Open Access Case study

‘Hemi-Section’: A Step-wise Conservative Approach

Sathish Abraham, Pradnya Nagmode, Deepak Kakde, Omkar Balasaraf

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 184-188
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13259

A 22 year old female patient had excruciating pain and a history of root canal treatment in relation to the left mandibular first molar. Upon clinical and radiographic evaluation; it was found having separated instrument fragments in the mesio-buccal canal of the left mandibular first molar and incomplete root canal treatment. After careful evaluation of the radiographs, root canal treatment was completed for the premolar and the distal half of the left mandibular first molar. It was then followed by a hemi-section with removal of the mesial half of the left mandibular first molar. Hemi-section was completed successfully which was confirmed on nine months follow-up evaluation with an intra oral periapical radiograph.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective and Nephroprotective Effects of Methanolic Extract of Different Parts of Tamarindus Indica Linn in Rats Following Acute and Chronic Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxication

Mubarak L. Liman, Sunday E. Atawodi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 109-123
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/8838

Aims: To investigate the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective potential of the methanolic extracts of the leaves, stem bark, seeds, fruit pulp, fruit bark and roots of Tamarindus indica Linn in acute and chronic rat model of organ injuries.
Study Design: The acute-injury model involved intraperitoneal pre-treatment with 10 mg/kg body weight of the extract for two days followed by intoxication with carbon tetrachloride at 0.6ml/kg, while the chronic injury model involved repeated intoxication with carbon tetrachloride (0.3ml/kg) at every 72 hourly intervals together with a concomitant 24 hourly administration of the extracts (5mg/kg) for twelve days, following initial CCl4 intoxication at 0.6ml/kg.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. January 2011-June 2011.
Methodology: In both acute and chronic experimental model, the rats were sacrificed at the end of the each experiment. Bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined from serum as indices of hepatic injuries while urea and creatinine were determined as markers of kidney damage.
Results: Extract treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the activities of ALT from 61.04±2.77U/I in CCl4 control group to between 15.82±2.63 and 50.67±3.44U/I while AST activities were similarly lowered from 100.57±3.27U/I to between 25.10±1.48U/I and 53.45±3.19 U/I. There was alsosignificant (p<0.05) decrease in the levels of bilirubin, urea and creatinine when compared to the CCl4 control. In general, extracts from the fruit pulp, the stem bark and fruit bark demonstrated better hepatoprotective and nephroprotective potential than those of the seed, root and leaves.
Conclusions: Various parts of Tamarindus indica possess hepatoprotective and nephroprotective properties to justify their usage in traditional medicine in Nigeria and some other developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validity and Reliability of Combination of Observed Practice with Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Midwifery Final Exam

Mahbobeh Faramarzi, Hajar Salmalian, Hajar Pasha, Zahra Banihosseini

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 124-131
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12775

Objective: The assessment of midwifery competency in final examination is the one of the most important tests in midwifery educational course of students in bachelor’s degree. As objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) has become popular and is now part of the midwifery competency assessment, the current study was performed to determine the reliability and validity of the combination of observed practice with OSCE in the final examination of midwifery students.
Methods: A modified final examination model, combination of OSCE and observed practice, was planned in Midwifery Department of Babol University of Medical Sciences. Twenty-seven midwifery students who had passed all midwifery subjects participated in the study in May 2012. The OSCE examination consisted of 8 stations over 6 minutes each. Observed practice consisted of the observation of midwifery students’ competency in clinical settings; labor, delivery, and post-partum.
Results: The correlation coefficient between grade point average (GPA) with OSCE scores, observed practice scores, and modified exam model were 0.70(P<0.001), 0.61(P<0.01), 0.66 (P<0.01), respectively.
The correlation coefficient between the scores of two observers was significant for all stations and units. Cronbachs’ alpha ranged from 0.35 to 0.94.The correlation coefficient between the scores of two observers for modified exam model was 0.59 (P=0.002). The exam showed a high internal consistency and Cronbach’ alpha coefficient for all midwifery OSCE exams was 0.79.
Conclusion: The combination of observed practice with OSCE examination is a reliable method in assessing midwifery students' competence in final exam. Also, the modified final examination model is an acceptable alternative for traditional final examination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Human Leptospirosis in the Central Region of Veracruz, Mexico

