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Open Access Case study

Ramipril Induced Burning Mouth Symptoms

V. Vucicevic Boras, V. Brailo, D. Vidovic Juras

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3945-3948
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10308

We report a case of a 74-year-old female patient who presented with symptoms of burning mouth. The patient suffered from hypertension and had been using the following antihypertensive drugs: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE)-ramipril with felodipine (calcium channel blocker) (Triapin-2.5mg a day) during the past year and a half. After one year of Triapin intake, symptoms of burning mouth evolved. Seven days after the replacement of the offending drug with losartan (angiotensin II receptor antagonist), the burning symptoms disappeared. This case stresses the fact that in cases of patients with oral burning, the symptoms can easily vanish after the withdrawal of the offending drug.

Open Access Case study

Ectodermal Dysplasia - A Family Study

V. Čulić, M. Jurić, Shih-Kai Wang, I. Žeko, G. Liović, A. Baraba, D. Gabrić Pandurić

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4450-4458
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11713

Ectodermal dysplasias (ED) are group of genetically heterogenous conditions that are characterized by abnormal development of ectodermal structures. The most affected structures are teeth, skin and its derivatives (hair, sweat glands) along with other ectodermal structures. The purpose of this work was to present the family with four boys affected with ED. We described the clinical report of male infant (affected twin) aged two months and his older brothers with absence of eyebrows and eyelashes, saddle nose, dry flaky skin, rare thin blond hair, and large number of dental anomalies with pathohistological-skin positive analysis for ectodermal dysplasia. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupted (microdontia and conical teeth) and at the later then average age. Radiographic examination confirmed previous clinical findings and determined taurodontism of the molar teeth. They also presented pseudoprognathism of the mandible due to micrognathism of the maxilla.
Based on the positive family history (two older brothers), clinical picture and pathohistological findings of the skin we concluded that the child (and his twin brother) were also affected. EDA gene missense mutation, Ala349Thr (GCA --> ACA), was responsible for the condition of observed family. Hair hypotriyhosis, brittle, scanty hair, absent or scanty eyelashes and eyebrows, blonde, fine scalp hair, as minor clinical signs at grandmother and only scanty eyelashes at mother were observed. Mutation analysis in families with X-linked ED help in genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, and confirmation of carrier status.

Open Access Short Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Red and Yellow Rambutan Fruit Peel Extracts

Mahendran Sekar, Fatin Nabila Aziz Jaffar, Nur Hasyimah Zahari, NurIzzati Mokhtar, Nurul Ain Zulkifli, Ramizatun Annisa Kamaruzaman, Syafiq Abdullah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3869-3874
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11327

Background and Aims: Rambutan fruits are native to the humid tropical regions of the Peninsular Malaysia in Southeast Asia. Its antimicrobial properties are well known. There are two varieties of rambutan fruits available in Malaysian market i.e. red and yellow rambutan.
Methodology: In the present study, a qualitative phytochemical analysis along with antibacterial properties of methanolic extract of both the varieties of rambutan peels were carried out by disc diffusion method against Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Results: The methanolic extract of yellow rambutan peels showed more potency than red rambutan peels against Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 7-10mm and 5-12mm, respectively in different concentrations. At the same time both the extracts do not showed zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Conclusion: These results showed that methanolic extract of yellow rambutan peels are good candidate for further investigation against gram positive bacteria.

Open Access Short Research Article

Yam Propagation Using ‘Aeroponics’ Technology

Norbert Maroya, Morufat Balogun, Robert Asiedu, Beatrice Aighewi, P. Lava Kumar, Joao Augusto

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3894-3903
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11632

Aims: To study yam propagation and seed yam tuber production in aeroponics system.
Study Design: The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design and treatments were replicated three times.
Place of Study: This experiment was carried out at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Headquarters at Ibadan in Nigeria.
Methodology: The experiment tested fresh vine cuttings of five yam genotypes of two species in an aeroponics system. Three genotypes of Dioscorea rotundata (TDr 89/02475, TDr 89/02665 and TDr 95/18544) and two yam genotypes of D. alata (TDa 98/01176 and TDa 291) were evaluated.
Results: Vines of both D. rotundata and D. alata rooted within 2 weeks in aeroponics system. The rooting of vine cuttings varied significantly among genotypes with a maximum of 98% for TDa 98/01176 and a minimum of 68% for TDr 89/02665. Mini-tubers harvested after 4 months of growth in aeroponics weighed between 0.2 and 2.7g. A second harvest 6 months later gave mini-tubers of up to 110g. The analysis of variance showed significant difference (P<0.05) among genotypes for rooting at 2 weeks after vine planting, number of plant surviving at 90 days after planting and percentage of plants with bulbils. The best genotypes were TDr 95/18544 and TDr 89/02665 for survival at 90 days after vine planting and percentage of plant producing bulbils in the aeroponics system respectively.
Conclusion: This study revealed that yam genotypes performed differently in aeroponics system for vine rooting and production of mini-tubers and bulbils.

Open Access Short Research Article

On Some New Recorded Syllidae (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida) for Mediterranean Waters

Faiza Ali Abd-Elnaby

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4314-4335
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11738

Aims: This paper gives an account of the syllid species from different stations Rasheed, Domiatte, El Borrulus, Bardweel, El Aresh, also provides some information on the morphology, distribution and habitat of those species.
Study Design: Descriptive study and distribution.
Place and Duration of Study: Syllidae species were collected from the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Egypt by A cruise (El –Yarmook) in May- June 2013.
Methodology: Soft-sediment samples were collected by Van Veen grab in different depths (10, 20, 50,100, 200m) and different habitats.
Results: A total of 47syllid species from 221 taxa species were identified within the strategy of National Institute of Oceanography and Fishery Alexandria. In this study 17 new recorded syllid species to the Mediterranean Egyptian waters were reported, 5 of them also considered new alien species for Mediterranean. They are: Pionosyllis mariae San Martín & Hutchings, 2006, Syllis ortizi San Martin, 1992, Exogone (Parexogone) tasmanica Hartmann- Schröder, 1989; Sphaerosyllis capensis Day 1953; Exogone (Exogone) lourei Berkeley & Berkeley, 1938; and one new to Eastern Mediterranean. It is: Prosphaerosyllis adelae San Martín, 1984.
Conclusion: New recorded Syllidae species were reported for the first time for Egyptian Mediterranean waters, also 5 of them considered new alien species for Mediterranean.

Open Access Original Research Article

QTLs Analysis for Important Quantitative Traits Related to Yield in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Using RAPD Molecular Marker

Kh. Abbaszadeh, A. Baghizadeh, H. Shahsavand Hassani, A. Eftekhari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3615-3626
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7760

Aims: QTL mapping not only presents useful information about number and loci of controlling genes, but also assist breeder to Marker Assisted Selection (MAS). The aim of this research is to show genetically map and complete the saturated maps and improving the barley cultivars by use of marker assisted selection.
Place and Duration of Study: This experiment was carried out in Agricultural Research
Farm of Graduate University of Advanced Technology at Kerman province, Iran in 2004 -2006.
Methodology: In this research random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was used on 111 F3 families derived from Afzal × Radical cross along with their parents were evaluated phenotypically and agronomically in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The 111 F3 families were evaluated by 13 selected primers among 40 primers which showed polymorphism in parental lines. Population linkage map was prepared using 140 RAPD band. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) analysis was performed by interval mapping.
Results: Based on the results 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 4 and 4 QTLs were recognized for the traits of tiller number, plant height, peduncle length, spike length, awn length, number of spikelet in spike and flag Leaf length, respectively and no QTL for node number.
Conclusion: The results showed relatively high R2 values and low confidence limits for QTLs so that the relevant linkage between markers and QTLs can be used in breeding programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variable Magnetic Field Effects on Seed Germination of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.)

F. Rico Martínez, A. Domínguez Pacheco, G. Paniagua Pardo, C. Hernández Aguilar, E. Martínez Ortiz

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3627-3635
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10689

This study was conducted to determine the effect of variable magnetic fields (VMF) on broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea L.) pre-imbibed for 1h to improve their germination and early growth. The experiment was conducted at IPN - ESIME Zacatenco, Mexico DF, between October and November 2013.Seeds were treated with variable magnetic fieldat17, 24and 55mT for 1, 5, 7.5 and 10min.Final germination percentage, germination velocity index, fresh and dry weight and average hypocotyl length were evaluated. The magnetic field treatment of 17mT for 7.5min significantly increased fresh and dry weight by 5.7 and 8% respectively, and got on final germination percentage and germination velocity index, a positive effect but without significant differences compared to control and other treatments. However, at 55mT for 5min fresh and dry weight significantly diminished to 11.7% and 8.2% respectively, getting the lowest variables of growth compared to control and other treatments. At 17mT for 7.5min, fresh and dry weight obtained were the highest. Meanwhile, the stimulation with 55mT for 5 min showed the highest inhibition, in fresh and dry weight. It can be concluded that variable magnetic field treatment can be a suitable option to increase some germination and early growth variables of broccoli seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Analysis of Grain Yield and Its Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

S. Abbasi, A. Baghizadeh, G. Mohammadi-Nejad, B. Nakhoda

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3636-3644
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7565

Aims: Increasing yield is the most important aim in any breeding program. Since yield is a complex trait with low inheritance and involves several quantitative components, its direct study is not usually sufficient and therefore it is suggested that its components be investigated instead. Awareness of gene action of traits is very important in plant breeding methods.
Study Design: The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with two replications for each generation.
Place and Duration of Study: P1, P2, F2, F3 and F4 generations of a Gaspard (sensitive) × Kharchia (tolerant) cross were used as genetic materials. The parents and F2, F3 and F4 populations were grown in 2010-2011 growing season in the research farm of international center for sciences, High Technology & Environmental Science-Kerman Iran.
Generation mean analysis using parents (Gaspard & Kharchia) and their progenies (F2, F3, F4) was used to study the type of gene action and the best genetically model of traits under drought stress condition.
Results: Generation mean analysis was performed by scaling test. Meanwhile, the three parameter model the additive-dominance was adequate to demonstrate the genetic variation and it is important in the inheritance of spike length with awn, flag leaf length and flag leaf width. Generation means analysis revealed all types of gene action (additive, dominance and epistatic) were involved in the inheritance of grain yield, plant height, spike length and total spike weight of plant. In inheritance the peduncle length, number of grain per plant were effective additive effect and additive × additive epistatic effect. Dominance effects were more important than additive effects in most traits.
Conclusion: Therefore to improve these traits hybridization and using of hybrid vigor would be much efficient than the selection strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dental Students’ Perceptions on Patients with HIV or Hepatitis B Infection

Priyadarshni Bindal, Umesh Bindal, Sher Zaman Safi, Kashif Hussain, Aishay Radzi, Hilman Safwan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3645-3655
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8419

Background: Dentists see many patients with undiagnosed or diagnosed HIV and Hepatitis B infection, posing threat to both doctor and patients. The aim of this study was to investigate dental students’ knowledge, awareness and attitude towards HIV and Hepatitis B patients.
Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was given to 164 clinical dental students in Kuala lumpur.
Findings: A significant percentage (49%) of the students did not know that HBV is transmitted via saliva. Female students were consistently more knowledgeable and had positive attitude towards such patients. Students had sufficient knowledge about the importance of double-gloving (69%). They displayed in consistent knowledge about the difference in infection potential of HBV and HIV. Most students (87.3%) were aware of the possibility of accidental exposure during recapping needles and spraying biological material but they were not aware about other accidental exposures. 87% students agreed that they require more training to treat patients with HIV or HBV.88.3% students considered all patients potentially infectious and agreed (80.3%) to treat such patients in future only under close clinical supervision. Fewer students agreed to voluntarily serve at an HIV or HBV specialist center (30.6%).
Conclusion: The level of knowledge and awareness of dental students about HIV and HBV was not sufficient, which renders them to danger of contracting infection while performing clinical procedures. Although a majority of the students had good knowledge, only few had professional attitudes about treating patients with HIV/HBV. Most were in favor of receiving more training to treat these patients efficiently.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ascorbic Acid and It'S Effects on Alleviation of Salt Stress in Sunflower

Seyed Nabiladdin Fatemi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3656-3665
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9970

Salinity, a severe environmental factor, has limited the growth and productivity of crops. Many compounds have been applied to minimize the harmful effects of salt stress on plant growth. A laboratory experiment was carried out to assess the effects of seed priming with ascorbic acid (ASA) on germination characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The seeds were treated with different concentrations of ASA (0, 1 and 2 mM) before germination, then the primed seeds were germinated under salinity stress conditions using different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100 and 200 mM). Some germination characteristics including germination percentage, germination rate, seed stamina index, hypocotyl dry weight, radicle dry weight, relative water content and ion leakage were measured after imposing salinity stress for 8 days. Salinity stress caused a significant reduction in germination and seedling growth of sunflower. Seeds primed with various concentrations of ascorbic acid proved to be effective in salinity tolerance at the germination stage of sunflower. In general, priming with 2 mM ascorbic acid was more effective than the other concentrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Assessment of Tobacco Smoke Toxicity on Selected Tissues from the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems of the Albino Rat, an Ultrastructural Study

Wajdy Al-Awaida, Ziad Shraideh, Darwish Badran, Hayel Shehadeh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3666-3686
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10893

Objectives: This work focuses on the effect of cigarette smoke exposure toxicity on the ultrastructure of selected albino rats’ cardiovascular and respiratory systems tissues from and their recovery within three months after exposure.
Materials and Methods: Sixty male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were used in this study. Two groups, each consists of thirty rats. The first group was exposed to the cigarette smoke for three months on a daily basis, using a special modified smoking machine, while the second group (control) was left untreated. The exposure to smoking was followed by a period of three months of non-exposure to smoking as a recovery period. Following each period, the ultrastructural study was performed.
Results: Cigarette smoke caused ultrastructural changes in the tracheal epithelium, heart ventricles and lung alveoli. Thin section of tracheal epithelium showed low number of cilia, a high degree of cytoplasmic vacuolization. Mitochondria aggregates in the apical portion of epithelial cells, inclusion bodies are present, and disrupted endoplasmic reticulums were also observed. The alveolar epithelium showed damaged multilamellar bodies of type II pneumocyte, together with cytoplasmic vacuolization and chromatin condensation, membrane blebs projecting from the cytoplasm, and degeneration of alveolar epithelium. The ventricular cardiomyocytes revealed mitochondria with deteriorated and partially disrupted or disappeared cristae. Also it showed areas with disrupted Z-discs. After the recovery period, those tissues showed partial recovery.
Conclusion: Smoking induces ultrastructural changes in the respiratory passages and heart that affects the gaseous exchange and may predispose to cancerous changes due to accumulation of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, chromatin condensation and tissue inflammation. Cessation of exposure to cigarette smoking is important in returning most these changes to their normal ultrastructure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Exogenous Application of Brassinolide on Growth and Metabolic Activity of Wheat Seedlings under Normal and Salt Stress Conditions

