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Open Access Original Research Article

A Clinical Decision Support System to Identify and Stage Breast Cancer Tumor

G. Norhene, D. Alima, S. Dorra, A. Riadh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3440-3458
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9882

Aims: An improved Clinical Decision Support System is developed to classify the tumor and identify the different stages of the breast cancer.
Methodology: In this paper, we analyze and compare the performance of a developed system that takes the breast density information into account. The advantages of consideration of this breast density information will be highlighted. Our proposal is based on multi-resolution Gray Level and Local Difference (GLLD) for feature extraction. Once the descriptors are extracted, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) are used for classifying the detected masses according to their corresponding stages.
Results: The accuracy of the proposed system has been verified and found that the Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 99.5% can be achieved for tumor staging when considering the information of beast density and applying the multi-resolution GLLD as texture descriptor. The proposed system may provide valuable information concerning cancer staging.

Open Access Original Research Article

Germination and Seedling Growth in Primed Seeds of Sunflower under Water Stress

Seyed Nabiladdin Fatemi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3459-3469
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9971

Successful establishment of plants largely depends on successful germination. This study investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (1 and 2mM) on germination percentage, germination rate, seed stamina index, hypocotyl and radical length, seedling fresh and dry weight of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under various water potentials (0, -2 and -4 bar) induced by PEG6000. The experimental design was a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications that performed at the laboratory of agriculture faculty of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran. All parameters were negatively responded with water stress but using AsA alleviated the harmful effect of stress on the traits. The concentration of 2mM of AsA on measured traits was more effective compared with the other levels. Therefore, seed priming with AsA can be considered an appropriate tool for improving germination characteristics of sunflower under water stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Mice and its Role in Regulating Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and Their inhibitory Effect on the Formation of Advanced Glycation end Products

Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3470-3491
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11159

Aim of the Study: The aim was to evaluate the effect of extracts of the leaves of Lippia graveolens in streptozotocin-induced mildly diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) miceand on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs).
Study Design: Diabetes has emerged as a major global challenge in healthcare delivery, particularly in recent times, with the global incidence reaching epidemic proportions. Because of this there is an increasing demand to research for natural products with antidiabetic activity.
Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Natural Products Research. School of chemical engineering, National Polytechnic Institute between August 2013 and April 2014.
Methodology: Extracts were orally administered to MD and SD rats for 30 days, and a set of biochemical parameters were studied: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, glycogen, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPX, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase, hexokinase activities, SGOT, SGPT, ALP and insulin level. In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effects In vitro on the formation of specific AGE representatives including AGEs-BSA formation, Amadorin activity,methylglyoxal (MGO). In vivo was to investigate the effect of extracts on oxidative stress, glycation of hemoglobin and MGO, glycolaldehyde (GA) levels, TBA-reactive substance level in kidney mitochondrial instreptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
Results: Methanol extract (LG-M) reduced the intake of food, water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein and increase HDL-cholesterol, antioxidant enzymes, improves TBARS–reactive substance, marker enzymes of hepatic function. These results, support that improves glucose metabolism by reducing insulin resistance. LG-M is an inhibitor of fluorescent AGE, methylglyoxal and the glycation of haemoglobin.
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that Lippia graveolens possesses considerable anti-AGE and hepatoprotective role, inhibits hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemic and oxidative stress indicating that these effects may be mediated by interacting with multiple target operating in diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

GIS study on Chemical Properties of Salt Affected Soils of Coastal Kachchh, Gujarat, India

Jagruti P. Shah, Gobi A. Thivakaran

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3492-3503
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10086

The aim of this study is to understand the soil profile of coastal and near coastal region of Kachchh and their surrounding vegetation giving the green coverage as well as useful for many purposes. In Gujarat and Kachchh, distribution of salt tolerant vegetation (halophytes) is considerable. Nevertheless. There is a total lack of study on Kachchh halophytes. The study was conducted at 40 sites and 185 locations; spread over a six talukas, each sampled at 10 cm depth along a 300km long stretch of coastal and near coastal region of Kachchh district, Gujarat. The study determines salt characterization of coastal soils of Kachchh and highlights the halophytes growing in the region to sustainable use of these saline soils. The study period was between July 2011 and september 2012. The laboratory test of composite soil samples was done for each parameter in triplicate. The ph, ec, major minerals such as na+, k+, ca2+, mg2+,cl-, li- and so4- were analyzed by standard methods and from that results sodium absorption ratio (sar), percent sodium (na%), potential salinity (ps) and exchangeable sodium ratio (esr) were calculated. Spatial variations of various soil quality parameters were studied using the geographical information system (gis). The distribution map of soil salinity in all coastal talukas was created based on analyzed soil classification using gis tools. The findings of this study clearly indicate that the soil of coastal kachchh is dominated by sodium and in most of the area it is sodic. Variation in soil properties from the study area such as non saline, slightly saline, high ph, saline, saline- sodic and sodic soil was reported.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Strategic Management and Quality Assurance of Research and Development Processes in the Pharmaceutical Industries

