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Open Access Minireview Article

Diversified Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Circulating in China: A Mini-overview

Shao-Lun Zhai, Sheng-Nan Chen, Xiao-Hui Wen, Dian-Hong Lv, Zhong Huang, Man-Lin Luo, Wen-Kang Wei

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 34-40
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/9371

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was considered as an important pathogen, which caused huge economic losses for the world swine industry annually. Until now, according to antigenic and genetic characteristics, two genotypes were identified, European (EU genotype, or type 1) genotype and North American genotype (NA genotype, or type 2), respectively. In China, both of them co-existed in swine herds, and even some novel viral strains emerged in the lastest years. The aim of the review was to describe genetic diversity of PRRSV based on non-structural protein 2 (Nsp2) in China, which could help us better understand molecular epidemiology of PRRSV. Moreover, diversified strains of PRRSV circulating in Chinese swine herds might bring serious challenges to PRRS control for government, producers and veterinary practitioners.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Date-Palm Waste as Culture Media and Its Effect on Number and Yield of Tomato

A. Mohammadi-Ghehsareh, M. Shirani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/5968

Aims: The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical properties of Date-Palm waste as culture media and its effect on number and yield of tomato fruit.
Study Design: The experiment was ‎conducted as factorial in a completely randomized block design with 9 treatments and 3 ‎replications. Treatments included three sizes (S1= <0.5, S2=0.5-1 and S3=1-2 cm) and three composting times (C1=0, C2=3 and C3=6 months) of date palm waste.
Place and Duration of Study: This research was performed in the greenhouse research site of Isfahan Azad University (Khorasgan) from 2011 to 2012.
Methodology: Palm wastes were ‎separated in three sizes (<0.5, 0.5-1 and 1-2 cm) and composted during the 3 and 6 months.‎ Then, these materials were used as culture media for tomato cultivation. To compare the effect of plant cultivation, the same treatments were used for media without plant. Some chemical characteristics of the culture media including carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were measured before planting, and at the end of cultivation from culture medias without and with plant. Number, yield and firmness of tomato fruit were measured.
Results: Statistical analysis showed values of pH and CEC were significantly increased at the end of cultivation from culture media without and with plant in compare to before planting (P<0.05). Amounts of EC in culture media before planting were significantly higher than culture media without and with plant (P<0.05). Also a significant reduction C/N ratio was occurred in culture media without plant in compare with culture media before planting and culture media with plant (P<0.05). Mature compost (C3S2) significantly increased number and yield of tomato fruit.
Conclusion: The overall results indicated composting process changed chemical properties of the media and difference in chemical properties of media had effect on yield and number of tomato fruit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Purification of Paraoxonase (PON) from Sun Flower (Helianthus annuus) and Effects of Some Chemicals on Paraoxonase Activity In vitro

Nazan Demir, Hayrunnisa Nadaroglu, Yasar Demir

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/10437

Aims: In this study, paraoxonase (PON) enzyme was purified from mature seeds of sun flower by using affinity chromatography (Sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine) and the effects of some chemicals were tested on paraoxonase activity as in vitro.
Methodology: Paraoxonase was firstly purified from sun flower (Helianthus annuus). This enzyme was purified as 427-fold. SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis of the enzyme indicates a single protein staining band with an apparent Mr of 35 kDa. The kinetic properties of the purified enzyme were determined.
Results: The enzyme exhibits high activity at broad pH (pH 5.0-9.0) and temperature (40 and 70ºC). The purified enzyme remains stable at 4ºC for more than 1 year. Paraoxonase is mostly stable at 40ºC. The activity of the enzyme decreases to 55% at a temperature of 60ºC when the treatment was given for a period of 1h. Optimum pH of the purified enzyme was 7.0 and its optimum temperature was 40ºC. Using paraoxon as a substrate, the enzyme shows maximum activity (Vmax) of 7.84μmol.L.min-1 with its corresponding Km value of 0.317 mM. The activities was strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Fe3+, β-mercaptoethanol, dithioerythritol, SDS and EDTA while Cu2+ slightly activates the enzyme activity. As judged by catalytic efficiencies, paraoxon is the preferred substrate.
Conclusion: The present study shows that PON purified from sun flower (Helianthus annuus) is stable at wide range of pH and temperature and in the presence of some metal ions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Genotypes using RAPD Markers

Alireza Bahraminejad, Ghasem Mohammadi-Nejad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/11683

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crops in the Middle East. In the present research, RAPD DNA marker was used to characterize six date palm genotypes grown in the Jiroft region of Iran. The pre-screening of 18 primers on genotypes allowed selection of 16 primers which revealed polymorphism and gave reproducible results. All analyzed genotypes were distinguishable by their band patterns. Cluster analysis by UPGMA showed two main clusters for palm genotypes based on difference in fruit color with variation in sexuality and early or mid-season maturities. Mozafati, Kabkab and Mordarsang genotypes were located on the first cluster, while the second cluster consisted of Kaloteh, Male211 and Male504 genotypes, which were most closely related with the highest value in conformity with Nei and Li's similarity value of 0.58. Dendrogram was confirmed as valuable cluster Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) using the first principal component from the molecular data. The results of molecular analysis were adapted with genetic variation. RAPD technology therefore appears very effective for identifying genotypes, polymorphism and genetic distance of date palm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parameters of Facial, Nasal, Maxillary, Mandibular and Oro-facial Heights of Adult Urhobos of Nigeria