Soad S. El-Feky, Shaimaa A. Abo-Hamad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3687-3698
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11089

The present study was carried out to show the effect of brassinolide on normal and salt stressed wheat plant. Grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum sakha 93) were divided into four groups: seeds supplemented with 20 ml distilled water (control); seeds treated with NaCl solutions (25, 50, 100, and 200 mM); seeds supplemented with 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mgL-1brassinolide and seeds treated with a combination of 1mg.L-1brassinolide and the mentioned NaCl concentrations. Root and shoot lengths, fresh and dry weights were measured as indicators for growth and biomass assessments while carbohydrates, proteins, amylase and protease were estimated as indicator for metabolic activity. Treatment of wheat seeds with different concentrations of brassinolide particularly 1mgL-1 causes a significant increase in growth parameters, carbohydrate fractions, total soluble proteins in root and shoot and the hydrolytic enzymes amylase and protease. Gradual increase in NaCl concentrations from 25mM to 200mM sharply decreased growth compared with the control. Results of this investigation showed that 1mgL-1brassinolide counteracted the inhibitory effects of salinity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Sporozoan and Parasitic Enteropathogen Protozoans in Patients with Gastroenteritis in Iran

M. Mafi, M. Mahmoudi, H. Nahravanian, M. Zahraei, H. Masoumiasl, M. Rahbar, M. Hajia

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3699-3706
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9204

Parasitic gastroenteritis is one of the most common illnesses in humans worldwide. Most studies on gastroenteritis have focused on viral and bacterial infections, while parasitic enteropathogens and especially intestinal protozoan parasites may play a role that has not been well studied. The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of enteropathogenic parasites and sporozoan protozoa in patients with gastroenteritis in selected hospitals in seven provinces of Iran.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, randomly 4200 stool specimens were obtained from patients with gastroenteritis in selected hospitals. Primarily samples were examined directly for enteroparasites. The samples were filtered and concentrated by using the Paraseb Kit; and fixed, and stained by different methods including acid-fast staining, Auramin phenol fluorescence staining, and Giemsa staining were observed using light microscopy under various magnifications.
Results: The results revealed the overall rate of parasitic infection was 2.4% in the studied population. The highest rate of infection was observed in the 0-10 year age-group (47.2%). Among the infected patients, 59.5% were male and the rest were female patients.
In the studied regions, Tehran and Mazandaran had the highest and the lowest frequency with 41 (97%), and 2 (47%) cases respectively. Gastroenteritis was found in patients infected with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, Isospora and Cyclospora, 13 cases in total (0.3%) with 5 (0.12%), 4 (0.09%), 3 (0.07%) and 1 (0.02%) cases for all four parasites respectively. Parasitic enteropathogens were detected in 88 cases of all studied cases (2.09%). Among these observed parasitic enteropathogens, Giardia lamblia with 42 cases (1%) had the highest rate of infection, The observed frequency of infection for Blastocystis Hominis, Entamoeba histolytica, were 21 (0.5%), and 20 (0.47%) cases respectively while for the rest was 10 cases.
Conclusion: Despite a relatively low prevalence of sporozoans group, Giardia was the most prevalent agent for gastroenteritis (1%) parasitic infections in Iran, specifically in Tehran with the highest rate in children (0-10 year age-group). High frequency of Blastocystis hominis and co-infection of Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis implies possible interactions between enteropathogens in a host, which require more studies to be clarified. The study also showed presented knowledge of personal and community health and hygiene needs to be more emphasized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of two Types of Granule Cells with Different Excitability in Rat Dentate Gyrus Granule Cell Layer Following Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus

Nasrin Mehranfard, Hamid Gholamipour-Badie, Fereshteh Motamedi, Mahyar Janahmadi, Nima Naderi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3707-3715
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11778

Aims: The evaluation of the neuronal excitability of dentate gyrus granule cells during the development of epilepsy in pilocarpine model of TLE in rats.
Place and Duration of Study: Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between October 2012 and January 2013.
Methodology: Status epilepticus (SE) was induced by pilocarpine injection (350mg/kg; i.p) to male rats. Twenty minutes before pilocarpine injection, N-methyl scopolamine (1mg/kg; s. c) was injected to reduce peripheral effects of pilocarpine and after 3h, diazepam (4 mg/kg; i. p) was injected to stop seizures. Twenty four hour (acute phase) and 30 days (chronic phase) after inducing SE, the excitability of granule cells was evaluated using whole cell patch clamp recording.
Results: Fifty seven percent of granule cells in the acute phase were hyperexcitable and another 43% of cells were less excitable. In chronic phase, the majority of cells (71%) were hyperexcitable, while 29% of the cells had a low excitability. In both phases of epilepsy, membrane input resistance (Rin) in hyperexcitable cells was similar to that of control group, while Rin was significantly lower in less excitable cells compared to control group.
Conclusion: Results showed the presence of two groups of granule cells in pilocarpine-induced SE in rats: one group of cells with high excitability and another group of cells with less excitability. Although less excitability might, at least partly, protect granule cells from seizure-induced neurotoxicity, but hyperexcitability in majority of granule cells and the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures during chronic phase suggest the existence of insufficient compensatory mechanisms, possibly facilitating the propagation of seizure activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Evaluations of Anodic Spark Deposited AZ91 Alloy as Biodegradable Metallic Orthopedic Implant

Mehdi Razavi, Mohammadhossein Fathi, Omid Savabi, Daryoosh Vashaee, Lobat Tayebi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3716-3733
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10173

Surface treatment of Mg alloys is a major approach for its enhanced use as orthopedic implants. In this paper, the in vitro bioactivity, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the AZ91 Mg alloy coated by anodic spark deposition (ASD) method are studied. The cytocompatibility behavior is examined by culturing L-929 fibroblast on the surface of the uncoated and ASD-coated AZ91 Mg substrates. The results showed that the corrosion resistance, in vitro bioactivity, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of biodegradable Mg alloy were improved by ASD coating. Reduction of the degradation rate by ASD coating not only created a relatively stable interface for the cell adhesion and growth, but also arrested the release of corrosion products to reduce the cytotoxicity, hence, resulting in the enhanced cytocompatibility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lower Education Status Predicts Higher Seropositivity for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pakistan

Khalid Mehmood, Abdul Nadir, Fariha Hasan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3734-3741
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10788

Aims: We intended to report H. pylori seroprevalence and identify socio-demographic risk factors in dyspeptic patients and non-dyspeptic control subjects of Islamabad, Pakistan.
Methodology: Subjects were analyzed in two study groups; Dyspeptic patients on the basis of Rome III criteria (n=196) and non-dyspeptic control subjects (n=118). H. pylori status was determined using a commercial ELISA kit and its association was determined with risk factors such as age, sex, body mass index, marital status, educational level, residence, income group, use of NSAIDs and tobacco.
Results: Our results showed similar seroprevalence of about 53% in both the groups. Low education (p=.03) and lower socioeconomic status (p=.03) were significant predictors of H. pylori seropositivity in dyspeptic patients whereas increasing age (p<.001), lower education (p =.04) and married status (p=.02) were significantly associated with H. pylori seropositivity in non-dyspeptic controls.
Conclusions: Lower education and low socioeconomic status are significant risk factors in dyspeptic patients as compared to old age, lower education and married subjects in non-dyspeptic control subjects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Different Extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. leaf and Stem

Leila Mousavi, Rabeta Mohd Salleh, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Ong Ming Thong

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3742-3750
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11058

Aims: We aim to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of extracts from the leaves and stems of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Various extractions in different solvents were compared to determine the extract with the best performance against bacteria, fungi, and yeasts.
Study Design: Prospective.
Place and Duration of Study: Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology
Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia. This study was developed as prospective.
Methodology: Different extracts of non-polar and polar solvents were obtained from the macerate method from leaves and stems of O. tenuiflorum. The antimicrobial activities of these extracts were evaluated against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungal and yeast strains via the following method: inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC).
Results: The antimicrobial activity tests were performed using common pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes), yeast (Candida tropicalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and fungus (Aspergillus niger and Penicillum sp.). O. tenuiflorum L. stem or leaf extracts were more or less active against most of the tested pathogenic strains. The inhibition zone ranged from ≥9 mm to ≤15 mm. The most susceptible bacterium and fungus were L. monocytogenes (IZ=≥10–14 mm; MIC = 6.5mg/ml) and A. niger (IZ = ≥15 mm; MFC = 3.12 mm), respectively.
Conclusion: The methanol and hexane extracts of O. tenuiflorum L. showed antimicrobial activities and exhibited significant potential as natural antimicrobial agents. By contrast, the water, ethyl acetate, and chloroform extracts from the leaves and stems of O. tenuiflorum L. can inhibit the microorganisms. All extracts from the leaves and stems failed to inhibit the E. coli, S. typhimurium, S. aureus, and C. tropicalis. However, further studies are still required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intraoperative Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes by Touch Imprint Cytology Technique in Breast Cancer Patients

Ramesh Omranipour, Amirmohsen Jalaeefar, Abbas Mirafsharieh, Parvin Assasnik

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3751-3757
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10497

Aims: Axillary lymph nodes evaluation plays an important role in breast cancer surgery. Today and in the sentinel lymph node biopsy era, lymph node metastasis is evaluated by various methods such as Frozen section and Touch imprint cytology each having its pros and cons. Selecting proper method depends on many factors, especially instrument availability. This study was designed to evaluate Touch imprint cytology and Frozen section sensitivity and specificity in detecting sentinel lymph nodes metastasis in breast cancer patients.
Study Design: In a prospective study in 198 early stage (stages 0, 1, 2) breast cancer patients, sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were evaluated by Frozen section (FS) and Touch imprint cytology (TIC).
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery and Pathology, Parsian Hospital Tehran-Iran, between 2009 and 2012.
Methodology: In 198 early stage (stage 0,1, 2) breast cancer patients, sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were evaluated by Frozen section (FS) and Touch imprint cytology (TIC).
Results: In 126 metastatic lymph nodes of 69 patients, sensitivity and specificity of FS was 89.5% and 99% respectively while 78% and 99.5% in TIC method.
Conclusion: TIC has acceptable accuracy in detecting SLN metastases in breast cancer patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Parenteral Feeding and Secretion of Regulatory Peptides in Infants

Przemysław J. Tomasik, Andrzej Wędrychowicz, Andrzej Zając, Miłosz Przybyszowski, Mikołaj Spodaryk, Krzysztof Fyderek, Krystyna Sztefko

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3758-3770
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11530

Introduction: The direct effect of parenteral nutrition on secretion of regulatory peptides in infants has not been yet reported.
Aim: The aim of the study was the analysis of secretion of chosen regulatory peptides from the gut and adipose tissue in parenterally fed infants comparing to children fed orally as well as hydrated intravenously.
Materials and Methods: In this study, the response of glucose, ghrelin, leptin, PYY, GLP-1 and adiponectin to the enteral and parenteral feeding in babies has been investigated. We compared three groups of infants: formula-fed infants, infants on TPN and fasted, awaiting for general anaesthesia before CT examination, receiving an i.v. 5% glucose/saline mixture. The blood samples were taken in first group prior and 60 minutes after feeding, in the second in continuous course of TPN and third after 8 hours fasting.
Results: Oral feeding does not influence plasma concentrations of leptin and adiponectin in infants. The ghrelin plasma concentrations during the total parenteral nutrition mimics the postprandial levels observed in enterally fed children. A significant positive correlation was found between calorie intake and adiponectin concentration (r=0.76, p<0.001); and calorie intake and PYY concentration (r=0.76, p<0.001) as well CCK (r=0.50; p<0,005).
Conclusions: The lack of fasting/postprandial modulation of secretion of gut peptides might be responsible for disturbed development of parenterally fed children. Adiponectin and PYY are the putative marker of short-term energy balance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cardiovascular and Blood Glucose Adaptation during Ramadan Fasting among Different Weight Status Subjects

R. Mohd Adzim Khalili, S. Emynur Shafekh, A. H. Norhayati, M. A. Intan Suhana Munira, M. N. Mohd Nasir, D. V. Muralidara

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3771-3779
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11624

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the metabolic adaptation to Ramadan fasting among different weight status population.
Methods: Forty-six subjects were recruited in this prospective longitudinal study involving normal (n=19), overweight (n=18), and obese (n=9) males and females. The values of body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, lean mass and etc. Blood pressure and heart rate were then measured before approximately 5.0 mL of fasting venous blood was withdrawn to obtain blood serum. Biochemical analysis was then conducted to determine serum glucose level. All the procedures were done on four points of time; before fasting, week 1, week 2, and a month after fasting.
Results: Normal subjects showed significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), while overweight and obese subjects showed significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure after Ramadan (p<0.05). Ramadan fasting does not change heart rate. Serum glucose levels were reduced in normal and overweight subjects (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Ramadan fasting gives benefits to normal, overweight and obese subjects in term of reduction of blood pressure and blood glucose level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multiplex PCR Assay for Detection of Pneumococcal Serotypes in Nasopharyngeal Samples of Healthy Children; Tehran, 2009-2010

S. Rafiei Tabatabaei, F. Fallah, F. Shiva, A. R. Shamshiri, M. Hajia, M. Navidinia, A. Karimi, M. Rahbar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3780-3790
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6608

