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Open Access Case study

First Report of Wound Infection with Bacillus pumilus in Iran

Hossein Azizi, Farnaz Kheirandish, Fatemeh Saleh, Mehdi Moazzami Gudarzi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3220-3226
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10825

Aims: Bacillus pumilus is a spore-forming bacillus that causes infections which has been rarely reported among humans. This research was the first report of isolating B. pumilus from bed sore in a patient who was a rancher in Iran.
Presentation of Case: In October 2012 a man with an injured livestock in the back area with fever, pain, bleeding, inflammation, accompanied by black necrosis tissue was hospitalized. According to the patient statements ulcer was due to contamination by animal. After the wound biopsy, the infectious specimen was cultured on the blood agar culture medium and then several biochemical tests were performed in order to identify. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for determining molecular identity.
Discussion and Conclusion: PCR was used for molecular identification. Result of sequencing and blast showed 99% homology with B. pumilus According to physician orders, patient was treated with clindamycin and ceftriaxone. Results of the present research showed that Bacillus B. pumilus in addition to the gastrointestinal and skin infections in humans can be a factor in bed sore disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Two-generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Barrisal (Herbal Drug) on the Sprague Dawley Rats

Muhammad Ahmed, Aisha Azmat

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3197-3202
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11275

Aim: Barrisal is a herbal medication used in Pakistan for hepatic and spleen ailments. It is composed of Aloevera. The present study was aimed to evaluate the teratogenic effects of barrisal in two generations of rats.
Study Design: Two generation teratogenic activity
Place and Duration of Study: Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Ilyas Institute of Pharmacology and Herbal Sciences (Dr. HMIIPHS) Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan, between June 2002 and July 2004.
Methodology: In first phase two groups of female rats (10 rats each group) were used. One group received normal saline (as control group).Group II were treated with a single oral dose of 10ml/kg barrisal (10 female rats) during the whole period of gestation till the delivery of pups named as F1 generation. For second phase study 10 females were selected from F1 generation control and barrisal treated group and administered the saline and barrisal (10ml/kg) from day first of gestation until they delivered pups (F2 generation).
Results: There were not any aborted or absorbed fetuses in normal saline group and barrisal treated group. Total number of collected pups after barrisal treatment in F1 generation and F2 generation are comparable to control rats. Control and barrisal treated rats had no resorption sites, malformation and any congenital defects.
Conclusion: In conclusion, Barrisal (10ml/kg) during pregnancy not led to fetal growth retardation or fetal death at this dosage any abortion, fetal death, fetal growth retardation and teratogenic effect was not occurred and it is safe in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Ecological and Economical Strategies of Pretreatment to Explore Biovalorization Potential of Lignocellulosic Agro-Wastes for Ethanol Production

Latika Bhatia, Sonia Johri, Mohd Anis Ganaie

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3203-3219
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9990

Recent breakthrough in industrial biotechnology offer important opportunities for the utilization of agro-industrial residues like wheat straw, bagasse, peels of Pineapple (Ananas cosmosus), Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var mosambi) and Litchi (Litchi chinensis). Pretreatment becomes the pivotal step to effectively harness the sugars entrapped within the shield of lignin, which will further make these substrates capable as an ideal substrate for microbial process to produce bioethanol. The major objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of steam explosion, microwave and solar pretreatment on the above lignocellulosic agro-wastes using the chemicals in less concentration for improved yield of reducing sugars. The optimization criterion was the fermentable sugar yields, which were analyzed by HPLC. The best hydrolysis was obtained from the steam explosion pretreatment with 1% HNO3 for bagasse, wheat straw and peels of Litchi chinensis, and with 1% H2SO4 for peels of Ananas cosmosus. A comprehensive account of the above result indicate that 78.2%. 59.56%, 52.15% saccharification (maximum) was obtained when L. chinensis peels, wheat straw and bagasse were steam exploded with 1% HNO3. 75.52% saccharification (maximum) was obtained when A. cosmosus peels were steam exploded with 1% H2SO4. With 1% NaOH steam explosion of Citrus sinensis var mosambi, saccharification was 90.32%. Microwave and solar pretreatment was found suited to only bagasse, as some percentage of glucose, fructose and arabinose was detected in filtrates of 1% HNO3 and distilled water treated bagasse. These results show that an integrated exploitation of these lignocellulosic wastes from agricultural production is economically possible and highly advantageous for ethanol production utilizing suitable microorganism. Results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Feeding Chemically and Biologically Treated Barley Straw on Some Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Karadi Lambs