José Alfredo Villagómez-Cortés, David Itzcoatl Martínez-Herrera, Laura Angélica Olivares-Suárez

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 132-138
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12481

Aims: To epidemiologically characterize patients confirmed as cases of leptospirosis in Central Veracruz, Mexico based on official records.
Study Design: Descriptive retrospective study.
Place and Duration of Study: Sanitary District No. VIII, Health Ministry in central Veracruz, Mexico from January 2007 to December 2011.
Methodology: Data analysis was performed on official records of clinical cases suggestive of human leptospirosis and confirmed by microscopic agglutination test plate within the study period. Variables considered for analysis included filing date, patient’s socio-demographic characteristics, care center, test result and identified serovars. Incidence rate was calculated as the number of cases per 100000 inhabitants. Chi-square was used to compare categories in Minitab v. 13 and a significance level of P = .05 was defined.
Results: There were 1403 suspected cases of leptospirosis from 14 municipalities in central Veracruz, of which 42.4% (595) resulted positive for leptospirosis. The municipalities with the highest number of confirmed cases in the period were: Veracruz (56%, 333 cases), La Antigua (14%, 83 cases) and Boca del Río (7.7%, 46 cases). La Antigua showed an unusually high incidence rate (65.1). Years with the highest number of cases were 2010 (257 cases) and 2011 (94 cases).Months with the highest number of cases were October (156 cases, 26.2%), and to a lesser extent February (57, 9.6%), August (55, 9.2%), January (53, 8.9%) and September (53, 8.9%) detecting a highly significant statistical difference between months (P=.01). The single month with the highest number of cases in the study period was October 2010, in which 120 positive cases of leptospirosis were recorded, which is coincidental with the aftermath of Hurricane Karl that hit the region in September 2010. Most affected age groups were 21-30 years (125 cases, 21.1%), 11-20 (104, 17.5%) and 31-40 (92, 15.5%), but no statistically significant difference between these groups was identified (P = .4). Male subjects (727 cases, 51.82%) were more affected than females (676, 48.18%), but this difference was not significant (P = .05).
Conclusion: We conclude that leptospirosis has a strong presence in the human population in central Veracruz, Mexico.

Open Access Original Research Article

Public Health Risk of Abattoir Operation in Zango Abattoir Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria

Otolorin Gbeminiyi Richard, E. C. Okolocha, Ameh Veronica Odinya, Mshelbwala Philip Paul, Danjuma Friday Audu, Dzikwi Asabe Adamu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 139-146
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12350

Background: Abattoir activities are known to pollute the environment, posing significant public health concerns. These activities can predispose abattoir workers and individuals living close to abattoirs to certain infections.
Aim: To determine the public health risk of abattoir operation in Zango Abattoir Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria.
Methodology: The abattoir was visited for a period of 1 week within the hours of 6.30 a.m to 9 a.m to determine various activities at the abattoir and to access public health concerns during its operation. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were distributed to all individuals processing various abattoir by-products to obtain relevant data. Photographs of the various observations made were taken and recorded.
Results: Slow moving abattoir effluents in drainages leading from the slaughter hall to the soak-away pits undergoing microbial degradation encouraging proliferation of flies were observed. There were unutilized ruminal contents heaped just at the entrance of the slaughter hall producing foul odour and attracting flies. Soakaway pit with partially opened concrete top consisting of decomposing foetuses/condemned carcases was seen with the presence of flies, rodents and other disease carrying vectors. The presence of lettuce vegetable farm around the soakaway pit exposes the product to contamination with pathogenic microorganisms and by extension constitutes a serious health hazard to consumers who use lettuce to prepare fresh salad. The abattoir had no toilet facilities and residential buildings were in close proximity to the abattoir. Food vendors, meat sellers and meat buyers were seen within the abattoir carrying out their daily activities unchecked. Only two (18.2%) out of the eleven individuals processing abattoir by-products utilize personal protective gears.
Conclusion: The daily operation at Zango Abattoir predisposes the public to health hazards and there is need to maintain accepted international practices in abattoir operation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Correlates of African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Distribution in Manyara Area, Tanzania