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), is a major pathogen causing invasive disease, colonizes the nasopharynx constituting a potential source of infection in both children and adults.
Aims: To identify the rate of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in healthy infants <2 years of age and to define the prevalent serotypes.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed for three months from June to August 2009 on healthy children, aged 6, 12 and 18 months visiting Health centers for routine vaccinations. Trained personnel collected nasopharyngeal samples through flexible nasal swabs and sent the specimens for diagnosis of pneumococci; after DNA extraction, microorganisms were serotyped by Multiplex PCR assay.
Results: One thousand two hundred ninety one samples were collected. S. pneumoniae was identified in 34%. A total of 761 identified S. pneumoniae, belonging to 30 different serotypes were recovered from 441 positive nasopharyngeal specimens. Serotypes 19, 6, 14, 19F, 17, 21, 20, 12F, 11 and three were most common, isolated in frequencies of 8.2, 7.6, 7.2, 7.2, 6.4, 5.3, 5.1, 4.8, 4.5 and 4.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in the diagnosed serotypes from the three age groups. Eleven serotypes (38.5%) are included in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, (PCV 13). Colonization with more than one strain was seen in 228 samples, (52% of carriers).
Conclusion: Our findings revealed a significant rate of nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae in young carriers; and draw attention to fact that only 38.5% of the isolated serotypes are included in PCV 13, demonstrating limited coverage of the current vaccine. There is a need to manufacture vaccines with an optimal formulation that would provide effective protection against serotypes prevalent in the community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Seeds Descriptors for Characterize and Differentiate Genotypes of Opuntia (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

Samir Samah, Ernestina Valadez-Moctezuma

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3791-3809
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11606

Aims: In this paper, a morphometric study was carried out to analyze the variation of seeds of Opuntia accessions using several statistical approaches. The main objective was to select morphological seeds variables for characterization and differentiation of Opuntia genotypes.
Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted in Crops Science Department of the Chapingo Autonomous University, Mexico. The sample collection was down in 2012. Seed data was obtained during 2013.
Methodology: A total of 110 Opuntia accessions (some classified and other ones with no specific taxonomic assignation), one accession of Cylindropuntia sp. (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae) and two other outgroups (Cactaceae, Pachycereae) were used. Nineteen internal and external seeds variables were obtained using image analysis. Basic statistical analysis, analysis of variance, principal component analysis, cluster and discriminant analysis were performed.
Results: Highly significant differences among accessions for all seed characters were showed. The most of the variables showed a coefficient of variation less than 10%. From de 19 variables studied, two variables did not contribute significantly to discriminate between accessions as determined by Step wise Discriminant Analysis. The principal components analysis showed that the first three components accounted for 83.35% of the variability; the first component contributed twice the variability (48.12%) respect to the second one (23.77%). Tukey's test determined that the Feret diameter and seed area were the most discriminating variables between the 7 groups resulting from de cluster analysis.
Conclusion: The selected variables, using several statistical approaches, were of interest for the characterization and identification of the different Opuntiageno types. The morphological seed characteristics responsible for the separation between genotypes were Area, Major Axis Length, Minor Axis Length, Feret Diameter and Weight. These variables have a high discriminatory power and can be taken into account as potential parameters for genotypes assignation within the Opuntia genus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phylogenetic Trends of Plant Glutathione peroxidases Revealed by Kohonen Maps (SOM’s)

Sayak Ganguli, Abhijit Datta

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3810-3815
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10728

Aims: Glutathione peroxidases in plants have diverse roles in the maintenance of redox homeostasis in conditions of stress. The studies involving this group of enzymes have clearly demonstrated that they are near homologues to animal phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases with cysteine replacing selenocysteine at the sites of interaction for ligands. Phylogenetic insights of the group should provide us with indications regarding the transition of the residues needed for interactions throughout the lineage of plants for this enzyme right from the aquatic members through land plants and to the highest evolved plant groups.
Study Design: Glutathione peroxidase gene sets along with other peroxidase gene sets were retrieved from the existing databases and self organizing maps were generated.
Place and Duration of the Study: The entire study was performed at the DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency University, Kolkata for a period of June 2013 to January 2014.
Methodology: A comparative clustering was performed using self organizing maps – A technique for comparative unsupervised learning and standard neighbor joining and UPGMA methods of tree generation to identify and delineate clusters of glutathione peroxidase genes.
Results: Homology in clustering was observed when the phylogentic tree and the self organizing maps were compared. Specific sister groups were found to occupy unique areas as part of the self organizing map.
Conclusion: Observation and results indicate that GPX evolution follows the trend of plant transitory evolution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Cadmium on Water Content, Soluble Protein, Proline Changes and Some Antioxidant Enzymes in Wheat (Triticum durum desf.) Leaves

Amel Alayat, Lynda Souiki, Nedjoud Grara, Mohamed Reda Djebar, Zine Eddine Boumedris, Sana Benosmane, Rima Amamra, Houria Berrebbah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3835-3847
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10641

The effect of Cadmium stress on plant growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme of wheat seedlings (Triticum durum Desf.) was evaluated in this study. Cadmium stress decreased plant growth, lowered the relative water content and caused oxidative damage, as characterised by increased antioxidative enzymes in wheat leaves such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaÑ—acol peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT). As a response to increasing Cadmium supply particular increases in antioxidative mechanisms in wheat cultivar Simeto suggest that the high Cadmium sensitivity of Simeto is related to enhanced production and oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Species-Level of Morphological and Nut Micromorphology Study of the Cyperus Complex (Cyperaceae) in Northeast of Iran

Maral Pashirzad, Jamil Vaezi, Dorrieh Amiri Moghaddam, Farshid Memariani, Mohammad Reza Joharchi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3848-3862
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11165

Background: The genus Cyperus with six subgenera and 45 species is the second largest genus of the Cyperaceae family based on Flora Iranica. This genus includes 23 species in Iran, of which five are located in Northeast of the country.
Aims: We determine the taxonomic boundaries among species of the genus Cyperus distributed in Northeast of Iran by using morphological and nut micro-morphological characters.
Study Design: Morphometric and nut micro-morphology studies of species of Cyperus in northeast of Iran.
Place and Duration of Study: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH), specimens collected during the growing season 2010 in Northeast of Iran (including three provinces of Khorassan Shomali, Khorassan Jonoubi, and Khorassan Razavi).
Methodology: We numerically examined 43 morphological characters, nine morphological and nut micro-morphological traits on 80 herbarium specimens in order to determine the taxonomic value of the features and also to better discriminate Cyperus species distributed in Northeast of Iran.
Results: The results revealed that morphological characters are somewhat useful to discriminate species of the genus in the region under study. Scatter plot displayed two distinct groups among samples. Individuals of C. longus are accommodated in the first group. Second group is divided into two subgroups. Individuals of Cyperus rotundus are located in first subgroup. Second subgroup is showed to be more complex by consisting of C. laevigatus subsp. distachyos, C. fuscus and C. glaber. The results obtained from stereomicroscope study indicated that nut of C. laevigatus subsp. distachyos is lenticular but nuts of other species are trigonous. The results of scanning electron microscope study revealed that C. laevigatus subsp. distachyos differentiated completely in terms of nut micro-morphology from the other species.
Conclusion: The results confirm fully results obtained from previously anatomical study of these species. Also the scanning electron microscope study indicated that three species including C. rotundus, C. longus and C. glaber are similar in terms of nut micro-morphology.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Enzymatic Method for Zinc Determination in Wastewater

Nazan Demir, Azize Alayli Gungor, Hayrunnisa Nadaroglu, Yasar Demir

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3863-3868
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10701

Aims: In this study, an enzymatic zinc determination method was based on the regaining of the activity of apo carbonic anhydrase by the zinc is presented in the sample.
Study Design: This method determines the amount of zinc in the waste water of the environment can be used in order to find out how much contaminated. For this purpose, wastewater from seven different areas and three drinking waters in Erzurum were taken and zinc concentrations were determined.
Methodology: Carbonic anhydrase was purified by Sepharose-4B-L tyrosine sulphanilamid affinity chromatography from bovine erythrocytes. The zinc in this structure was removed by dialysis against dipicolinic acid resulting in apo carbonic anhydrase obtained at a ratio of 100%. The activity of the enzyme was determined by the esterase activity on p-nitrophenyl acetate. For comparison purposes, the same samples were analyzed in an atomic absorption (AAS).
Results: When we compared the results of the AA and the enzymatic method, we observed there is a good correlation between the two methods.
Conclusion: The enzymatic method can be used for determination of zinc in wastewater.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immature Embryo-Derived of Two Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties Transformation Using Particle Bombardment Method

D. C. Tinak Ekom, S. M. Udupa, M. N. Benchekroun, M. M. Ennaji, R. Abdelwahd, D. Iraqi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3904-3914
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8499

Aims: Wheat cultivation is still difficult to control because it faces several biotic and abiotic stresses. The transfer of resistance in wheat plants to these stresses through traditional approaches remains limited. However, genetic transformation allows the acquisition of this tolerance while overcoming the difficulties of classical improvement.
Methodology: In this context, immature embryos of two Moroccan bread wheat varieties (‘Massira’ and ‘Arréhane’) and the pBY520 plasmid containing the HVA1 gene for drought tolerance as well as the gene bar selection marker for resistance to the herbicide phosphinothricin were used in this study for bombardment protocol.
Results: The percentage of calli bombarded with regenerated plantlets was 23.92 % for the variety ‘Massira’ and 5.26% for the variety ‘Arréhane’. The selection was carried out on ½ MS rooting medium lacking hormones and supplemented with phosphinothricin (3 mg l-1); 4.36% and 6% of plantlets of varieties ‘Massira’ and ‘Arréhane’ respectively survived. The resistant plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse and the evaluation of the expression of the bar gene in leaves was positive about 60%. The confirmation by molecular analysis revealed only a transformation efficiency of 0.52 % for the variety ‘Arréhane’.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Characterization of Contaminating Cells on Scientific Collections in a Specialized Library

Antonio Carlos Augusto Da Costa, Fernanda Do Nascimento Corrêa, Lucia Alves Da Silva Lino, Eloisa Helena Pinto De Almeida, Ana Lucia Chaves De Oliveira, Márcia Teresa Soares Lutterbach

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3915-3931
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11395

Aims: Microbial characterization of contaminants on Scientific Collections in a Specialized Library.
Study Design: Selection and segregation of books from special collections, followed by an investigation of the fungal contamination through molecular biology.
Place and Duration of Study: Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins, located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during seven months.
Methodology: Several books with a clear fungal contamination on their surface and several air samples from distinct locations in the library were included. Classical microbiological identification, molecular biology techniques and chemical treatment after flooding and cleaning of surfaces and books were performed.
Results: Results indicated that mainly cosmopolitan species were found in the environment and on the surface of selected books. Most species presented potential cellulolytic action and are toxin producers. Some unusual species were found such as Periconia, Hypocrea and Pestalotiopsis. Due to this unusual occurrence concentrations higher than 200mg/L were necessary to decontaminate the area and surfaces of the library after flooding.
Conclusion: The rapid action of the staff to solve the problems associated with the flooding in the scientific library of the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences in Rio de Janeiro, proved to be essential to minimize higher damage that could occur on rare books and special collections. The cooperative work involving Chemistry, Classical Microbiology, Molecular Biology and Preventive Conservation proved that the integrated practices among professionals of several areas were essential to ensure a free public access to documentation and books of interest for the scientific society. The multidisciplinary work involving Chemistry, Biology and Molecular Biology led to important conclusions about the presence of cosmopolitan fungi in the air and in selected books, their DNA characterization and their resistance to a fungistatic compound.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Effects of Estradiol Valerate and Raloxifene towards Morphine State-Dependent Learning in Mice

Mahdieh Anoush, Ali Jani, Mohammad Reza Jafari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3932-3944
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11609

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of estradiol valerate and a specific estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene on passive avoidance learning in male mice and to determine whether there is an interaction between estrogen receptor binding drugs and morphine.
Study Design: In this study, the state-dependent learning for morphine was evaluated at the first step, and then the effects of raloxifene and estradiol on this characteristic of morphine was evaluated. Besides the later two drugs’ independent effect on passive avoidance learning was studied too.
Place and Duration of Study: All the experiments carried out in the pharmacology laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences between April-July 2013.
Methodology: In this study, 120 Male NMRI mice were used according to the guidelines for animal ethics. State dependent learning (as one of the usual methods for assessment of passive avoidance learning) was performed using a step down shuttle box. During training, mice were shocked only after they step down on from the queue. Latencies to step down are recorded to assess passive avoidance short term memory. Prior training they received saline or morphine and before testing session the animals received saline or morphine plus estrogen valerate or raloxifene in relevant groups.
Results: The results illustrated that pre-training administration of morphine, induced amnesia which was retained by a similar pre-test dose (morphine state dependent learning). Pre-test estradiol valerate injection was able not only to retrieve morphine induced amnesia but also improved morphine state-dependent learning. On the other hand, raloxifene had no effect on memory retrieval itself, but decreased morphine state dependent learning.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that estrogen receptor modulators not only are able to manipulate the learning patterns, but also there might be an interaction between these drugs and morphine induced state dependent learning in mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Seed Germination and Development of Protocorm and Seedling of Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume (Orchidaceae)

Ali Bazand, Mahmoud Otroshy, Mohammad Fazilati, Hossein Piri, Arash Mokhtari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3962-3969
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11093

Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume is economically ornamental species of epiphytic orchids, considered for its evergreen and clustered foliage and pendulous racemes containing several yellow-green flowers. Conventional propagation of Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume restricted by unsatisfactory rhizogenesis of shoot cutting or germination problems of lack of endosperm and low seed viability. In order to investigate the effects of some plant growth regulators on seed germination and development of protocorm and seedling of Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume disinfected capsules (21 wap) was longitudinally cutted by scalpel and its content were immediately transferred to test tube containing about 30ml MS medium supplemented by different concentration and combinations of NAA, 2,4-D and BAP. The highest value of germination percentage (83.75%) was occurred in NAA (1.5mgl-1) or combination of BAP (0.5mgl-1) + NAA (0.5mgl-1) on after/during25thday. Plant growth regulators highly affected the initiation time of protocorm formation and shortest time (53.50 days) was recorded in MS medium supplemented by NAA (1mgl-1) + BAP (1mgl-1). The best time (157.50 days) for seedling development was observed in NAA (1mgl-1) + BAP (1mgl-1) and 2, 4-D (0.5mgl-1) + NAA (1mgl-1) combination treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Determinants of Sexual Risk Behavior for HIV/AIDS among University Students in Ilishan, Nigeria

