blue light compared to its control.
Conclusion: The physiological responses produced by exposure to different wavelengths of high intensity LED light in broccoli and lettuce seedlings, varied according to the wavelength used, where the red LED light treatment had the best results in seedlings of broccoli, and lettuce seedlings was the blue LED light. Suggesting that the use of high intensity LED light is a viable option to improve plant growth in controlled environments.

Open Access Review Article

The Psychological Distress and Coping Mechanisms among Intersexed Individuals

Shadiya Mohamed Saleh Baqutayan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2910-2919
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9322

Mental and physical wellbeing always determine the individuals’ ability to live meaningful and satisfying lives. Based on this fact we can declare that the birth of the intersexed/hermaphrodite child presents great clinical difficulties, psychological distress, and ethical issues for the clients and their families. As a matter of fact, the basic problem that intersexed individual faces is the socio-cultural perception; the society always reject this group of people without clear understanding of what the hermaphrodite is all about. As a result, the person’s emotions and feelings are all disturbed. Thus the aim of this paper is to report on the psychological distress and coping mechanisms among hermaphrodite individuals. In attempting to this debate the emphasis is more on the literature that focuses on the current status of intersexed group, their emotions, and the ways they manage the trauma associated with their feelings. Eventually, the results indicated that people with intersex conditions are mostly a hidden population, and little is known about their level of stress and coping mechanisms. For that reason further research is needed to overcome this barrier regarding the emotional well-being of intersex patients and families. Congruently, researchers and psychologists need to assist more cases, discuss with more families, manage the feelings of this group of people, and finally, cultivate a public education program to adjust the perception of different societies towards this issue.

Open Access Review Article

Biological Control of African Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzivora, Harris and Gagné) in Nigeria: A Review

Emmanuel O. Ogah, Francis E. Nwilene

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 2995-3006
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9527

African rice gall midge (AfRGM), Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné (Diptera: Ceccidomyiidae) is a serious insect pest of lowland rice in Africa, and is capable of causing total crop failure in endemic areas. Of all the control measures adopted in the management of African rice gall midge in the recent years, biological control has been advocated. Unfortunately, so far, only few biological control agents e.g. Platygaster diplosisae Risbec and Aprostocetus procereae Risbec have been identified with high potentials for the control of the pest. Hence, there is paucity of information on the bio-control agents associated with AfRGM, and the efficiency of the identified ones in the management of African rice gall midge. In this review therefore, efforts were made to put together the hitherto fragmented information available on the distribution, host range, biology/life-cycle, ecology and the potentials of various bio-control agents associated with rice gall midge. The effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the efficiency of the bio-control agents were also discussed. The aim is to enhance farmers’ knowledge about these agents with intent to assist them in the use/adoption of bio-control agents or integrating them with other control methods for improved management of rice gall midge.