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Open Access Minireview Article

Oryctes rhinoceros Beetles, an Oil Palm Pest in Malaysia

G. Manjeri, R. Muhamad, Soon Guan Tan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3429-3439
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11023

Oryctes rhinoceros, commonly known as the rhinoceros beetle is an important agricultural pest that is known to inflict serious damage on young oil palm trees. Many researches have been conducted on its development, life cycle, habitat, management and genomic variation ever since the need to understand this pest arose. Oryctes rhinoceros is among the longest present agricultural pest in Malaysia and it has witnessed the formulation and implementation of various phases of control and management strategies. To date, research and development activities are still ongoing in Malaysia for the successful management of this pest. In this review, we look into details on the characteristics of this pest, the modes of its introduction into Malaysia, as well as the events that helped to establish and contribute to the proliferation of this pest as a major oil palm threat in Malaysia. The progressive development of various research and development activities concerning the management and control of this pest are also highlighted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cell Aging of Mouse Liver as Observed By Microscopic Radioautography

Tetsuji Nagata

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3297-3334
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9551

“Cell Ageing” means how the cells change due to their aging. The term contains 2 meanings, one how a cell changes when it is isolated from original animals such as in vitro cells in cell culture or tissue culture, while the other means how all the cells of an animal such as mice and rats changes in vivo due to the aging of the individual animal. Our group have been studying the latter changes from the viewpoint of the cell nutrients, the precursors for the macromolecular synthesis such as DNA, RNA, proteins, glucides and lipids, which are incorporated and synthesized into various cells, cell organelles both nuclei and cytoplasm of individual animals. Therefore, this article deals with only the cell aging of animal cells in vivo, how the metabolism, i.e., incorporations and syntheses of respective nutrient precursors in various kinds of cells change due to the ageing of individual experimental animals such as mice and rats by means of microscopic radioautography to localize the RI-labeled precursors. The incorporations and syntheses of various precursors for macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, glucides, lipids and others in various kinds of cells of various organ in respective organ systems such as skeletal, muscular, circulatory, digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, endocrine, nervous and sensory systems are already published from our laboratory during these 50 years since the late 20C to the early 21C. Among these publications, this paper deals with the cell ageing of the liver of mouse reviewing many papers already published from our laboratory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Milk Vetch Flower Honey against Four Bacteria of Human Oral Flora: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobasillus rhamnosus and Lactobasillus plantarum

Faezeh Kgozeimeh, Zahra Golestannejad, Marzieh Tofighi, Azadeh Ayen, Mohsen Doost Mohammadi, Shahin Gavanji, Azizollah Bakhtari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3335-3344
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9977

Aims: Milk vetch flower honey has valuable therapeutic effects, however, its antibacterial effect is not well understood. In present study, milk vetch flower honey was assessed for antibacterial activity against four bacterial species: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobasillus rhamnosus and Lactobasillus plantarum, which are the main causes of oral cavity infection.
Methodology: Honey solutions were prepared by diluting with sterile water to the final test concentrations (9.3, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, 300, 600 and 1200ppm) immediately before testing. Antimicrobial activity was determined by serial dilution and the disk diffusion method.
Results: Although a honey concentration of1200 ppm strongly inhibited growth of all four bacterial species, concentrations below 37.5 ppm were more efficient as antibacterials. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for honey against S. mutans, L. casei, L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum were 75, 75, 100 and 100 ppm, respectively. S. mutans was the most resistance species with a zone of inhibition of 6.81 millimetres (mm) while L. casei showed significant sensitivity with a zone of inhibition of approximately 11.3 mm.
Conclusion: To conclude, the reasonable antibacterial effect of milk vetch flower honey against mentioned bacteria species indicated that this type of honey could be used as a natural antibiotic, however, it need more studies for finding its effective agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neuroprotective and Free Radicals Scavenging Potentials of Some Common Leafy Vegetables Consumed in South - Eastern Nigeria