Olumide Abiodun, John Sotunsa, Edward Jagun

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3980-3992
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11739

Aims: HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is closely linked to the sexual behavior of the population. The knowledge of the impact of socio- demographic and an increasing religious movement, on risk behavior for HIV/AIDS among University students in Nigeria and the rest of the sub-Saharan Africa is uncertain and even contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of socio-demographic and religious factors in determining risk behavior for HIV/AIDS among University students in Ilishan, Nigeria.
Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study of 1225 university students selected by probability sampling method. Data were collected using an expert validated questionnaire. Data were collected on dependent variables i.e. being sexually active, having multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use, and the independent variables that included demographic, social and religious factors.
Results: About a quarter 24.1% of the participants were sexually active, with a higher proportion of males being sexually active (p=0.000). Among the participants who were sexually active, 34.2% had multiple sexual partners within the preceding six months and 53.9% of them did not use condoms consistently. Males (OR=1.646), Young adults (OR=1.924), rural dwellers (OR=1.500) and practitioners of other religions (OR=2.085) were more likely to sexually active than females, Adolescents, urban dwellers and Christians respectively. Multiple sexual partnership and inconsistent condom use among the sexually active participants were not predicted by any of the independent variables.
Conclusion: Risk behavior for HIV/AIDS is prevalent among university students in Nigeria. While personal religious tendencies did not predict sexual activity, an environment full of regular Christian religious activities seem to reduce risky sexual behavior. There is a need for more studies especially qualitative studies to explore the effect of religious factors on the practice of multiple sexual partnership and inconsistent condom use among sexually active students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Persistent and Transient Inhibition of Seed Germination by Fractions of Methanol-Water Extract of Wheat Straw

L. S. Dias

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3993-4003
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/12017

The objectives of this work were to investigate the effects of wheat straw constituents on total seed germination and on time needed for seed germination to start and to assess the usefulness of evaluating the recovery of germination to help guide the screening for a sequential search of bioactive natural phytochemicals. Dose-response bioassays of lettuce seed germination to increasing concentrations of six fractions of methanol-water extract were conducted and whenever inhibition of germination exceeded 90% non-germinated seeds were transferred to distilled water and recovery of germination investigated. Only the fractions essentially composed by neutral polar compounds and by acids failed to inhibit total germination. Fractions composed by strong acids, basic compounds and fatty acids plus steroids completely inhibited total germination at 5mg mL−1, the former also inhibiting germination by more than 90% at 1mg mL−1. In these three fractions the concentration necessary for 100% inhibition was estimated to range between 4.1 mg mL−1 and 4.4mg mL−1. Time needed for germination to start was always significantly increased even by fractions that failed to affect total germination. Basic compounds were the most effective in delaying the start of germination increasing it more than 4-fold at 2mg mL−1 from 1.0 to 4.3 days. When non-germinated seeds were transferred to distilled water persistence of complete inhibition was only found with strong acids, almost full persistence with basic compounds. Thus the consideration of recovery of germination makes possible a more informed choice of the fraction to select for further bioassay guided search for phytochemical with herbicide activity. The fraction is the one composed by strong acids, mainly phenolic acids, all of them identified, provided that persistent seed inhibition is desired and long term weed control through depletion of weed seed banks in soil is aimed.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Biofiltration Potentials of a Brewery Effluent Using Two Saprophytic Fungi Species

Adeniyi A. A. Sanyaolu, Olugbenga S. Alonge

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4004-4022
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11594

Aims: This research attempts to investigate the effect of a biologically mediated filtration technique {using the mycelia from two saprophytic filamentous fungi – Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and Aspergillus niger (A. niger), isolated from the soil} on the physicochemical indices of an Industrial (Brewery) effluent.
Study Design: The experiment was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). In all cases, the value for each data was the mean from 3 replicates. Data were subjected to a one way analysis of variance – ANOVA, while the separation of the means (post Hoc Test) was done using the independent sample T-Test at 1% level of significance.
Place of Study: The Study was conducted at different Institutional Laboratories (such as the Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi; Environmental Biology Lab., Yaba College of Technology and Chemistry Lab., University of Lagos) in Lagos, Nigeria.
The effluent samples were analyzed for various physical parameters such as pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids and chemical parameters such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Phosphates, Sulphates, Chlorides, Hardness, Alkalinity and Nitrates using standard laboratory techniques and equipment.
Results: The results obtained from this work showed that both fungal species were able to bring about a significant (p≤0.01) improvement in most of the physicochemical parameters considered in this Brewery effluent when compared to the unfiltered (Control) effluent samples, as well as against approved benchmarks as provided by some statutory regulatory bodies in Nigeria such as the Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA) and now defunct Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA).
Conclusion: The results from this study shows that A. niger and A. flavus (that were used in this experiment) has some promise at improving some important physicochemical indicators of a poorly treated brewery effluent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effects of Vitamins C and E on Dimethoate- Induced Nephrotoxicity in Male Guinea Pigs

Yahya S. Al-Awthan, M. A. Al-Duais, G. H. El-Sokkary, E. M. Aqlan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4023-4033
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10503

Aims: To examine the protective properties of vitamin C (vitC) and E (vitE) on DM induced nephrotoxicity in male guinea pigs.
Study Design: Twenty male rats were randomly grouped into four. “1” = Control, “2” = Vitamins (C & E) treated, “3” = Dimethoate (DM) treated and “4” = Vitamins treated plus DM treated.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology, Ibb University, Ibb, Yemen between February 2011 and May 2011.
Methodology: Four animal groups were used, G1: received 1.0ml of distilled water and 1.0ml of olive oil, G2: received 200mg/kg b.w/day of vitamins (C & E), G3: was treated with 7mg/kg b.w/day DM and G4: was treated with 200mg/kg b.w/day of vitamins (C & E) plus 7mg/kg b.w/day DM. All the previous administrations were repeated daily for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and dissected. Blood and tissue samples were taken for biochemical, and light microscope investigations.
Results: DM administration resulted in a significant increase in the serum urea and creatinine levels and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, while it caused significant decreases in the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In contrast, co-administration of vitC and vitE to DM-treated animals restored most of these biochemical parameters to nearly normal levels. Also, DM induced histopathological changes in the kidneys of all treatment groups but these alterations were predominant in DM-treated group.
Conclusion: The results showed that co-treatment of vitE and vitC may protect the guinea pigs from DM-induced nephrotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Bacterial Activity of Endophytic Streptomyces sp. towards Acinetobacter baumannii

Noraziah Mohamad Zin, Norhidayah Badya, Aishah Ismail, Alfizah Hanafiah, Jalifah Latip

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4075-4083
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9768

Aims: To screen fifty-six endophytic streptomyces isolates for anti-bacterial activity on two clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii (carbapenem sensitive and resistant).
Place and Duration of Study: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; between May 2011 and February 2012.
Methods: In this study, 56 isolates of endophytic Streptomyces sp. and their extracts were screened for anti-bacterial activity against A. baumannii. The compound’s profile was obtained for determination of active metabolites
Results: The bioassay showed that 14 isolates namely “Strain Universiti Kebangsaan” (SUK) had anti-bacterial activity towards A. baumannii. Isolates SUK 31, SUK 56 and SUK 15 showed 100% inhibition, while SUK 8 and SUK 10 showed more than 50% inhibition. These 3 isolates proceeded with secondary metabolites extraction using ethyl acetate. Disc diffusion test showed the zone of inhibition towards sensitive and resistant strain of A. baumannii; by SUK 15 at 11 and 8 mm, while SUK 31 at 7 and 10 mm, respectively. Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of SUK 8 were 1.0mg/mL and 4.0mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, SUK 15, SUK 31 and SUK 56 had the same MIC and MBC values at 2.0mg/mL. Then again, there was no difference between the MIC and MBC values for both strains of A. baumannii. Analysis of profile extract components of one selected extract, SUK 8, showed that there was at least nine polar compounds that had been successfully separated using a Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) technique.
Conclusion: Endophytic Streptomyces sp. exhibits an anti-bacterial activity against resistant and sensitive strains of A.baumannii, thus might be a potential drug candidate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Unmarried Males and Females of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

Siddiqa Qasim, Faraz Akrim, Jehanzeb Khalid, Adnan Arshad, Durr-e-Shahwar ., Shaista Andleeb, Muhammad Zubair Anjum

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4084-4090
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9796

Aim: The current study was conducted to determine the total Cholesterol, Triglyceridesand BMI of unmarried males and females.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in District Bhimber, Azad Kashmir during June 2010 to December 2010.
Methodology: The blood samples were collected from the subjects and strip method was used for checking level of cholesterol and triglycerides. There were 300 subjects divided into males (150) and females (150). The subjects were further subdivided into three age groups, 16-25 (n=50), 26-35 (n=50) and 36-45 (n=50).
Results: The mean cholesterol level in male subjects of different age groups was 155.8mg/dl, 161.7mg/dl, and 148.9mg/dl, while in females the mean cholesterol level was 154.2mg/dl, 148.9mg/dl, and 155.3mg/dl, respectively. The mean triglyceride level in males was 106.6mg/dl, 113.6 mg/dl, and 167.3 mg/dl, and in females the mean triglyceride level was 96.3 mg/dl, 113.7 mg/dl, and 117.1 mg/dl, respectively. The mean blood pressure in male was 120/73mmHg, 122/79mmHg, and 124.5/77.5mmHg, and in females the mean blood pressure was 111/83mmHg, 117/75mmHg, 122/78mmHg, respectively. The mean BMI in males was 22.3kg/m2, 22.6kg/m2, and 20.9kg/m2, and in females mean was 24.5kg/m2, 22.6kg/m2, and 25.6kg/m2, respectively.
Conclusion:The current study established levels of SBP, DBP, Cholesterol, Triglycerides levels and BMI of different age groups of unmarried males and females.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Feta Cheese Starters and Salt Content in Iranian Ultrafiltered Soft Cheese Formula

Mohammad A. Nezami, Mohammad R. Ehsani, Ali. Mohammadi-Sani, Kianoush Khosravi-Darani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4091-4103
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11101

Aims: To optimize the process variables including: Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, total starter (a mixture of mesophilic cheese starters (MCS) and thermophilic yoghurt starters (TYS), mesophilic cheese starter: thermophilic yoghurt starter (MCS:TYS) ratio and salt content in probiotic Iranian ultrafiltered soft cheese (IUSC).
Methodology: In order to choose the best probiotic cheese formula with the highest Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5count, a total of eight samples with 20% total solids were produced using a small scale ultrafiltration system. Probiotic bacteria of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5(0.1 and 0.3 %), total starters (1 and 2%), MCS: TYS ratio (8:2 and 7:3) and salt (NaCl) concentration (1 and 2%)by the help of Taguchi design were inoculated into cheeses and the viable cell counts of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5enumeratedwithin 45 d of shelf lifeat5ºC, as well the multiple effects of process variables on probiotic count and colony morphologies of probiotic and starters evaluated.
Results: The most suitable conditions for the highest Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 stability were addition of 0.1% w/w Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, 1% v/w total starter, MCS:TYS ratio of 8:2 and 1 % w/w salt content. The lowest and highest viable cell count of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5in IUSC ranged from 6.41 to 7.92 CFU.g-1, respectively. The acidified (pH 5.2) MRS agar medium used for the differentiation of the colony morphology of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, anaerobically. In all of the cheeses except for cheese 3 and 6 which the La-5 survived to 6.95 and 6.41 log orders, respectively, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5cell count survived to over107 CFU.g-1, when all the cheeses had the small amount of acetic acid taste with a creamy and soft texture. The MCS:TYS ratio of 8:2 and 0.1% initial dosage of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5(PË‚0.05) affected the probiotic stability of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 in IUSC during shelf life, however the salt content (1 and 2%) and total starter (1 and 2%) did not significantly influence the Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5viability.
Conclusion: This study showed that Iranian ultrafiltered soft cheese has a probiotic potential to have 107 CFU.g-1 viable cell count of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 strain, when process variables optimized and this progress will contribute to develop a healthier foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies of Emotional Behaviors of House and Stray Dogs

N. Y. Kim, K. H. Kim, S. J. Kim, B. T. Jeon, P. J. Park, D. G. Thomas, S. H. Moon

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4104-4114
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/12006

Background: The industry of companion animal has been growing steadily in Korea. However, alongside this rapid growth, insufficient knowledge and immature civic awareness of the responsibilities of companion animal ownership has resulted in an increase in the number of stray animals.
Aim: The aim of this study was to form a strategy for reducing the number of stray dogs and returning the existing stray dogs to human homes in the community by comparing the difference of behavioral characteristics between stray dogs and house dogs.
Methodology: A total of 36 house dogs (HD) and stray dogs (SD) were enrolled in the study. The frequencies of and differences in aggressive, anxious, fearful, and friendly behaviors were analyzed. Various stimuli were used in five sections (section 1: appearance of a human; section 2: direct tough by a human; section 3: relationship with a dog; section 4: relationship with a human; section 5: extreme stimulation arousing fear). The dogs’ responses were categorized according to the aforementioned classes of behavior.
Results: There was no difference between HD and SD with regard to total frequency and average frequency of aggressive responses. The average frequency of trembling, panting, roaming, and total anxious behaviors was also high in sections 1 to 5 (P=.05). The frequency of fearful behavior was 2.4 to 15 times greater in SD than HD. In sections 1, 2, 4, and 5 (P=.01), the average frequency of submissive behaviors such as ears back, tail tucked in, low posture, sitting, and total fearfulness was significantly high (P=.01). Finally, the total frequency of friendly behaviors was similar in SD and HD; the average frequency in sections 4 and 5 (P=.05) was significantly greater for SD than HD.
Conclusions: The aggressive, fearful, anxious, and friendly reactions of stray dogs are relative to conditions in their environment. Stray dogs can be adopted as companion animals if their hygiene and health are cared for and if relaxation measures are implemented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of two Pomacea spp. in Rice Fields of Peninsular Malaysia

A. G. Arfan, R. Muhamad, D. Omar, A. A. Nor Azwady, G. Manjeri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4123-4136
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11398