Gabriel Sunday Oladipo, Oghenemavwe Loveday, S. Hart Josiah, U. Dike Eberechi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 48-53
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/9628

The study was carried out to determine the mean values of facial, nasal, maxillary, mandibular and oro-facial heights of adult Urhobos: one of the ethnic groups in Nigeria and comparism with some other ethnic groups in Nigeria (Igbo and Ijaws) and Latvians; an ethnic group in Russia. One thousand (1000) subjects purely of Urhobo ethnic group were used for the study. The subjects comprised 500 males and 500 females with age range of 18 to 45 years. The facial height, nasal height, maxillary height, mandibular height and oro-facial height were measured using sliding caliper at established landmarks for the parameters. The results obtained showed that males had mean facial height of 12.18±1.63cm, nasal height of 4.85±0.65cm, maxillary height of 2.46(0.33cm, mandibular height of 4.89±0.65cm, oro-facial height of 7.33±0.98cm while females had mean facial height of 11.03±1.48cm, nasal height of 4.40±0.59cm, maxillary height of 2.33±0.31cm, mandibular height of 4.39±0.58cm, oro-facial height 6.67±0.89cm. Statistical analysis using the z-test showed that the males had significantly higher values than the females in all the oro-facial parameters measured (p<0.05). All variables were sexually dimorphic. The data obtained from this study could be useful in forensic investigation, craniofacial surgery and population study.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Patterns

Mohammad Ebrahim Nooriyan Soroor, Mohammad Mahdi Moeini

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 54-63
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12495

This study was carried out to assess the effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the in vitro rumen ecosystem of sheep. Rumen fluid was obtained from three male sheep with fistula and mixed with 0, 30, and 60 mg ginger plus a substrate which represented the basic diet of alfalfa hay and barley in a ratio of 70:30 which had been given to the sheep used in this study. In the experiments the ginger/substrate mixtures were incubated for intervals of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 72 h. A completely randomized design (CRD) was performed with four replicates per each treatment. The in vitro gas production (IVGP), methane emission, in vitro organic matter degradability (IVOMD), ammonia (NH3-N) concentration, partitioning factor (PF), microbial mass (MM), volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and protozoan population were measured. The results showed that 60 mg ginger supplement significantly improved the potential gas production (Linear (L); P<0.001). Cumulative gas production was also increased after 72 h (L; P<0.031). Methane production decreased by the addition of 30 and 60 mg of ginger compared with the control (Control vs ginger; P=0.012). The NH3-N concentration linearly declined in the presence of ginger (L; P=0.000). Total VFA concentrations were not influenced, but the acetate to propionate ratio declined (L; P≤ 0.05) and the branched fatty acids increased (L, P<0.01). The antiprotozoal activity was improved by ginger treatments especially on the Entodiniinae subfamily population (L, P= 0.028) (Control vs ginger; P=0.026). Based on this study, it seems ginger supplementation could improve ruminal fluid fermentation due to NH3-N reduction, reduce methane losses and cause beneficial changes in protozoal population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Status of Primary School Children in Kawo District of Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

Sunday E. Atawodi, Bashir Aliyu, Olagunju Abbas, Lawrence E. Ilouno

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 64-70
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/8647

Aims: This study was designed to assess the nutritional status of school children aged 5-12 years in Kawo District, Kaduna State, Nigeria in relation to gender and school background.
Study Design: One hundred and forty one (141) school children were randomly selected from two public and two private schools. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age (WA) and height-for-age (HA) were used to estimate the children’s nutritional status.
Place and Duration of Study: Kawo district Kaduna state North central Nigeria, between October 2009 and December 2009.
Methodology: Using a structured questionnaire, anthropometric parameters of sex, age, weight, height and class were obtained on the children randomly selected from two public and private schools, respectively. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics using sample size and frequency, while nutritional and growth status were determined using z-scores for weight for age (WA) and height for age (HA). The prevalence of wasting and stunting were determined using the WHO new reference values for school boys and girls.
Results: Sex distribution of children studied was 51.8% male and 48.2% female, while severe underweight and stunting occurred in 35% and 26.4% of the children respectively. Significant difference (p<0.05) was not observed between severely underweight or stunted boys and girls, while normal WAZ and HAZ occurred in 20% and 17.1% of the children, respectively. About 5% and 12.9% of the severely underweight and stunted children were respectively from private schools, while 30.7% and 13.6% were from public schools. Severe stunting was found to progress with age as 8.5% of severe stunting was observed in children 5 – 8 years, while 17.9% was observed in the 9 – 12 years age bracket. Severe under-weight was however found to be higher in children 5 – 8 years (20.7%) compared to children 9 – 12years (15.0%).
Conclusion: Based on WHO classifications and the low values for anthropometry obtained from this study, there is high prevalence of underweight and stunting in Kawo district of Kaduna state, Nigeria, suggesting a need for improvement in the nutritional status of these and other children in similar circumstances in many parts of Kaduna State and the country through sustainable public health strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Deletion of a Putative Glucosyl Transferase Increases Carotenoids Production in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