John Kioko, Victoria Herbert, Daniel Mwetta, Yustina Kilango, Maia Murphy-Williams, Christian Kiffner

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 147-154
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12470

African elephants are a dominant feature of the African Savannah. Their numbers are however declining, partly due to habitat alteration and loss. Understanding how elephants respond to environmental variables and anthropogenic activities is necessary in conserving elephant habitats. This has become imperative in human dominated rangelands such as the Tarangire Manyara Ecosystem (TME). We present a baseline survey on the effects of formal protection, presence of agriculture, roads, urban areas and specific habitat characteristics (surface water presence, tree density, vegetation cover and habitat type) on elephant distribution (indicated by elephant dung) in Manyara Ranch (MR), Lake Manyara National Park (LMNP) and the adjacent community area (CA). We supplemented the dung survey with opportunistic direct elephant sightings. Twenty six elephant groups were identified within the study area. Elephant dung density was higher within protected areas than in the CA. Elephants largely avoided farmland and urban areas but not main roads. Elephant dung density was positively related to tree density and habitat cover but not tree height. There was differential distribution of bull and family elephant groups from fresh surface water points. The family groups remained in closer proximity to fresh surface water than male groups, and family groups avoided areas with high poaching pressure. Results suggest that protection of suitable habitat, strategic water provision, law-enforcement and wildlife friendly land-use planning is key for the future of elephants in TME. We propose Community Based Conservation (CBS) mechanisms that engage local people and village governments to ensure that elephants are able to move between protected areas. We recommend consistent monitoring of elephant movement and habitat use outside protected areas in the TME.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Spirogyra rhizobrachialis, Merismopedia elegans and Synedra spp as Potential Sources of Proteases

Sunday E. Atawodi, Samuel C. Uruawuike, Salman A. Abdullahi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 155-164
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/8840

Aims: To isolate and characterise the proteases from Spirogyra rhizobrachialisMerismopedia elegans and Synedra species in order to evaluate them as potential sources of protease.
Study Design: Three Algae species were evaluated as potential sources of protease.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria-Nigeria, between March 2013 and August 2013.
Methodology: A study on the potentials of Algae as source of proteases was conducted using three species of Algae, namely, Spirogyra rhizobrachialis, Merismopedia elegans and Synedra species which were identified and classified microscopically following fixation with Lugol solution. Proteases from these species were then characterised by determining their kinetic properties with respect to the rate of production of tyrosine at 660 nm using casein as substrate. The effects of Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+ andHg2+ on the protease activity were monitored.
Results: Protease from S. rhizobrachialis had the most catalytic efficiency of 0.152 and most specificity to casein with a Km value of 3.125g/L. The divalent cations; Ca2+, Mg2+ were found to activate the enzyme from all three Algae species. Mn2+ served also as an activator for the protease in all but Synedra spp. where it inhibited the protease activity. In all three Algae species, Hg2+ was found to inhibit the enzyme.
Conclusion: The result shows that S. rhizobrachialis is a better source of protease amongst the three strains, and hence could add to the pool of microbial sources of proteases for industrial applications and other biotechnological processes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of Some Commonly Eaten Vegetables in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria

Olorunfemi A. Eseyin, Goodnews Charlie Etiemmana, Monday Enobong, Aniekan Ebong, Iweh Etim, Sunday A. Udobre, Ekarika Johnson, Emmanuel Attih, Asanga Effiong

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 165-173
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13439