Aim: This study aims to understand the distribution of Pomacea spp. in various rice fields of Peninsular Malaysia.
Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted at twenty five rice fields from five states in Peninsular Malaysia (Selangor, Perak, Penang, Kedah and Kelantan) during the sowing and harvesting of off rice season-2013.
Methodology: This study was carried out on rice fields of one acre in size which were further divided into four blocks. A 0.5m2 quadrate was used for sampling and snails within the quadrate were collected, counted and identified based on their shell morphology by the experts.
Results: Based on this study, Pomacea maculata was more abundant and widely distributed as compared to Pomacea canaliculata. Rice fields in Perak showed the highest population distribution of Pomacea spp. during both sowing and harvesting of rice. Meanwhile, the lowest population was observed in rice fields during the sowing of rice in Kelantan and during harvesting of rice in Kedah. Comparatively higher population of Pomacea spp. was recorded during sowing of rice than harvesting. No population of P. canaliculata was observed from the rice fields of Penang state. Water temperature, pH and the number of rice seedlings does not have a significant effect on the distribution of Pomacea spp.
Conclusion: The results from this study could help in an area wide management program against Pomacea spp., not only to minimize their damage to rice but also to control their further spread.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biological and Biochemical Efficiency of Lyophilized Cranberry Extract on Regulation of Antioxidant Defense System in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitic Rats

Rasha Hamed Mahmoud

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4137-4151
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6492

Cranberries are small, dark red fruits that are widely consumed as juice. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a condition that may progress to end-stage liver disease. Rats were classified into four groups as follows: normal control group, NASH rats fed high fat diet, nonalcoholic steatohepatitic rats fed high fat diet and received lyophilized powdered cranberry suspended in 0.5% CMC, group fed basal diet and received lyophilized powdered cranberry suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose CMC. The model of NASH rats elicited significant increase in serum lipid parameters: total cholesterol, total lipids, tricylglycerols and phospholipids, liver antioxidant enzyme activities with concomitant significant elevations in liver enzymes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, in association with a reduction in reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, serum total protein and direct and total bilirubin. Administration of cranberry to NASH rats produced significant increases in tested antioxidant enzyme activities, G6PD and serum total protein, direct and total bilirubin concomitant with significant decreases in the levels of serum lipids as well as liver enzymes AST, ALT, ALP, GST and ɣ-GT. In addition, it was noted that NASH rats exhibited a degree of DNA fragmentation; however, oral administration of cranberry extract partially inhibited the DNA fragmentation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biological and Reproduction Activities of Mosquito Larvae of Culiseta morsitans (Theobald) after Treatment by Ecdysone Agonist Methoxyfenozide

Jaouida Haouari-Abderrahim, Nassima Rehimi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4152-4165
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11366

Aims: Insect growth regulators (IGRs) offer alternatives to conventional chemical larvicides that pose problem of resistance and environmental safety. However, only a limited number of IGRs have been approved for use in mosquito control. The present investigation was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of a non-steroidal ecdysteroid agonist, methoxyfenozide (RH-2485), against last-instar larvae of Culiseta morsitans (Culicidae: Diptera) under the laboratory conditions, and its effect on fecundity and fertility of females.
Methodology: Based on preliminary bioassays, five concentrations ranging from 0.012 to 0.072mg/L were tested. The larvicidal test was made according to the World Health Organization (WHO) protocol standard by exposing newly ecdysed fourth- instar larvae for 24h. CL50 value of methoxyfenozide value was determined by probit analysis.
Results: The insecticidal activity of methoxyfenozide result in a dose- dependent reduction in adult emergence. In addition, larval mortality was relatively important compared with the mortality recorded for the other following developmental stages. The larval mortality varies between 16.84±3.89 % and 66.24±3.50% for 0.012 mg/L and 0.072 mg/L, respectively, and LC50 value was 0.059mg/L. The ecdysteroidal activity of this compound caused premature induction of larval moulting and incomplete pupation. Also, the different types of morphogenetic aberrations in the larva, pupa and adult after exposure to methoxyfenozide are illustrated (larval-pupal and pupal-adult). Moreover, the tested compound greatly affected the reproductive parameters of surviving females derived from larval treatment. Methoxyfenozide caused a significant reduction of fecundity and fertility (P<0,001). Also, no egg laying has been recorded with the higher concentration 0.072 mg/L, which produced 100% of sterility.
Conclusion: Methoxyfenozide is an efficient insect growth regulator for controlling mosquito populations. This compound may prove to be an effective larvicide for treatment of mosquito, to decrease the frequency of pathogen transmission to humans and animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution and Diversity of Marine Fungi in Manila Bay, Philippines

Glenn Sia Su, Kevin Dueñas, Kevin Roderno, Mary Ann Sison, Maria Lilibeth Sia Su, Elena Ragragio, Teresita De Guzman, Francisco M. Heralde III

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4166-4173
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/12338

Aims: The aim of our study was to isolate and determine the distribution and diversity of marine fungal species in Manila Bay.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Manila Bay, Philippines, between November 2012 and April 2013.
Methodology: Grab water samples were obtained in the Manila Bay; cultured and fungal species were examined morphologically by both macroscopic and microscopic means. Physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and total solids) were also determined in all study sites. Distribution and diversity indices were determined per study site. Twenty-nine isolates were obtained in all study sites and were morphologically characterized.
Results: Seven fungal genera were isolated from the Manila Bay, namely, Cladosporium sp., Penicillium sp., Chrysosporium sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus sp., and yeast species were isolated from the Manila Bay.
Conclusion: Our results provide information on the distribution and diversity of marine fungi in the waters of Manila Bay. This study provides baseline information on the marine microorganisms particularly fungal diversity in the seawaters of Manila Bay’s shores.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dpph Radical Scavenging Activity and Phenolic Compound Content in Leaf Extracts from Raspberries

Aezam Rezaee Kivi, Nasrin Sartipnia

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4174-4180
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11269

The objective of this study was to examine DPPH scavenging assays to determine the antioxidant activity of three species of raspberry leaves (Rubus hyrcanus Juz, R. caesius L., and R. astarae Gili). We tested three different solvents (methanolic, water, methanolic-water) to determine their extraction efficiency. The quality of the obtained extracts was affected mainly by the solvent used for extraction. For all tested Rubus species, activity at a given concentration was highest for the water extracts (IC50 = 228.0-163.0µg/ml).The most effective of the studied species was R. hyrcanus. The results for total content of phenolic compounds were in the range of 71.38 –138.31mg GAE/g. The study confirmed a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the content of phenolic compound in the extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Phytotoxic Effects of Methomyl and Imidacloprid Insecticides on Tomato local Variety in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

M. Jamal Hajjar, Mohamad S. Alsaikhan, Ahmed M. Soliman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4181-4189
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11797

Imidacloprid and Methomyl are systemic insecticides used widely for controlling insects infesting crops grown in greenhouses. The experiment was conducted on tomato (Hassawi, Local Varity in Eastern part of Saudi Arabia) to study the phytotoxicity effect of the tested insecticides at various application rates. Imidacloprid was tested at (25, 50, 100, and 150 active ingredient (a.i) g/100L water), and Methomylat (15, 35, 50 and 70g a.i/100L). Both insecticides were shown to have negative effect on the growth of old and new parts (stem, leave and shoot) of tomato variety used for the experiment. The symptoms of leaf chlorosis of the old leaves and distorted growth and marginal necrosis of newer leaves were developed after 3 days of application with the highest rate for both insecticide experiments. When application at the lower rate, the phytotoxicity symptom was developed within the second week of application. The size of the new shoot was affected by high rate of application for both Imidacloprid and Methomyl and that was reflected in the reduction of the weight of dried shoot. In case of old leaf, despite the significant differences between the treatment and the reduction in dry weight in correlation with application rates were small. However, the lowest application rates of both tested insecticides showeda positive stimulation in the new growth that emerged after treatments, even though the lowest rate at (25g a.i/100L) of Imidacloprid caused some phytotoxicity symptoms by the end of the experiment. The results indicated the higher phytotoxicity of Imidacloprid than Methomyland the higher application rate had a significantly higher phytotoxicity effect on tested tomato plant than the lower application rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Salt Leaching in Sulphatic Soils of Palomas, San Luis Potosí, Mexico

E. I. Sánchez Bernal, M. A. Camacho Escobar, N. Y. Ávila Serrano, A. Can Chulim, H. M. Ortega Escobar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4202-4225
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11847

The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial salinity and the type and amount of salt evacuated from soils of palomas, san luispotosí in a leaching process. These soils present primary and secondary salinization problems, induced by irrigation which affects their productive capacity. The study was conducted in a greenhouse and in the soils laboratory of the graduate college, from april to august 2010. Leaching of salts was done in soil columns that were applied with three soil-water extraction ratios, namely, 1≈0.2-0.6, 1:5 and 1:10, and the normal rates of leaching Qa/Qπ =0 ,1.5 AND 3.0, where: qa is the volume of water at which a soil reaches its saturation capacity, plus another equal volume, and so on. Qπ is the volume of water needed to make the soil reach its saturation capacity. This rate corresponds to volumes of water applied under field conditions of 1971.72 m3 ha-1, 2,957.58m3 ha-1, and 5915.16m3 ha-1, respectively. The initial salinity of each ratio was 69.03 mgha-1, 153.59mg ha-1 and 201.37mg ha-1. The higher extraction ratio and rate of leaching applied, the higher the amount of soluble salts leached, and the lower the average residual salinity of 0-50 cm soil layer. At zero leaching level no leachate was obtained. The extraction ratio 1:10 and the rate of leaching g Qa/Qπ =3.0, was significantly (p=0.05) outstanding. Under these conditions appreciable amount of salts were leached off the topsoil, especially nacl and na2so4 . The residual salinity of the 30 cm soil layer was 1.68 g salt 100 g-1 of soil (109.48 mg ha-1). This indicates desalination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Addition of Clidinium-C to the 14-Day Proton Pump Inhibitor Based Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication

Mohammadreza Seyyedmajidi, Saba Homapoor, Elahe Zanganeh, Mohammad Dadjou, Shahab Eskandari Nejad, Mohammad Hadi Tajik Galayeri, Jamshid Vafaeimanesh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4226-4231
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11357

Aims: To assess the effect of clidinium-C on H. pylori eradication with a triple therapy including omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin (OCA) in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Also, to investigate the efficacy and safety of clidinium-C in prevention of drugs' side effects.
Study Design: Prospective double-blinded randomized clinical trial study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Internal Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, from March 2011 to November 2012.
Methodology: A total of 200 histopathologically proven H. pylori positive patients with PUD enrolled in this study were randomly assigned to participate in two groups: Group A: a 14-day OCA triple therapy with 20 mg omeprazole bid, 1000 mg amoxicillin bid and 500 mg clarithromycin bid; Group B: a 14-day clidinium-C bid plus OCA triple therapy. Subjects were asked to report any side effects of therapy during the treatment period. A13C-urea breath test was performed for eradication assessment 6 weeks after completion of the treatment.
Results: Totally 184 of 200 patients (90 in group A and 94 in group B) could continue the treatment protocols. H. pylori eradication was achieved in 71.1% in Group A (OCA without clidinium-C) and in 72.3% in Group B (OCA with clidinium-C), (p=0.73). The frequencies of abdominal pain and stool abnormality, among the side effects recorded during the therapy period, were significantly lower in group B (OCA with clidinium-C) than in group A (p=0.01 and p=0.001, respectively).
Conclusion: Addition of clidinium-C to OCA triple therapy does not increase the H. pylori eradication rates; however, it significantly decreases the frequency of abdominal pain and stool abnormality. This suggests a possibility that the addition of clidinium-C might be an option for increasing the patient's compliance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Seed Weight and Substrate on Germination and Growth of Non-toxic Jatropha curcas L. Seedings

Ofelia Andrea Valdés Rodríguez, Arturo Pérez Vázquez, Armando J. Martínez

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4232-4245
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11697

Aims: We characterized the responses of non-toxic seedlings of Jatropha curcas L. to variation in seed weight and substrate during their germination and growth.
Study Design: Two analytical experiments using a randomized controlled trial approach were applied to consider the effects of seed weight and substrate.
Place and Duration of Study: Non-toxic seeds from the east coast of Mexico were selected during two consecutive years and their seedlings were studied during one month after emergence.
Methodology: The seeds were grouped into different weight categories (400-499 - 800-899 mg). The substrates evaluated were sandy, sugarcane compost and a mix of sandy and sugarcane compost (sandy-compost, 2:1). While sandy substrate was poor in organic matter (OM), sugarcane compost was rich in OM. Germination, survival rate and mean germination time (MGT) were evaluated by seed weight category and substrate. We measured stem length, root collar diameter, number of leaves and leaf area every week, and at the end of the experiments total dry biomass was recorded.
Results: The heaviest seeds had higher germination rates (86.3%±7.1%) compared to the lightest seeds (69.9%±12.2%) in all substrates. Survival rate was 10% lower for the lightest seeds in sandy-compost and for the heaviest seeds in compost. MGT was not significantly different between seed weight categories or substrates (P=.32). Heavier seeds produced bigger seedlings in terms of stem length, root collar diameter, number of leaves, root length, and total dry mass in sandy-compost(P<.05). However, when substrates were compared, the substrate effect was larger than the effects from seed weight, with the largest seedlings found in compost (P<.05), regardless of seed weight.
Conclusion: Seed weight improved germination rates in sandy and sandy-compost substrates. Compost increased seedling growth regardless of seed weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as Affected by Hydroponics, Greenhouse and Irrigation Regimes

Francisco Suazo-López, Rosalba Zepeda-Bautista, Felipe Sánchez-Del Castillo, J. Jesús Martínez-Hernández, Juan Virgen-Vargas, Leonardo Tijerina-Chávez

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4246-4258
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11936

Climatic and technical factors influence tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in hydroponics and greenhouse, but there is not much research on management of red volcanic rock as substratum, as well as on water and nutrient solution. Therefore, the effect of the concentration of nutrient solution, irrigation frequency and the volume of substratum on growth, dry matter and fruit production was evaluated, and the economical impact was compared according to costs and yield. During 2007 and 2008, in the Experimental Field of the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Chapingo Mexico, concentrations of nutrient solution (100, 75, and 50%), irrigation frequency d-1 (1, 4, 7, and 10), and volumes of substratum plant-1 (5, 10, and 15L) were assessed in a completely randomized block design in a factorial treatment arrangement replicated three times. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) between years, concentrations of nutrient solution, irrigation frequency, and volumes of substratum in growth and yield of dry matter and fruit. In 2008, there was major growth and yield of dry matter and fruit, compared to 2007. Nutrient solution at 75% diminished the fruit yield by 4.8% compared to 100%. With 7 irrigations d-1, stem thickness was reduced by 2.1, 1.8, and 1.7%, and the index of leaf area, and fruit yield, respectively, was compared to ten irrigations d-1. There were no differences between 10 and 15L in fruit yield. It is concluded that it is convenient to utilize the nutrient solution at 75% in seven irrigations d-1 and substratum volume of 10L for tomato production in hydroponics and greenhouse in order to obtain the highest profit (73.9%).