Shaker Abdulameer Hassan, Khasraw Muheddin Hassan, Sarwar Mohammed Sadq

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3227-3237
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9687

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding untreated, urea and fungal (Pleurotus ostreatus, Po) treated barley straw on some blood profiles of Karadi lambs.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Production, over the periods 1-2-2010 to 1-4-2010.
Methodology: The measured hematological parameters were; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were calculated from red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and measured serum biochemical parameters were albumin, globulin, creatinine, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides and uric acid and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).
Results: The results revealed that red and white cells , packed cell volume, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were significantly higher in lambs fed fungal treated barley straw (FTS) than those fed urea treated barely straw (UTS) or untrated barley straw (US). Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was (32.61g/dl) higher in lambs fed FTS and UTS (32.40g/dl) than those lambs fed US (32.09 g/dl). Lambs fed UTS and FTS had significantly increased serum albumin as compared with those lambs fed US; whereas, globulin concentration was significantly higher in lambs fed FTS than those lambs fed UTS and US. While, lambs fed FTS and UTS showed significant reduction in the uric acid and low-density lipoprotein as compared with those fed US. Lambs fed FTS had significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase as compared with those fed UTS and US.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that lambs fed FTS showed a good health as compared with those fed US or UTS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Case-Based Education: Stress during Learning in Morning Report Sessions

Shahram Yazdani, Maliheh Arab, Giti Noghabaei, Fakhrolsadat Hosseini

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3238-3243
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8714

Background: Morning report has long been regarded as a stressful session for students and lecturers. This study aims to evaluate the main indices regarding stress.
Material and Methods: In a university including 5 hospitals and 25 academic wards, three indices regarding stress were evaluated including talking interruption, serving snacks and systematic feedback.
Result: In none of the wards, serving snacks during teaching sessions was observed. In 53 out of 73 (72%) talking interruption was demonstrated.
The score of systematic feedback was 48%.
Conclusion: Talking interruption in morning report sessions is high and systematic data gathering (feedback) from learners is low. Serving snacks is ignored at all.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of 108 Breast Lesions with Histopathologic Correlation: A Retrospective Study

Nasar Yousuf Alwahaibi, Hafsah Ahmed Alfahdi, Usha Rani Bai

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3244-3250
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10538

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of breast lesions with relevant histopathologic report.
Methodology: A retrospective study was performed over 11 year period at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman. The records of all patients who had undergone FNAC and histopathologic diagnosis of breast lesions were included. Cytological and histopathological diagnosis were classified into four categories: inadequate, benign, suspicious and malignant.
Results: A total of 108 reports were found. Only one case (0.9%) in each of FNAC and histopathologic specimens was reported inadequate. The diagnosis of FNAC in the remaining 107 cases were: 47 benign, 25 suspicious and 35 malignant. Subsequent histopathologic examination showed 41 benign, 3 suspicious and 63 malignant. FNAC showed a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive valve and negative predictive value of 70%, 65%, 68%, 77% and 57%, respectively.
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that FNAC is a reliable method for the diagnosis of breast lesion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypobaric Pressure Effects on Gene Expression, as a Physiological Response of Canola Varieties

Bilge Çelik, Ercan Arıcan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3251-3261
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10821

Aims: The main purpose of our study was to determine the expression levels of genes, which respond to low pressure in canola (Brassica napus L.) varieties Californium, Orkan, Jura and Elvis.
Study Design: Canola (Brassica napus L.) varieties (Californium, Jura, Orkan and Elvis) placed within specially designed low pressure cabinets were exposed to low pressure (40 Torr ≅ 53 kPa) for durations of 1, 2 or 3 days. Total RNA was isolated from the plants analyzed for genes, OsNCED, OsABA8, OsZEP and TMAC2 by RT-PCR technique. For control, housekeeping gene β-actin was used. As a result OsABA8ox 1, 2, 3 and OsNCED showed increase in expression levels.
Methodology: Canola (Brassica napus L.) varieties Californium, Orkan, Jura and Elvis were provided by the Black Sea Agricultural Research Institute, Samsun – Turkey. Seeds were sown and placed in the plant growth chamber. The 14 days old plants were exposed to low pressure in the low pressure cabinet. RT-PCR reactions were performed in one-tube reaction according to manufacturer’s protocol (Access Quick RT-PCR System, Promega, A1701).
Results: The PCR products of OsNCED, OsZEP, OsABA, TMAC2 separated by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis were found to be approximately between 200-300bp. The PCR products of OsABA8 gene (~750bp) in Jura was determined to be increased compared to that of control group. Change of expression of OsABA8 gene (~750bp) in varieties of Jura and Orkan were determined and compared to that of control group. OsABA8 gene region (~300bp) in varieties of both Californium and Elvis, whose expression of OsNCED gene region only (~300bp) in varities of Jura and Orkan were determined and compared to that of control group.
Conclusion: Any changes have been determined in the expression of TMAC2 gene which supports the other studies in the literature. As a consequence of this, results obtained from our study have the feature that can give a new direction to other studies. In addition to this, because of there is no yet such a study related to low atmospheric conditions, this study has the characteristics of being the first and fundamental study with this speciality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Polyaniline/Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanocomposite as Practical Approach for Fluoride Removal Process