C. S. Alisi, E. S. Asiwe, A. A. Emejulu, A. C. Ene, R. N. Nwoguikpe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3345-3358
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9666

Antioxidant potential, lipid peroxidation inhibition ability in brain homogenate and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of ethanol extracts of some leafy vegetables (Vernonia amygdalina, Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum gratissimum) consumed in south-eastern Nigeria were determined. The antioxidant and neuroprotective potentials of the ethanol extracts were assessed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) assay and through determination of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive substances in brain homogenates. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were quantitatively determined in the extracts spectrophotometrically. Results obtained from the present study showed that G. latifolium and V. amygdalina extracts were effective against hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation with threshold inhibitory concentrations (IC50) values of 357.36±15.6µg/ml and 629.5±22.72µg/ml respectively while O. gratissimum achieved only 20% inhibition (IC20) at 785.73±40.23µg/ml. In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, 50% of DPPH radicals were scavenged at181.5(µg/ml), 153.33(µg/ml), and 189.67(µg/ml) of V. amygdalina, G. latifolium and O. gratissimum extracts concentrations respectively. Free radical scavenging ability of the extracts was in the order G. Latifolium >V. Amygdalina > O. gratissimum. Total phenolic content was 432.79±42.2mg/100g,274.1±37.3mg/100g, and 490.49±58.1mg/100g catechin equivalent, while flavonoid content was 843.09±21.6 mg/100g, 746.34±13.7mg/100g and 1160.98±24.5mg/100g catechin equivalent in V. amygdalina, G. latifoliumand O. gratissimum respectively. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radical scavenging followed a logistic dose response pattern.These results indicatethat these vegetables possess neuro-protective potentials and free radical scavenging ability. The present data scientifically corroborate with the consumption of these plants as an exogenous sources of antioxidants that could improve nutrition and boost antioxidant defense.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Iron Ions on Rosmarinic Acid Production and Antioxidant System in Melissa officinalis L. Seedlings

Keyvan Esmaeilzadeh-Salestani, Ali Riahi-Madvar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3359-3372
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9300

Aims: In this study, effects of various Fe2+ concentrations on the physico-chemical parameters including contents of rosmarinic acid, flavonoid and anthocyanin as well as antioxidant enzymes activity in Melissa officinalis seedlings were analyzed. Furthermore, some morphological parameters and contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid were investigated in 45-day-old M. officinalis seedlings in presence of various Fe2+ concentrations.
Study Design: completely random designs.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.
Methodology: 45-day-old seedlings were treated with different Fe2+ concentrations and then physico-chemical parameters of them were evaluated after 8 and 16 hours incubation periods. Rosmarinic acid content was measured using HPLC and the flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were determined using a spectrophotometer. Morphological properties including seed germination, root and shoot elongation and dry biomass of the 45-day-old Fe2+-treated seedlings were analyzed.
Results: The results showed that the contents of rosmarinic acid, flavonoid and anthocyanin drastically decreased in all treatments compared to the control. In this condition, the activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were increased more significantly after 8 hours treatment rather than 16 hours. The results revealed that changes in rate of germination, shoot elongation and dray biomass were not statically significant. Although, the root growth was decreased in presence of Fe2+ compared to control, that was significant at the level of 5% at the highest Fe2+ concentration.
Conclusion: Accumulation of free radicals under treatment conditions may lead to suppression of protein synthesis or degradation of them as indirectly confirmed by reduced protein content. Therefore, it may be concluded that the decrease in contents of rosmarinic acid, flavonoid and anthocyanin results from a reduction of enzyme levels in their biosynthesis pathways. The decrease in root growth can be due to exposition of the organ to the excess of Fe2+, more increased uptake of the ion and triggering of free radicals. Furthermore, low rate in Fe2+ transportation to the shoots and elevated levels of chlorophyll and carotenoid contents may have roles in preventing damages to this organ.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gymnema sylvestre on the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic of Oral Hypoglycemic Drug - Gliclazide in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Shravan Kumar Dholi, Ramakrishna Raparla, Kannappan .