Open Access Original Research Article

ECG Generation Based on Action Potential Using Modified Van Der Pol Equation

Mahdi Rezaei Estakhroueieh, Seyyed Kamaleddin Yadavar Nikravesh, Shahriar Gharibzadeh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4259-4272
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11916

Aims: The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model of the cardiac electrical activity in accordance with heart physiology and utilizing this model to generate ECG (electrocardiogram) signal.
Study Design: Modeling the cardiac electrical activity based on physiology of the heart.
Place and Duration of Study: The paper reports the result of a year research in Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
Methodology: In order to model the cardiac electrical activity, cardiac cells are divided into six parts whose action potentials are modeled by modified Van der Pol equation. Moreover, the parts are coupled unidirectionally and also the propagation delays are included.
Results: The ECG is computed by adding a trial and ventricular potential differences.
Conclusion: The resultant action potentials and also ECG signal are compared with real data. The results verify the proposed approach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Properties of Different Parts of Tamarindus indica Linn of Nigerian Origin

Sunday E. Atawodi, Mubarak L. Liman, Jonah O. Ottu, Uju D. Iliemene

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4273-4283
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8602

Aim: To evaluate the polyphenols, flavonoids and the in vitro antioxidant activity of different parts of Tamarindus indica Linn.
Study Design: Methanolic extracts of the leaves, stem bark, root bark, fruit pulp, fruit bark and seeds of Tamarindus indica Linn were analyzed for their total polyphenol contents, flavonoid concentration and antioxidant activities in reference to Gallic acid equivalent (GAE), quercetin equivalent (QE) and Trolox equivalent (TE) respectively.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was done at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria between September 2010 and December 2011.
Methodology: Total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration of the methanolic extracts were evaluated with the aid of a spectrophotometer using the Folin-ciocalteau’s reagent and aluminum chloride reagent methods, respectively, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by determining the radical scavenging activities of the extracts on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH).
Results: The equivalent phenolics and flavonoids contents of the stem, fruit pulp and fruit bark (94±2.1 - 158±2.5 µg GAE /g and 27±1.0 - 39±0.7 µg QE /g respectively) were significantly (P = 0.05) higher than those of the seed, root and leaf (55±0.0 - 66±0.7 µg GAE /g and 21±0.7 - 17±1.0 µg QE /g respectively). The antioxidant activity of the stem, fruit pulp, fruit bark, seed, root and leaf were found to be 168±3.5, 143±3.5, 101±1.4, 83±3.5, 63±3.5 and 40±1.0 µg TE /g respectively. There was a strong positive correlation (r2 = 0.97) between the polyphenols contents and the in vitro antioxidant activity.
Conclusions: These results suggest that different parts of T. indica possess high levels of polyphenols with significant antioxidant capacities to warrant further detailed studies on the possible roles of this property in their nutritional and health effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycemic, Hematologic and Hypolipidemic Activity of Mucuna Pruriens Ethanol Leaf Extract in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

S.C. Akomas, A. I. Okafor, S.N. Ijioma

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4284-4292
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11735

Aim: This study investigated the hypoglycemic, hematologic and hypolipidemic potentials of Mucuna pruriens ethanol leaf extract (MELE) in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Study Design: Experimental Animal Model. The study was conducted in the Physiology Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria between November, 2013 and February, 2014.
Methodology: Diabetic rats were divided into 4 groups of 7 animals each (groups 2-5). Group1 comprising of 7 normal rats received 0.2ml normal saline and served as the normal control group. Group 2 received no treatment and served as the diabetic control group. Group 3 was treated with a reference drug, Glibenclamide (5mg/kg) while groups 4 and 5 received 150 and 300mg/kg of MELE respectively. All treatments were done via the oral route and lasted for 21 days.
Results: Alldoses of MELE significantly (P<.05) lowered glucose levels in the diabetic rats with 300mg/kg lowering blood glucose from 311.80 ± 37.10 in diabetic rats to 91.30 ± 2.26 by the end of 21 days. The hypoglycemic effect of MELE compared favorably with that of Glibenclamide. Red blood cells (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV),hemoglobin values were all significantly raised (P<.05) in treated rats, while the increased WBC value in diabetic rats was lowered. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were significantly (P<.05) decreased in the diabetic treated rats with increase in the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).
Conclusion: These results suggest that MELE contain active principles with hypoglycemic, hematologic and hypolipidemic properties and could be valuable in managing diabetic mellitus and correcting the hematological and lipid profile abnormalities associated with the pathophysiology of the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transgenic Investigation of Canola (Brassica napus L.)

Sultan Fidan, Ercan Arican

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4293-4304
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11684

Investigating transgenic characteristics of Californium, Jura, Elvis and Orkan varieties of canola has been carried out in this study. These plants are widely cultivated in Turkey. The Canola varieties were grown in an established tissue culture and the total DNA isolated. The 35S and pNOS promoter region of the transgene were scanned using classic and multiplex PCR techniques. The transfer of transgenic characteristic to the NAD gene region confirms the accuracy of the PCR technique. This study, has determined that Californium, Jura, Elvis and Orkan varieties of canola consist of transgenic characteristics and all the four varieties have multiple insertion region in terms of CaMV 35S and Pnos promoters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Urea, Molasses and Fibrolytic Enzymes on Nutritional Value of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Leaves Silage

Hamid Khorasani, Kamal Shojaeian, Mostefa Yousef E. lahi, Mohammad Sharifi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4305-4313
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7307

Aims: This research was conducted to study changes of chemical composition and digestibility parameters of date palm leaves silage by adding urea, molasses and Fibrolytic Enzymes.
Study Design: The experimental treatments were: date palm leaves silage without additive (T1), date palm leaves silage with 4% of urea (T2), date palm leaves silage with 10% of molasses (T3), date palm leaves silage with 3 g of enzyme mix (T4), date palm leaves silage with 4% of urea and 10% of molasses (T5), date palm leaves silage with 4% of urea and 3 g of enzyme mix (T6), date palm leaves silage with 10% of molasses and 3 g of enzyme mix (T7), date palm leaves silage with 4% of urea, 10% of molasses and 3g of enzyme mix (T8). Results of chemical compounds were analyzed using complete randomized design (CRD) the data were analyzed using the GLM procedure SAS, (2000). Duncan's multiple range tests (p = 0.05) were used to determine statistical difference between treatment means.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Animal Science, Zabol university, between October 2009 and July 2010.
Methodology: In order to study changes of chemical composition, first, 50 kg of date palm leaves was collected and then crushed into 1-3 cm pieces for silage. Then, it was stored in plastic buckets by 4% of urea, 3 g of enzyme mixture and 10% of molasses.
Results: The results showed that treatment 2 had the highest amount of crude protein (CP) and treatment 1 had the least amount of CP with a significant difference (p<0.05). Treatment 5 had the least amount of Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and treatment 1 had the highest ADF and NDF (p <0.05). Also, the studied treatments showed significant difference in degradability at different incubation times (p<0.05) so that treatments 5 and 8 demonstrated the highest degradability and treatment 1 showed the lowest degradability.
Conclusion: In general, considering information and results obtained from chemical composition, degradability and digestibility of the studied treatments, it could be concluded that silage with treatments 8 and 5 had better results compared with other treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Savory (Satureja khuzistanica) Essential Oils on Performance and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Ross and Cobb Broilers

Majid Goodarzi, Nosratollah Mohtashami Pour, Davood Modiri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4336-4343
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/12009

This experiment was conducted to compare the performance and some blood biochemical parameters of Ross and Cobb broilers fed diets containing savory essential oils (SEO). Two hundred twenty four, 1-d-old broiler chickens (mean initial weight: 36.5±1g) of mixed sex (Ross-308 and Cobb) were randomly assigned to each of the 4 treatment groups, each with 4 replicate pens of 14 chicks. The experimental groups included two treatments for Ross strain – control (RC) and the group contain 500mg/Kg SEO (RS) - and two treatments for Cobb strain –control (CC) and the group contain 500mg/Kg SEO (CS). To measure some blood biochemical parameters at the age of 30 days, from each repetition, two broilers were selected and blood sampling was performed through a wing vein.As a result of this study fed essential oil in diet had not significant effect on feed intake, but DBWG (54.10 and 55.00 for RS and CS respectively) and FCR (1.8 and 1.75 for RS and CS respectively) improved significantly (P≤0.5). Broilers receiving SEO had a significantly (p≤0.05) lower cholesterol, HDL and glucose concentrations compared to control groups. In general, the results indicate that dietary inclusion of 500 mg/kg savory essential oils can improve performance and some blood biochemical parameters in Ross and Cobb broiler strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnomedical Survey of Adavi and Ajaokuta Local Government Areas of Ebiraland, Kogi State, Nigeria

Sunday Ene-Ojo Atawodi, Olufunsho Dayo Olowoniyi, Muhammad A. Obari, Israel Ogaba

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4344-4360
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8658

With the wide application of traditional medicine in primary health care around the world, there is need to explore and document medicinal plants used in many cultures. A mini-survey of medicinal plants used to treat different ailments in two local government areas, Adavi and Ajaokuta in Ebiraland of Kogi State, Nigeria was undertaken and the plants gathered include Ocimum canum (Labiatae), Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae), Anisopus mannii (Asclepidiceae), Senna alata (Caesalpiniaceae), Abrus precatorius (Papilionaceae), Desmodium velutinum (Papilionaceae), Caesalpinia bunduc (Caesalpiniaceae) and Ageratum conyzoides (Compositae). Others are Argemone mexicana (Papaveracea), Phyllantus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Cassytha filiformis (Lauraceae), Spillanthes filicaulis (Compositae), Chenopodium ambrosiodes (Chenopodiaceae), Edipta alba (Compositae), Dennetia tripentala (Annonaceae) and Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniaceae). The rationales behind the use of these plants for different ailments are discussed against the background of their reported phytochemical constituents and medicinal uses in Nigerian and other cultures. However, there is need to scientifically evaluate these plants to confirm their therapeutic efficacy against diseases indicated and to validate their use in the traditional medical practice of the Ebira people of Kogi State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pregnancy in Infertile Women: Outcome in Mother and Fetus, A Cross Sectional Study

Mandana Zafari, Masoumeh Mosavy

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4361-4369
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10238

Purpose: Extreme use of Assisted Reproductive Technology (1) in infertile women can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the pregnancy outcomes in infertile women who were treated with ART and compared in spontaneous pregnancy.
Materials and Method: In this retrospective study which was done in Imam Khomeini hospital, Sari, Iran, 100 pregnant women who were treated with ART were entered into our study, randomly. The interviewer talked to them and filled the questionnaires. Moreover, the adverse pregnancy outcomes were compared with 100 women with spontaneous pregnancy.
Results: These two groups were matched regarding some quantitative, qualitative variables and history of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The common causes of infertility were ovarian, male, and unknown factors. The incidence of some adverse pregnancy outcomes in infertile women who were treated with ART (such as: late abortion, low birth weight, premature rupture of membrane, ectopic pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, gestational diabetes, intra uterine fetal death, neonatal death, hypertension in pregnancy and preeclampsia) was significantly ( p< 0.05) higher than spontaneous pregnancy.
Conclusion: Some complications of adverse pregnancy outcomes in fetus and mother are common in pregnancy with ART.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Psidium guajava (Guava) Leaf Extract Against Gram-Negative Bacteria in Planktonic and Biofilm Lifestyles

C. J. O. Cruzada, K. J. A. Co, T. M. C. Chua, V. A. Chuabio, K. M. D. G. Cruz, D. A. M. De Castro, J. S. Chua, J. E. E. Chua, A. I. T. Contreras, K. A. Cortez, B. M. P. Crisostomo, M. K. A. Crisostomo, F. R. A. Cruz, K. M. E. Cruzado, V. A. C. Cuyegkeng, P. M. B. Medina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4370-4380
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/12457

Aims: To test and compare relative efficiencies of Guava Leaf Ethanolic Extract (GLEEx) and antibiotic standards against two pathogenic gram-negative bacteria in planktonic and biofilm lifestyles.
Study Design: In vitro antibacterial study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology in the University of the Philippines Manila, between January 2014 and April 2014.
Methodology: The susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm forms of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to GLEEx and to appropriate antibiotic standards were evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay (KB) and the Bio Timer Assay (BTA), respectively.
Results: In KB, GLEEx exhibited comparable antibacterial strengths against both bacteria (P > .05), but was significantly less than the antibiotic standards (P < .001). However in BTA, there is no significant difference between the antibacterial properties of GLEEx and the antibiotic standards (P> .05).
Conclusion: The relative antibacterial potencies of GLEEx and standard antibiotics vary depending on bacterial lifestyle, thus suggesting the need to use BTA alongside KB when assessing the antibacterial properties of natural products.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Frequency of Different Clinical Presentation of Appendicitis, Complications and Prognosis in Elderly

Mostafa Hosseini, Adnan Tizmaghz, Ghazaal Shabestanipour, Ali Aein, Hamidreza Alizadeh Otaghvar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4381-4388
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11717