Amir Najafi, Mahsa Allahyari Abhari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3504-3512
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10111

One of the major goals of firms is maintaining and increasing market share, yet there are some barriers to achieving this important goal. It can improve those barriers using on time managing of opportunities and market needs, and the internal and environmental factors' analysis. So, one of major way in the internal and external successes of organizations is maintaining and improving the current quality level of the products and creating the new products. Therefore, they must have the appropriate plan for the quality assurance and R & D. Our aim in this paper is presenting a hybrid approach to strategic management and quality assurance for quality assessment of the R & D processes in the pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, we used the descriptive and survey based research method and hypotheses and based on the data collection method through the distributed questionnaires in the Ex sir pharmaceutical industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Identification of Fusarium Species Complexes Affecting Chickpea with Total Protein Profiles, EF-1α Gen

Carmen Medina-Mendoza, Georgina Margarita Beltrán-Ríos, Abimael López-López, Lily Xochilt Zelaya-Molina, Ernestina Valadez-Moctezuma

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3513-3523
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10672

Background: Fusarium oxysporum Schl. is a cosmopolitan fungus that causes severe damage to many important crops. This fungus is the causal agent of chickpea fusariosis, a very important disease in this crop, resulting in 10 to 60% of annual losses. These symptoms have generally been associated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.
Aims: In the present study, 41 Fusarium isolates from chickpea plants with symptoms of yellowing and wilting were characterized, differentiated and separated into species complexes from the Bajío zone in Mexico.
Methodology: The Fusarium isolates were characterized with total protein profile and pathogenicity tests from differential chickpea plants. The total protein profiles were associated with the Fusarium species complexes previously reported for these same isolates.
Result and conclusion: The protein profiles were different among the fungi isolates and formed four groups corresponding to three Fusarium species complexes. The isolates also showed clustering tendencies according to the collection zone. The differential plants showed different reaction degrees. The results indicate that yellowing and wilting pathotypes in chickpea from the Bajío zone were produced by three Fusarium complexes and not just for the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition, DM and NDF Degradation Kinetics in Rumen of Eleven Different Date Pits

Aidin Rezaeenia, Abbasali Naserian, Reza Valizadeh, Abdolmansour Tahmasbi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3524-3531
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11558

Aims: Study was undertaken to measure chemical composition and degradation kinetics of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber in the rumen for eleven different date pits that where cultivated in different parts of Iran.
Study design: Ruminal degradation kinetics of the pit samples were determined using 3 Holstein steers (450-500kg body weight), ï¬tted with permanent rumen ï¬stulas. Data were fitted using an exponential equation of P=W+D (1−e−kd×(t-T)), where P is the potential of degradability, W is the quickly degradable fraction, D is the slowly degradable fraction; kd is the fractional degradation rate, t is the incubation time (h) and T is the lag time (h).
Place and Duration of Study: The study took place at the Ruminant Nutrition Research Center of Agriculture Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad which placed at Mashhad urban zone. This study lasted 3 months.
Methodology: Chemical composition, in situ DM and in situ NDF degradation kinetics in rumen of eleven different date pits (Barahi, Kabkab, Kharak, Khasi, Mazafati, mordabsang, Piarom, Rabbi, Estamaran, Shahani and Zahedi) were evaluated.
Results: CP ranged from 5.00 to 6.90% DM and Mazafati pit had highest NDF content (78.23% DM) and Mordasang had highest ADF content (59.73% of DM) while Estamaran had lowest NDF and ADF content (68.90 and 50.50% of DM respectively). Mordabsang had the lowest W-fractionDM (0.104h) and Estamaran had the highest D-fractionDM (0.485). In contrast, Estamaran, Khasi, Mazafati and Zahedi had the highest (0.300, 0.301, 0.304 and 0.301 respectively) W-fractionDM and Piarom had lowest (0.323) D-fractionDM. The kdDM varied from 0.021/h (Mordasang) to 0.119/h (Estamaran). Piarom had the lowest W-fractionNDF (0.011) and Estamaran had the highest W-fractionNDF (0.046). In contrast, Mazafati had the highest (0.603) and Piarom had lowest (0.394)) D-fractionNDF. Among the samples kdNDF varied from 0.021/h (Kharak) to 0.038/h (Estamaran).
Conclusion: In conclusion our results show that pits of these date varieties can be used as fiber source for ruminants and their relatively high EE content may be useful as an energy source.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Characterization of Two Polyphenol Oxidase Purified from Edible Yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata cv. Kponan) Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire

Jocelyn Constant Yapi, Sophie Nadège Gnangui, Ahi Pascal Amedée, Soumaila Dabonné, Lucien Patrice Kouamé

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3532-3548
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9039

Yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata cv. Kponan) is a staple food in many tropical regions. A biochemical characterization study of crude polyphenol oxidase from yam (PPO) was carried out to provide useful information for food processing operations. Two polyphenol oxidases of edible yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata cv. Kponan) cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire were purified to homogeneity. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulphate fractionation, ion-exchange, size exclusion and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The enzymes designated PPO1 and PPO2 had native molecular weights of approximately 113.7±0.34 and 115.65 ±1.78 kDa, respectively, and functioned as dimeric (PPO2) and monomeric (PPO1) structures. The two isoforms isolated had different optimum pHs and temperatures. The maximal activity of PPO1 occurred at 35ºC and pH 6.0. On the other hand, PPO2 had a maximum activity at 25ºC and pH 6.6. The enzymes were stable at their optimal temperatures (25ºC and 35ºC) and their pH stability was in the range of 5.6–7.0. Polyphenol oxidases (PPO1 and PPO2) remained their full activity in the presence of ion Mn2+, Fe2+, Na+ and Cu2+ but were inhibited strongly by the reducing agents as beta-mercaptoethanol, L-ascorbic acid, sodium bisulphite and L-cysteine. The values Vmax/Km showed that the enzymes have the greatest reactivity towards dopamine among the substrates used. The present work is therefore the ï¬rst report on the puriï¬cation to homogeneity of a yam tuber PPOs

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Seed Germination of Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr

P. S. Warakagoda, S. Subasinghe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3549-3565
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10558

The present investigation was aimed to study the In vitro seed germination potential of Coscinium fenestratum - An endangered woody climber with high medicinal value to ensure germplasm conservation and mass production of planting material to meet the unlimited demand. Mature seeds of C. fenestratum can be successfully surface sterilized by dipping explants in 0.1% Mercuric Chloride (HgCl2) solution (w/v) for 2 min followed by 2 successive washings using sterilized distilled water. After surface sterilization, hard seed coats have to be damaged to overcome mechanical seed dormancy. After that seeds should be soaked 24h in filter sterilized 2,250 mg/L Gibberelic Acid (GA3) solution to break the physiological dormancy. When mature seeds stored at 4ºC for 3- 6 months, in sealed cellophane after wrapping with wet cotton; soften the hard seed coats make it easy for mechanical damaging. The experiments were repeated in two fruiting seasons (September 2011 and June 2012).
Seeds have to be cultured into MS salt fortified sterilized sand: coir dust (1:1) incorporated culture vessels. To minimize fungal contaminations; 0.7g/L systemic fungicide - Thiophanate methyl 70% WP (w/v) has to be introduced into culture medium. To facilitate in vitro germination, seeds should be exposed to total darkness and temperature should be increased to 32±2 0C inside an incubator. Fresh seeds treated with 2,250mg/L GA3 for 24 h before culture initiation achieved 80% mean In vitro germination rate within 9 months of culture period. After 3 months of storage, to achieve 76% mean In vitro germination rate within a month seeds need to be exposed 24 hour to 2,250mg/L GA3. If they soaked 24h in sterilized distilled water, it was needed 4 months time to gain same result. Over 90% seedlings were successfully acclimatized and introduced to field conditions.

Open Access Review Article

Checklist of Phytoplankton Species in the Egyptian Waters of the Red Sea and Some Surrounding Habitats (1990-2010)

Mohamed Zein Alabdein Nassar, Hanan Mohamed Khairy

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3566-3585
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10866

This review describes the phytoplankton species in the Egyptian waters of the Red Sea and some surrounding habitats namely; Gulf of Suez, Aqaba Gulf and Suez Canal as well as the species abundance during the period from 1990 to 2010.
Although many reviews on the phytoplankton species had been done for some areas of the world, a clear and concise list of the phytoplankton species for Red Sea waters (Egypt) has recently not documented.
Aim of this Review: This review aims to provide a checklist of phytoplankton species found as their names and abundance appear in the cited literature, as well as their current valid, accepted names and their common synonyms. This will allow for a better understanding of the presumed phytoplankton species documented around the areas of Red Sea waters (Egypt).
Place and Duration of Study: The phytoplankton species reported in this review are collected from the different published sources that represent the years spanning 1990-2010.