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3373-3385
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8166

Aims: Effect of the Gymnema sylvestre 100 mg/kg and 500mg/kg) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) Gliclazide.
Study Design: Acute and Chronic study
Place and Duration of Study: Vaageswari Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beside LMD Police Station, Ramakrishna Colony, Karimnagar, India, between january 2013 and june 2013.
Methodology: Gliclazide was studied in STZ induced six groups of Diabetic rats after single dose administration and multiple dosing for 21 days.
Results: Pharmacokinetic studies revealed a decrease in the bioavailability of Gliclazide when given in combination with Gymnema sylvestre. The decrease in bioavailability was contributed by decrease in absorption rate constant and increase in clearance. Where as in the pharmacodynamic study the combination in general showed decrease in serum glucose, urea and cholesterol levels that was contributed by the antidiabetic action of Gymnema sylvestre. But the combination of Gymnema sylvestre and Gliclazide did not decrease the serum glucose, urea and cholesterol levels comparable to Gliclazide when given alone. Histopathological studies revealed that combination of Gymnema sylvestre with Gliclazide increased the volume of islets cells of pancreas. These results indicates Gymnemic acid is a potent hypoglycaemic but it contributes to a decrease in hypoglycemic influence of Gliclazide.
Conclusion: The negative influence of Gymnema sylvestre on pharmacokinetics but positive influence on pharmacodynamics of Gliclazide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Yield and Some Agronomical Traits in Garlic Genotypes (Allium sativum L)

Hamidreza Fanaei, Mohammadreza Narouirad, Moussa Farzanjo, Mhamoudmohammad Ghasemi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3386-3391
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9090

Aims: The specific objective of this study was yield comparison the garlic genotypes for cultivation in region and evaluation some agronomic traits and determination correlation of coefficients these with yield in order to using in breeding programs.
Study Design: Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications .
Place and Duration of Study: The present research was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Sistan and Baluchastan Province, Zabol, Iran in October 2012 during one crop season.
Methodology: Garlic cloves ten genotypes were planted in early October. Each plot consisted of four rows:5 m length, with 30 cm apart. Fertilizers were applied at ratio of 100, kg N /ha, 150 kg sulphate dipotash /ha and 100 kg super-phosphate, /ha respectively, (according to results of soil analysis). All plots received one-third of N and all sulphate dipotash and super-phosphate prior to sowing. Other two-third of N top dressed at the start of leaf four and before of bulbing stage, respectively.
Results: The results showed that there was significant difference among genotypes for traits of cloves length, the number of cloves per bulb, clove weight, bulb weight, and bulb yield per hectare. Among genotypes, Mazand with yield (25508 kg/ha) and Chinese with yield (23132 kg/ha) than other genotypes, showed maximum yield. Simple correlation analysis showed that there were positive and significant correlation among bulb yields with clove weight and bulb weight.
Conclusion: Based on results can be conclude that traits, bulb weight, number of cloves per bulb and Clove weight may be used as criterion of selection, for improving agronomic characters of garlic in breeding programs and Mazand and China varieties due to higher yield were recommended for replacement with local variety in Sistan region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Non Parametric Stability Statistics for Improvement of Adaptation in Wheat-Rye Disomic Addition Lines

Ezatollah Farshadfar, Zahra Bahadori

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3409-3419
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10996