Background: The classic symptoms of acute appendicitis are seldom seen in the elderly patient and the diagnosis is particularly easy to miss in this group. Therefore complications are more common as a result of delayed diagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify prognosis, complications and factors associated with perforation in elderly patients with acute appendicitis.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective (descriptive-analytic) study which was conducted from August 2011 until October 2013 in Tehran. A sample of 76 available patients with suspected acute appendicitis –who had been admitted to Rasoul-e-Akram and firoozgar hospital were recruited to participate in this study. Patients’ demographic data, symptoms, complications and their blood samples for CRP and Leukocyte count were collected and sent to the laboratory for analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out by chi2 and independent sample t-tests.
Results: A number of 76 patients were investigated. Nearly 47.2% were male and 81% of the patients had leukocytosis. 15% of patients had normal appendix. Sensitivity and specificity value of WBC was higher than other markers. 14.4% of patients were died. Age, gender, pain duration, fever, leukocytosis and anorexia were 6 factors which affected prognosis of patients.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that in addition to physical examination, some basic laboratory findings such as CRP and leukocytosis can be helpful also it seems some factors such as duration of pain could affected outcomes of patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Addition Molasses on the Degradability Kinetics, Net Energy for Lactation, In Vitro Dry Matter Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy of Potato Plant Silage in Ruminant Animals

Hossein Rast Poor, Alireza Vakili, Abbas-Ali Naserian

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4389-4399
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11906

The purpose of this research is to use green potatoes for animal feed, Which is considered as a waste at the farm level.
This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and estimation of effects four levels (0, 2, 4 and 6%) of Molasses on potato silage Males (PSM) degradability were studied by In Vitro gas producing techniques. Fermentation of PSM samples were carried out with rumen fluid obtained from three mature canulated steers (BW=550). The amount of gas production for PSM samples at 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were measured. The results showed that the DM, Ash, crude protein (CP), natural detergent fiber (NDF) and Non fiber carbohydrate (NFC) were 27, 3.5, 10.2, 35 and 48.8 percent, respectively. Calculated amounts of In Vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD4 (M6%)), organic matter digestibility (OMDM6%), metabolizable energy (MEC), short chain fatty acid (SCFAM6%) and net energy for lactation (NEl (M6%)) contents of PSM were 892.1a (%), 65a g/kg DM, 11.1a MJ/kg DM, 1.1a mmol and 6.9a MJ/kg DM respectively. The gas production from soluble fraction (aM6%), and from insoluble fraction (bM6%), rate constant of gas production during incubation (CM6%) and the potential gas production (a+ bM6%) contents of potato plant silage were 15.5a (ml/200mg DM), 60.6c (ml/200mg DM), 0.03b (ml/h) and 76.1b (ml/200mg DM), while for level control were 10.6d (ml/200mg DM), 47.3c (ml/200 mg DM), 0.04b (ml/h) and 57.9d (ml/200 mg DM). This investigation demonstrated that the PSM, have the potential to enhance ruminal fermentation efficiency, milk production efficiency in dairy cattle and a promising methane mitigating agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Construct Validity Assessment: Convergent Type for Stanford Binet and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children in Tehran

G. Afrooz, F. Farid, M. R. Mousavi, R. Soveyzi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4400-4412
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11448

Among the subset of construct validity is convergent validity which explore the relations hips between two instruments that claim same construct assessment. This study aimed to assess the concurrent validity of the Fourth Edition of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and Fifth Edition of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. The study s ample cons is ted of 91 primary school students in the first to fifth grade which is 6-11 years old and selected thourgh convenience sampling method. The Fourth Edition of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and Fifth Edition of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale have been used in this study. Data analysis have been done with emphasis on CHC theory as the same theoretical foundation of both instruments. The study results shown that there are significant relationship between FSIQ, working memory, perceptual reasoning, and fluid reasoning scores as the factors with similar theoretical foundation. Also, there are not any significant relationship between knowledge and verbal comprehension despite their similar underlying theoretical foundation. In addition, processing speed, as a factor that as sess different ability according to CHC theory, had no significant relations hip with any of the factors and IQs in the SB5.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Resistant Starch and Exopolysaccharide-Producing Streptococcus thermophilus on Viability of Lactic Acid Bacteria in low fat UF Feta Cheese during Ripening

Forough Sadat Tabibloghmany, Ebrahim Hosseini, Mohammad Hojjatoleslamy, Elham Ehsandoost

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4413-4425
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11709

Aims: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are essential component of all natural cheese varieties, and play important roles during both cheeses producing and ripening. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of Exopolysaccharide-Producingstrains and resistant starch on viability of lactic acid bacteria in low fat ultrafiltered (UF) Feta cheese over 60 days of ripening period at 5ºC.
Study Design: The cheesemaking experiment was carried out in triplicate using a complete randomized design.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the department of Arjan Dairy Company (Research Development and Central Laboratory) and department of Food Science and Technology, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University (Laboratory of Food Science and Technology), between April, 2013 and January, 2014.
Methodology: Cheeses were manufactured with added EPS-producing strains and resistant starch individually or in combination. During ripening period determination of acidity%, pH values, moisture%, fat%, viable bacterial count and sensory evaluation were performed. Low-fat control treatment was containing 3% inulin and high-fat treatment was produced without any additive.
Results: The data indicated that the acidity and count of LAB strains in cheeses made with both EPS+ and different concentrations of resistant starch were higher than the cheeses made without EPS+ culture and with the different concentrations of resistant starch during cheese storage. Also these treatments had the highest moisture contents and sensorial scores compared with the cheeses made without EPS+ and with the different concentrations of resistant starch (P<0.05).
Conclusion: In conclusion, all results provide evidence that the combination of EPS producing starter and different concentrations of RS had beneï¬cial effects on the viability of LAB and sensorial scores in low fat UF Feta cheese during ripening.

Open Access Original Research Article

Purification and Characteristics of Beta-1, 4-Glucanase Occel9 of Oxya chinensis

Amtul Jamil Sami, Madeeha Khalid, Saliah Bilal

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4426-4444
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7856

Aims: Oxya chinensis is a very serious paddy pest and causes major loss in rice crop. The objectives of the study were (1) Studying the molecular basis of plant biomass degradation by Oxya chinensis. (2) The role of Neem (Azadirachta indica) derived compounds, Azadirachtin and Saponins was also studied as enzyme inhibitors with special reference to biopesticides.
Place of Study: Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore.
Methodology: Oxya chinensis insects were collected from local fields and dried. The dried insects were studied for the purification and characterization of cellulose hydrolyzing enzyme activity. Enzyme was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. Spectroscopic study was carried out to identify the signature pattern of the protein. The role of purified neem (Azadirachta indica) derived compounds Saponins and Azadirachtin was also studied as enzyme inhibitors with special reference to Biopesticides.
Results: Total soluble protein was isolated from salivary gland and gut and the presence of cellulase activity endo-1, 4-ß-glucanase (OcCel9) in each tissue was indicated. After purification both enzymes appeared at same position on zymogram, containing 2.0% carboxymethyl cellulose as substrate, after non-denaturing PAGE. The beta-1,4-β-glucanase (OcCel9) activity from the gut and salivary gland had the same Km values. The pH and temperature profiles of Oxya chinensis beta-1,4-glucanase indicated optimum pH at 3.0 and optimum temperature at 50ºC. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the enzyme has two subunits/isozymes of molecular mass 60 and 55 kDa respectively. The spectroscopic analysis of the isolated protein showed that it had homology with rice, 1, 4-beta-D-glucanase. An internal amino acid sequence of the rice enzyme (OcCel9) revealed that this enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (Glycosylhydrolases family 9 active sites signature 2). Neem, Azadirachtaindica derived saponins were able to inhibit OcCel9 on substrate agar plates.
Conclusion: OcCel9 was successfully purified and is a very active cellulose hydrolyzing enzyme and can be of significant technological importance. Moreover the enzyme can be studied as a potential target for producing novel biopesicides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Azo Dye Decolourisation using Crude Peroxidase from Armoracia rusticana Hairy Roots

Mugdha Ambatkar, Usha Mukundan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4459-4470
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/12113

Aim: The objective of the present work was to assess the ability of crude peroxidase from hairy roots of Armoracia rusticana (horseradish) to decolourise two model azo dyes: The mono-azo dye Methyl Orange (MO) and the di-azo dye Bismarck Brown (BB).
Study Design: The enzymatic decolourisation of aqueous solutions of the model dyes was performed by varying reaction parameters like pH of reaction mixture, crude enzyme concentration, dye concentration and hydrogen peroxide concentration; at ambient temperature (25±2ºC). The emphasis was on using a crude extract that showed high enzyme activity, despite being obtained by minimum processing, and virtually no purification.
Methodology: Hairy root cultures of A. rusticana were used as the source of crude peroxidase. The hairy root tissue was macerated using phosphate buffer (pH 5.8) and centrifuged. The clear supernatant was used as crude enzyme. The decolourisation of the dyes was assessed using spectrophotometric method. Appropriate controls to account for bleaching due to hydrogen peroxide were maintained. Decolourisation of MO and BB by the Fenton reaction was used as a positive control for decolourisation.
Results: The crude peroxidase extract can bring about up to 73% and 32% decolourisation of MO and BB respectively within a reaction time of two hours (2h).
Conclusion: The outcome of the present work can find application in the enzymatic treatment of wastewater containing azo dyes. This oxidative decolourisation method appears to be better suited to the decolourisation of mono-azo dyes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling and Optimal Control of Plasmodium Knowlesi Malaria Spread from Infected Humans to Mosquitoes

Mohammed Baba Abdullahi, Yahya Abu Hasan, Farah Aini Abdullah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4482-4501
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/12044

Malaria as among vector-borne diseases is reemerging in areas where control efforts were once effective and emerging in areas though free of the disease as a consequence of human migration and rapid growth of international traffic from malaria prevalent areas of the world to malaria free zone. In this paper we develop a mathematical model for the spread of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria from infected humans to mosquitoes. The stability analysis of the model is investigated rigorously. The model is extended to assess the impact of time dependent preventive (biological and chemical control) against the mosquitoes and treatment for infected humans. The existence of optimal control is established analytically by the use of optimal control theory. Numerical simulations of the problem, suggest that applying the three control measure can effectively reduce if not eliminate the spread of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Helicobacter Pylori Infection Might be a Potential Protective Factor against Classic Multiple Sclerosis in Guilan, Iran

Masoumeh Ahmadi Jalali Moghadam, Hamidreza Honarmand, Hamidreza Hatamian, Ali Roudbary

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4502-4510
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9832

Aims: The current study was aimed to investigate any relation between H. pylori seropositivity to IgA and IgG with MS.
Study Design: Cross sectional study
Place and Duration of Study: The present study was performed in the Department of Microbiology, Guilan University of Medical Sciences between Aprill 2012 and Aprill 2013
Methodology: H. pylori infection was certified by ELISA in study group (n=46) and control group (n=46) using commercial assays (Anti H.pylori IgG and IgA,). Data were analyzed by using two statistical tests (Chi square and Spearman's rho correlation).
Results: Seropositivity rate of H. pylori IgG was 33.3% in study group but 67.4% in control group and seropositivity rate of H. pylori IgA was 11.9% in study group but 30.2% in control group. The frequency of IgG seropositivity was significantly more in control group than study group (P Chi-Square =0.002 , Correlation Coefficient=-0.341 and P Spearman's rho correlation (Sig. 2-tailed)=0.001) ) and the frequency of IgA seropositivity was also significantly more in control group than study group (P Chi-Square =0.039 and Correlation Coefficient=-0.224, P Spearman's rho correlation (Sig. 2-tailed)= 0.039 ).
Conclusion: H. pylori seropositivity to IgG and IgA showed significant inverse association with affection to MS. Findings of this study suggests that H. pylori infection is not a causative factor but might be a protective factor against development of classic MS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Woody Species Diversity, Structure and Distribution of Sterculia setigera Del. in Togo (West Africa)

Wouyo Atakpama, Fousséni Foléga, Marra Dourma, Yao A. Woégan, Badabaté Diwediga, Kpérkouma Wala, Komlan Batawila, Koffi Akpagana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4511-4528
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10732

Aims: This study aims to contribute to the sustainable management of S. setigera, a native gum and multipurpose tree in Togo. Especially, it aims to: (i) Assess the diversity of woody species within S. setigera stands, and (ii) Analyze the distribution, abundance and structure of S. setigera trees, according to contrasting environmental factors and human activities within the different eco-floristic zones of Togo.
Place and Duration of Study: Fieldworks were done from 10 October to 15 December 2013 throughout Togo.
Methodology: Dendrometric and ecological data of Sterculia setigera stands were recorded in 350 plots. In each plot, total height and girth of all woody species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm were measured and all human activities were recorded. In addition, seedlings and suckers of S. setigera species (DBH < 10 cm) were counted. The spatial distribution analysis of the species was done using Geographic Information System (GIS).
Results: Ninety six (96) woody species distributed among 71 genera and 31 families were identified. The highest species richness were recorded in the eco-floristic zone I (82 species), followed by zone III and zone II (41 and 40 respectively). Within these zones, the most representative woody species apart from S. setigera are Vitellaria paradoxa and Parkia biglobosa. In contrast, the most represented woody species in zone V were Cussonia arborea and Odinaacida. Statistic tests showed a significant difference of S. setigera densities following eco-floristic zones (p=0.00); especially between zone I and zone V (30.45 stems/ha and 7.57 stems/ha respectively). The overall regeneration rate was weak with a total absence within zone V. This regeneration status could justify the relatively few small stems proportion described by the coefficient of skewness values (g>0). Green Index values (GI, nearest 0) showed a random distribution of the species. The main human activities threatening S. setigera stands were bushfire, woodcutting, pasture and agriculture. According to the level of human activities Fisher test showed a significant difference (p=0.00), particularly between zone I with highest activities level and zone V with lowest activities (mean, 2.62±1.12 and 1.07±0.26).
Conclusion: The species richness within S. setigera stands and the density of S. setigera decrease from north to south (respectively from eco-floristic zone I to V). Both density and regeneration of S. setigera were shaped by human activities and environmental factors. Weak regeneration highlights that the future existence of the species is jeopardized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of some Plants Used for the Management of Hypertension in the Igala Speaking Area of Kogi State, Nigeria

Sunday Ene-Ojo Atawodi, Olufunsho Dayo Olowoniyi, Moses Alilu Daikwo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4535-4543
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8633

The ethno medicinal applications of plant species used primarily to manage hypertension among the Igala people of Kogi State, Nigeria were surveyed. A total of ten plant species belonging to nine families were found to have varying applications against the disease. The plants include Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae), Ficus capensis (Moraceae), Crossopteryx febrifuga (Rubiaceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae) and Paullinia pinnata (Sapindaceae). Others are Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae), Calotropis procera (Aslepiadaceae), Persea americana (Lauraceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) and Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniaceae). The results are discussed with respect to the morphological types, reported phytochemical constituents and other medicinal uses of the plants. It is concluded that there is need to scientifically evaluate these plants for therapeutic efficacy against hypertension and related cardiovascular disorders that the plants are reportedly used for in the traditional medicine of the Igala people of Kogi State, Nigeria.