Hatem E. M. K. Abdelwahab

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 71-84
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/11020

Aim: Deletion the putative glucosyl transferase (Slr1125) in order to investigate its relationship with the unique carotenoid glycoside myxoxanthophyll.
Methodology: In Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, slr1125 ORF was replaced by streptomycin resistance cassette. The resulted homologous mutant strain was analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and electron microscope in order to assess the impact of the gene deletion on myxoxanthophyll and the cell wall ultrastructure of the Δslr1125S strain.
Results: In the Δslr1125S mutant strain, myxoxanthophyll and chlorophyll decreased and photomixotrophic growth was very poor at a low light intensity of 0.5 µE m-2 s-1. However, at higher light intensity myxoxanthophyll accumulates in the mutant reach (1120ng/ml/OD730) that is 5-fold higher than that of wild type strain. Photosynthetic pigments increased in the mutant strain and growth improved at a light intensity of 100µE m-2 s-1. In addition, a pool of novel carotenoids accumulated part of which are precursor intermediates of myxoxanthophyll biosynthetic pathway. Cell wall dysfunction observed during cell growth in liquid and on plate and verified by ultrastructure deformation of the cell wall layers. S-layer disappeared and peptidoglycan was poorly developed.
Conclusion: The putative glucosyl transferase (Slr1125) plays an important role in cell wall biogenesis of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that is indirectly affecting the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway specially the glycosylated carotenoid myxoxanthophyll. Indeed, these results highlight the notion that cross talk and interconnectedness between cellular processes exist that is critical for metabolic engineering designs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organophosphorus Plant Growth Regulators Provides High Activity Complex I Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Pisum sativum L Seedlings in Conditions Insufficient Moisture

Irina Zhigacheva, Inna Generozova, Aleksandr Shugaev, Tamar Misharina, Mariya Terenina, Natalya Krikunova

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 85-96
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12378

Aims: Water deficiency causes an enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria, leading to oxidative stress. It is known that plant growth regulators (PGRs) increase the resistance of plants to stresses and, evidently, to a water stress. Such PGRs are melaphen – a melamine salt of bis(oxymethyl)phosphinic acid and a pyraphen salt of bis(oxymethyl) phosphinic acid 2,4,6- triaminopyrimidine. The aim of this work was to elucidate the effects of insufficient watering and treatment of seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L) with PGRs melaphen or pyraphen on the fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction membranes and bioenergetic functions of mitochondrial in etiolated 6-day pea seedlings.
Place and Duration of Investigation: Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia and Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, between April 2010 and October 2011.
Methodology: Functional state of mitochondria was researched by rate of mitochondria respiration, by the level of lipid peroxidation and study of fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes by chromatography.
Results: A water deficiency has caused changes in the fatty acid (FA) composition which manifested themselves in increasing the content of saturated FAs and decreasing the content of unsaturated FAs containing 18 and 20 carbon atoms. The treatment of the seeds with melaphen (2 × 10−12 Ðœ) has prevented the transformation of pool of fatty acids in lipid fraction of mitochondrial membranes. Pyraphen (10-14 Ðœ) has prevented the changes only in the content of FAs containing 20 carbon atoms. Changes in the FA compositions of membrane lipids were correlated with changes in the maximum rates of oxidation of NAD-dependent substrates (r =0.765 for С18).
Conclusion: It is suggested that tolerance to water stress is determined by the antioxidant system protecting the unsaturated C18 and C20 fatty acids from changes caused by oxidative stress, i.e., of activation of free radical processes.

Open Access Review Article

Pharmacological and Therapeutic Activities of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth

Sunday Ene-Ojo Atawodi, Olufunsho Dayo Olowoniyi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/8632

Occurring widely in Africa and beyond is Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth, a medicinal plant with several attributes and considerable potentials. Various parts of the plant are used locally to treat cancer, ulcer, gynecological disorders, genital infections, skin diseases, diabetes, epilepsy, bacterial and fungal infections as well as being used as cosmetics. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of some parts of the plant have been explored for therapeutic purposes. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of a wide range of secondary metabolites. Toxicological effects of different extracts of the fruit, stem bark and leaf have been reported. In this review we provide an up-to-date information on established pharmacological and toxicological properties, as well as phytochemical constituents responsible for these activities in Kigelia africana.