Aims: To evaluate the antioxidant components and also antioxidant activities of ten local vegetables commonly consumed in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria between April 2011 and July 2012.
Methodology: Standard methods were used to evaluate the concentration of total phenols, vitamin C, vitamin E, total flavonoids, total tannins, anthocyanin, β-carotene and lycopene in the leaves of Heinsia crinata, Ocimum gratissimum, Telfaira occidentalis, Talinum triangulare, Corchorus olitorius, Amaranthus hybridus, Gnetum africana, Vernonia amygdalina, Gongronema latifolia and Lasianthera africana. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), iron chelating activity, Nitric oxide and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activities, and total antioxidant activity were also determined using standard methods.
Results: Lasianthera africana recorded the highest amount of Lycopene (0.9951±2.23× and Anthocyanin (0.0943±1.30×10-3). Gongronema latifolium also recorded the highest amount of Tannin (6.6±1.01×10-3 mg/100g) and β-carotene (1.692±1.31×10-4 mg/100 ml). Similarly, Hensia crinata, Cochorius olitorius and Vernonia amygdalina recorded the highest amount of Vitamin E (24.761±7.22×10-2 µM), total phenol (0.100±6.84×10-5 mg/ml) and flavonoids (36.784±1.72×10-2 mg/ml), respectively. Ocimum gratissimum gave the highest % inhibition (74.0%) of DPPH at a concentration of 60 µg/ml of extracts compared to the standard drugs (Vitamin C, 92.0% and Vitamin E, 35.0%). Vernonia amygdalina showed highest inhibition (89.97%) of Nitric Oxide while Ocimum gratissimum inhibited ferric reducing antioxidant activity by 91.43%. It was found that Vitamin C correlated significantly with the antioxidant activity (r2=0.7072, P=0.05). Flavonoids also correlated significantly with the Ferric Reducing antioxidant Power (r2=0.6784, P<0.05).
Conclusion: Ocimum gratissimum exhibited the best antioxidant activity and should be explored further for this purpose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Distribution, Frequency and Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis in Syria

M. Meihiar, M. Ahmad, F. Al-Zyoud, K. Amer

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 174-183
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/11565

Aims: Bacillus thuringiensis is distinguished by its production of proteinaceous parasporal inclusion bodies during sporulation, which when ingested by susceptible insects, are activated in the midgut into toxins. B. thuringiensis can be isolated from numerous sources; however, there has been no recorded isolation of B. thuringiensis strains from Syria. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the distribution, frequency and toxicity of B. thuringiensis isolated from different ecosystems in Syria.
Study Design: This study describes the first isolation of the entomopathogenic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis in Syria.
Place and Duration of Study: Scientific Agriculture Research Center in Lattakia, Syria, 2011-2012.
Methodology: B. thuringiensis was isolated from soil samples collected from twenty different ecosystem-sites. The characterization of B. thuringiensis isolates was performed using morphological examination of colony morphology and formation of parasporal inclusion bodies. The crystal morphology of B. thuringiensis was observed by scanning electron microscopy. A bioassay was done to test the efficacy of B. thuringiensis against Galleria mellonella.
Results: Forest, beach and cultivated soils had more B. thuringiensis strains than uncultivated and interior arid soils. The frequency of B. thuringiensis was partially dependant on organic matter and pH content of the soil. A total of 65% of the isolates was found to be toxic to G. mellonella. The most toxic isolate of B. thuringiensis was obtained from cultivated area and produced bipyramidal, cuboidal and rectangular inclusions.
Conclusion: The comparison of the distribution of B. thuringiensis in different ecosystems might lead to a better understanding of the ecology of this organism. It is widespread in diverse environments including beaches and uncultivated soils. The presence of organic matter increases the population of B. thuringiensisin soils, suggesting that the bacteria have parasitic and saprophytic properties that let them to multiply both inside and outside insects' bodies.

Open Access Review Article

‘Synbiofilm’- A Friendly Microbial Association in Aquatic Ecosystem

Surjya Kumar Saikia, Sudarshana Nandi, Sandip Majumder

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 97-108
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/10368

‘Biofilm’ is a multi-community microbial association living on submerged substrates. Using the online search engine to identify the 100 most recent journal articles, we found that the term ‘biofilm’ had been extensively used by journals from medical/pathological disciplines to mean virulent microbial associations in the human body. The question is, whether natural aquatic biofilms different from these virulent ones? Should we hold a separate view regarding natural aquatic biofilms? Ecological journals use ‘periphyton’ to address similar microbial associations living on submerged substrates. We have discussed the development of biofilm in water and emphasized that natural biofilm is a totally heterogeneous interdependent balanced ecological aggregation of different microbial organisms where ‘periphyton’ occupies an advanced successional form. Contrary to the pathogenic biofilms, natural biofilms from undisturbed aquatic ecosystems are exclusively ‘synbiotic’ in their mode of survival. We therefore propose the term ‘synbiofilm’ to maintain a classical distinction between natural aquatic biofilm and pathogenic biofilms.