Open Access Review Article

When and How to Evaluate the Natural Killer Cell Function

Maria Luís Queirós, Margarida Lima

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3586-3614
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10968

NK cell dysfunction is observed in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions and cytotoxic assays allow to evaluating in vitro the lytic activity of NK cells against tumors or transformed target cells. Since the earliest cytotoxic tests based on the direct visualization of effector/target cell conjugates and the use of trypan blue to exclude non-viable target cells using a light microscope, a variety of cytotoxic assays have been developed. The 51chromium release assay was the most widely used for a long time, although it has several significant drawbacks, the major disadvantage being the use of radioactive compounds. To overcome this problem, several non-radioactive methods have been described, but none is broadly accepted. Among them, flow cytometry has a potential for providing information about the ability of the NK cells to lyse their targets. We review the clinical conditions associated with NK cell dysfunction as well as the role of the NK cells in immunotherapy and describe the available assays for measuring the activity of NK-cells with emphasis on flow cytometry.

Open Access Review Article

Embryonic Central Nervous System Development under Morphine Influence in Pregnant Rats as the Epigenetic Factor

Masoomeh Kazemi, Mohamad Sabery, Leila Dehghani, Soheil Tahani, Elaheh Tekyeh, Zahra Bourbour, Maryam Alem Aref, Hedayt Sahraei

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3816-3834
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11007

Excessive use of narcotic drugs, especially its effect on the central nervous system (CNS) development of the embryos, has given rise to numerous studies in this field. According to the previous studies, morphine consumption during pregnancy can cause a delay in normal development of placenta and embryo. Based on the studies conducted on pregnant mothers’ embryo most abnormalities caused by morphine consumption are related to normal development defects of the embryo’s (CNS). Drug consumption is one of the factors that involve in epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic bioenvironmental effects such as incompetent nutrition, maladies, infections, stressors and drugs consumption, are some of instances that affect safety and genesis of embryo’s (CNS). Survey of epigenetic changes role in normal genesis of embryo’s (CNS), is inclusive of world new researches. Identity of different factors of epigenetic modifications is effective in embryo’s (CNS) health. Changes induced by epigenetic factors can be moderated or reversed by controlling the epigenetic factors. Based on studies, major epigenetic modifications are relevant to DNA methylation and histone modifications. Most important way in prevention from maladies and malformations that result from epigenetic modifications is recognition of epigenetic factors. This paper is a review of the studies on morphine’s role in the abnormal development of different parts of an embryo’s nervous system .These abnormalities are mainly visible in opioid-dependent mothers and fetuses and include brain nuclei, brain ventricles, choroid plexus, cerebellum, spinal cord, and vision, olfaction , taste deficiencies and epigenetic.

Open Access Review Article

Involvement of Salicylic Acid in Sulfur Induced Salinity Tolerance: A Role of Glutathione

Rahat Nazar, Shahid Umar, Nafees A. Khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3875-3893
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11773

Plants are severely affected by salinity due to its high magnitude of adverse impacts and worldwide distribution. Among various strategies, nutrient management may be an important aspect in alleviating stress under varied environmental conditions. The uptake and assimilation of sulfur plays an inevitable and imperative role in determining plant growth and development and is a fundamental part of several important compounds, such as glutathione, co-enzymes, vitamins, phytohormones and reduced sulfur compounds that decipher growth and vigour of plants under optimal and stressful environments. Assimilatory sulfate reduction may induce salt tolerance by coordinating various physiological processes and molecular mechanisms which are likely to be induced by phytohormones. Among phytohormones salicylic acid (SA) could provide tolerance against salinity stress by enhancing physiological processes and can improve salinity tolerance by its effect on sulfur assimilation pathway as biochemically or molecular mechanisms. The present review critically evaluates the recent studies on the modulation of sulfur assimilation and gives an insight into the role of glutathione to maintain redox state and their cumulative significance in plants’ tolerance to salinity by SA in inducing various physiological responses in plants under salinity stress.

Open Access Review Article

Mechanisms of Prooxidants in NeuroInflammatory Processes and Clinical Manifestations

Calderón Guzmán David, Juárez Olguín Hugo, Hernández García Ernestina, Osnaya Brizuela Norma, Saldivar González J. Alfredo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3949-3961
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11696

In clinic practice the reduction of cerebral blood flow in particular zones of the brain as brainstem can cause early cerebral damage then, ischemia and posterior reperfusion induce an inflammatory response leading to further cellular death. Indeed, inflammatory cells may release deleterious compounds or cytokines that exacerbate oxidative damage to metabolically compromised neurons, and similar mechanisms may operate in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases in which vascular factors, inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated. In the present work, the issue referent to mechanisms of pro-oxidants in inflammatory processes, and its relation with common pathogenesis and clinical manifestations are analyzed in detailed and updated form.

Open Access Review Article

Treatment of White Spot Lesions by Resin Infiltration

Ana Coelho, Viviana Macho, Manuel Ferreira, Eunice Carrilho

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3970-3979
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/12257

Aim: To review the scientific principles of the treatment of white spot lesions with the resin infiltration technique and to discuss its application and limitations.
Methodology: A PubMed database research was conducted and limited to articles published in English between the years of 2008 and 2013. Twenty-six articles were selected out of 48.
Discussion: The resin infiltration procedure is a promising minimally invasive dentistry technique. Resin infiltration produces a positive effect on aesthetics, preserves tooth structure, delays or even eliminates the need for a restorative treatment and eliminates the risk of post-operative sensitivity and pulp inflammation. Although it has recently been developed, the results are very satisfactory. However, investigation is still needed (particularly with longer follow-ups and larger samples) as well as the development of specific and simplified protocols.

Open Access Review Article

Stomatal Patterning: An Important Taxonomic Tool for Systematical Studies of Tree Species of Angiosperm

Faiza Khan, Zubaida Yousaf, Hafiza Saadia Ahmed, Ayesha Arif, Hafiza Ayesha Rehman, Afifa Younas, Madiha Rashid, Zoya Tariq, Nadia Raiz

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4034-4053
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10073

Taxonomic information provides the base line for most of the studies in biological sciences. Most of taxonomic information based on phenotypic characteristics of plants. As phenotypic markers are under the influence of environment, therefore it may leads toward the taxonomic confusion. Therefore, present study was carried out to determine the effect of environment on types of stomata, number, size, and stomata patterning which is very useful feature in taxonomy. In the present study thirty arboreal species of dicot flora (from tropical and subtropical regions) belonging to eight orders and fifteen families are evaluated by using systematic tool i.e. stomatal pattering. Stomata play a vital role in gas exchange of dicot plants. Within dicot flora, eight shapes of stomata are observed (anomocytic, anomotetracytic, actinocytic, amphianisocytic, brachyparacytic, anisocytic, amphicyclocytic and staurocytic). In leaves, the pattern of stomatal distribution is highly variable between arboreal species of dicot but is regulated by a mechanism of one cell spacing between stomata. Epidermal anatomical marker showed the different mode of stomata patterning. Hence, this differential marker can be utilized to differentiate taxonomically complicated species.

Open Access Review Article

Use of Diatoms in River Health Assessment

Xing Wang, Binghui Zheng, Lusan Liu, Li Li

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4054-4074
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11963

We review the use of diatoms in monitoring and assessment of river health in the world. First, we summarize the use of diatoms as indicators of nutritional status, acidification, and organic and metal pollution. We then examine some problems that have been associated with diatoms and indices that were used in different regions around the world: 1) incomplete taxonomy; 2) effects of natural geographic differences on diatom distributions (e.g., climate, lithology); 3) effects of natural site differences on diatom distribution and abundance (e.g., substrate, depth, chemistry); 4) differences in sampling, sample processing, and analytical methods; and 5) difficulties in finding minimally disturbed reference sites. Based on these problems, we present the different selections and the research progress of diatoms and indices used in monitoring and assessing river health around the world including the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. We recommend that future studies and uses of diatoms focus on the following aspects: 1) improve the classification and identification of diatoms; 2) increase the use of diatom predictive indices to monitor and assess water quality; 3) develop global standard methods for sampling diatoms in streams, rivers, and lakes; and 4) apply hind-casting predictive models.

Open Access Review Article

Penetration of E. faecalis into Root Cementum Cause for Reinfection

H. Rahul, H. N. Mithra, H. Kiran

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4115-4122
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/12027

Enterococcus faecalis possesses the unique properties such as production of serine protease and specific gene Ace, which aid in binding to extra cellular matrix protein like collagen, aggregation substances that help E. faecalis adhesion to recipient bacteria; helps to form biofilms through surface adhesion, which in turn resist alkalinity of calcium hydroxide in the medicated canal. The production of lipoteichoic acid by E. faecalis enables binding to PNM cell, erythrocytes, and platelets, and lysis of cell in vitro and in vivo. It can resist the high temperature of 60ºC for 30 minutes and can grow at 10–45ºC in a pH of 9.6, and is the most frequently isolated micro-organism from root-filled teeth. E. faecalis can penetrate up to 140 to 160 µm deep into root dentin and root cementum beyond minor constriction in root-filled teeth. The aim of this article is to understand the role of E. faecalis beyond minor constriction and its role in causing persisting infection. It was found that the virulent factors and ability of E. faecalis to penetrate deep into root dentin and root cementum beyond minor constriction and ability to adapt to environment in adverse conditions are the possible causes for persisting infection in root-filled teeth.

Open Access Review Article

Tumor Associated Immune Dysfunction: Immune Cells Involved and Suggested Therapies

Wamidh H. Talib, Intisar Hadi AL-Yasari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4190-4201
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11831

The improvement in the understanding of cancer immunology did not lead to a successful immunotherapeutic strategy. Cancer immunotherapy faces different obstacles including low immunogenicity, production of immunosuppressive agents, and the peripheral tolerance which is used by cancer cells to avoid recognition and destruction by effective cells in the immune system. The establishment and maintenance of immune tolerance is a result of a contribution of various immune cells. This review discusses the role of immune cells that support tumor growth and suggests some immunotherapeutic strategies that may increase tumor immunogenicity and improve immunotherapy. However, a careful preclinical and clinical evaluation is essential before considering these strategies as therapeutic options.

Open Access Review Article

Pharmacological Properties of Papaver rhoaes L.

Hassan Ghoshooni, Hedayat Sahraei

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4445-4449
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/12264

The focus on herbal products for medicinal proposes has increased during the past decade. Papaver rhoaes L. (PR), commonly known as corn poppy, belongs to the Papaveracea family is used in southwestern Asia for some medicinal proposes. Modern pharmacology revealed that its extract contains several alkaloids such as rhoeadine, rhoeadic acid, papaveric acid, rhoeagenine, and anthocyanins. Studies in animal models have shown that PR extract can reduce morphine-induced place preference, sensitization, locomotor activity, and locomotor and pain tolerance. Furthermore, it has been shown that the extract also reduces stress-induced alterations in plasma corticosterone levels and induces analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice. None clinical trial study finds for this plant. In conclusion, despite of lack in clinical trial studies, the existing evidence suggests that the PR extract possess medicinal properties and may be used as a therapeutic for drug addiction and pain and stress management.

Open Access Review Article

A Biblometric Study of Toxicological Research Output (1996-2012) of the Middle East Region

Hossein Forouzandeh, Amir Jalali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4471-4481
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/11484

Aims: The aim of the present study was to qualify and quantify the toxicological researches in the Middle East countries. Comparisons were made with the rest of the world.
Place and Duration of Study: The current study was carried out during the 1st of January to the 31st of December, 2013 in the department of toxicology and pharmacology, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
Study design: This bibliometric study evaluates quantities and qualities of publications on toxicological researches in SJR for over 16 years (1996-2012).
Methodology: Strategy of the research was based on the keyword "toxicology". Neither language nor document type restrictions were considered. Data were extracted, tabulated, and compared to identify the ranks as well as trends. Additionally, comparisons were performed on the basis of ‘total number of documents’, ‘total number of citations’, ‘citations per documents’, “citable documents”, “cite-self cite per documents” , “H-index” , “self citation”, and international collaboration.
Results: Results showed an increase in the number of publications and citable documents in the Middle East. Northern America, Western Europe, and Asiatic regions led quantitative and qualitative indicators like H-index and citation. Comparisons among the Middle East countries showed Turkey, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates are the most productive countries, respectively. Although the Middle East productions of scientific publications on toxicology are neither qualitatively nor quantitatively comparable with other regions, the trend has changed quantitatively during 1996-2012. As a result, the Middle East countries have to support their scientific institutes to increase the quantities and qualities of toxicological publications.

Open Access Review Article

Application of Biotechnologycal Methods for Removal of Phenylalanıne from Different Protein Sources

Sema Kalkan Uçar, Mahmut Çoker, Hatice Kalkan Yildirim

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 4529-4534
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/8880

Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism include inherited biochemical disorders in which a specific enzyme defect interferes with the normal metabolism of protein. In these disorders as a result of diminished or absent enzyme activity, certain compounds accumulate in the body to toxic levels. Metabolic disturbances can lead to severe cognitive impairment and even death. Phenylketonuria, is the most common amino acid disorder. Dietary restriction prevent the accumulation of a substrate to toxic levels to a certain extend but application of biotechnological methods could provided more promising tools. The main topics discussed are: removal of phenylalanine by activated carbon, by tailored enzymatic hydrolyses of cheese whey, by modified corn cobs as adsorbents and by using enzymatic membrane reactor.