In order to study phenotypic stability of wheat-rye disomic addition lines and comparison of non-parametric stability procedures, a randomized complete block design with three replications was carried under three different environments. Biplot analysis of stability measures classified them into three groups. Group 1 included the mean yield with non-parametric measure Ysi. The PCs axes separated non-parametric measures Si(1), Si(2), NPi1 and SDR in group 2. Non-parametric measures: Si(3), Si(4), NPi2, NPi3, NPi4, R and RSM were placed in Group 3. According to Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient Ysi indicated high level of correlation with mean yield and based on Ysi genotypes G2, G5, G7, G4 and G9 were introduced as stable genotypes. Non-parametric stability parameters of group 2, introduced genotypes G2 and G1 as stable and genotypes G6 and G8 as unstable entries. According to procedures of group 3 genotypes G2 was identified as stable and genotype G6 with th highest values as unstable. Most of the stability methods indicated that the genotype G2 was the most phenotypically stable with high mean yield indicating that QTLs controlling yield and stability are located on chromosome 2R of rye (G2).

Open Access Original Research Article

In Situ Cattle Rumen Degradability of Urea-Molasses and Cellulase Treated Rice Straw

A. H. Karimi, S. P. Acda, S. S. Capitan, A. C. Laurena, F. Z. Tambalo, A. A. Angeles, M. M. Loresco, I. O. Aychocho, C. C. Sevilla

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3420-3428
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10148

In situ (nylon bag) technique was used to investigate the effects of BIOTECH-Cellulase from Trichoderma reesei RUT-C40 on rumen degradability of rice straw in the study. Three mature rumen cannulated steers were used. Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was used to evaluate the effect of four treatments in steers. Dietary treatments were used in the study as; Untreated rice straw (UTRS); Urea and molasses treated rice straw (5% urea + 5% molasses) (UMTRS); Urea, molasses and cellulase treated rice straw 5% urea + 5% molasses + 2.5% BIOTECH-Cellulase from Trichoderma reesei RUT-C40 (UMCTRS) and 2.5% BIOTECH-Cellulase treated rice straw (CTRS). All treatments had similar (P>0.05) degradation of DM and NDF of untreated and treated rice straw. The increasing degradability of the rice straw treated with BIOTECH-Cellulase as observed in both the UMCTRS and CTRS, incubated for 72h suggested that the enzyme can still improve the utilization of the feed such that longer incubation would degrade rice straw significantly better than those without cellulase. Thus, there is very big potential on the use of BIOTECH-Cellulase in producing a more cost effective and higher quality rice straw as feed for ruminants.

Open Access Review Article

Vagus Nerve Versus Helicobacter pylori: New View on Old Secrets of Gastroduodenal Pathology

Oksana Sulaieva

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3392-3408
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10227

Despite the long history of research on etiology and pathogenesis of gastroduodenal pathology, there are still a lot of unclear points in this field. Identification of Helicobacter pylori has been widely considered to be a major breakthrough in pathophysiology of gastroduodenal diseases. However, Helicobacter pylori infection, as a host-pathogen interaction, involves bidirectional cross-talk and requires assessment not only in terms of Helicobacter pylori virulence, but the immune reactivity of the host too. One of the major tasks of mucosal immunity is to discriminate between dangerous and harmless antigens, and it depends on neuroimmune cross-talk, which is orchestrated in gastroduodenal area by vagus nerve. In this review, we propose to recall and assess the role of the vagus nerve in the gastroduodenal homeostasis maintenance and anti-Helicobacter pylori fight, focusing on Helicobacter pylori-gastric mucosa-vagus nerve interaction. The following issues are discussed in this review: 1) Vagus nerve regulation of mucins production as a key element of gastrointestinal barrier against Helicobacter pylori colonization; 2) Virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori and cytoprotective effects of vagus nerve; 3) Peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori-induced innate immunity response, involving host cytokine network activation, and vagus nerve effects, realized through cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway; 4) Modulation of maturation and activity of dendritic cells by Helicobacter pylori and acetylcholine; and 5) Alteration of adaptive immunity during Helicobacter pylori infection and role of acetylcholine. The structural and immune homeostasis of gastroduodenal area can be affected not only by Helicobacter pylori virulence factors, but theoretically by any shifting in vagus nerve reactivity and/or interaction with enteroendocrine and immune cells in gastroduodenal mucosa.