Mahmoud Jokar, Reza Foroutani, Mohammad Hassan Safaralizadeh, Khalil Farhadi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3262-3273
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9108

In order that removal of excess fluoride from water a novel magnetic nanocomposite has been synthesized. Magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. Afterwards, polyaniline containing magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by in-situ doping polymerization in the presence of HCl. The polyaniline/Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was also used for magnetization characterization of polyaniline/Fe3O4 nanocomposite at room temperature. The conductivity and magnetic properties of the polyaniline containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles showed that the samples have a novel conductivity and a superparamagnetic behavior. Subsequently, the ability of the adsorbent to remove fluoride from water was demonstrated in a batch sorption mode. Results reveal that the adsorption is rapid and the adsorbent has high affinity for fluoride, which depends on solution pH and adsorbent dose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Photosynthetic Differences in Mustard Genotypes under Salinity Stress: Significance of Proline Metabolism

Noushina Iqbal, Shahid Umar, Nafees A. Khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3274-3296
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10564

Aim: To determine the importance of proline in protection of photosynthetic capacity under salt stress in mustard cultivars (Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss.).
Design of the Study: Mustard plants were grown with or without 100mM NaCl treatments.
Place and Duration of Study: The experimental work was carried out in the herbal garden of the Department of Botany, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India under natural day/night conditions, between November to December, 2013.
Methodology: Plants were sampled at 30 days after seed sowing to determine physiological, biochemical and growth parameters.
Results: Salinity stress significantly reduced the studied photosynthetic parameters in all the cultivars. However, Pusa Jai Kisan with higher proline content better protected its photosynthesis and showed higher tolerance to salinity stress. Higher proline content was a result of increased N assimilation and increased synthesis of proline synthesizing enzymes, pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase and γ-glutamyl kinase while decrease of proline oxidase, the proline degrading enzyme. Higher inherent and salinity induced proline content in Pusa Jai Kisan was responsible for higher water relations, photosynthetic pigments and growth under salt stress.
Conclusion: Proline accumulation is an important strategy that plants operate to minimize the adverse effects of salinity stress on photosynthesis. Among all the cultivars proline content was maximum in Pusa Jai Kisan which led to comparatively higher osmotic potential and water potential, allowing the plants for higher intake of water and thereby resulting in increased stomatal opening and photosynthetic efficiency. Higher proline content resulted in lesser oxidative stress and consequently higher photosynthesis in Pusa Jai Kisan. The knowledge on the role of proline in protection of photosynthetic potential under salt stress could be exploited to develop tolerant line through intensive selection and breeding programs.

Open Access Review Article

Production Technology and Applications of Kojic Acid

Jignesh Chaudhary, A. N. Pathak, Sudarshan Lakhawat

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3165-3196
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10643

Kojic acid is produced industrially by Aspergillus species in aerobic fermentation. The production of kojic acid is increasing because of its commercial value in industry. Kojic acid has various applications in several fields. It is widely used in cosmetic industry, medicine, food industry, agriculture and chemical industry. Nowadays, kojic acid plays a crucial role in cosmetic, especially skin care products because it can enhance the ability to prevent exposure to UV-radiation. Kojic acid continues to attract attention because of its economic potential in medical field as an anti-inflammatory drug and painkiller. In food industry, kojic acid is used in post harvest process as an anti-speck and an anti-browning agent for agricultural product. Due to various usage of this organic molecule, the demand of kojic acid has been increasing rapidly. Thus the studies to improve the kojic acid production are still extensively conducted.