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Open Access Original Research Article

Acaricide and Fungicide Effects of the Artemisia vulgaris Essential Oil

Leyla B. Soares, Edna C. Tucci, Edlayne Gonçalez, Roberto C. Felicio, Joana D. Felicio

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 285-292
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13190

Aims: This study aimed to determine the chemical constitution of the essential oil from Artemisia vulgarisleaves and also evaluated the toxicity of the essential oil against Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite) and Aspergillus flavus.
Methodology: The essential oil was obtained from A. vulgaris leaves by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. D. gallinae mortality was observed over a 24 h period at concentrations of 0.10; 0.19; 0.39; 0.59, and 0.78 µL /cm2 of essential oil, respectively. The fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion assay.
Results: The main chemical constituents were monoterpens α–thujone (48.46%), β– thujone (7.95%), caryophyllene (6.29%), and camphor (3.36%). Both concentrations (0.59 and 0.78 µL/cm2) were toxic to D. gallinae, with mortality of 62.0 and 97.8 %, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 values were 0.522 and 0.738 µL/cm2, respectively. A. flavus growth was inhibited from 41 to 88.58%.
Conclusion: These results indicate that A. vulgaris will be a promising alternative for the control of D. gallinae and A. flavus, contributing to pest management of importance in agribusiness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Forage Quality Variations among Some Sudan Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br] Collection

Sara A. Babiker, Mohammed A. M. Khair, Izzat S. A. Tahir, Faisal M. A. Elhag

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 293-298
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12575

Aims: This experiment aimed at identification of some forage-quality attributes of Sudan pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) collection for possible future utilization.
Study Design: Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications.
Place and Duration of Study: The analysis was carried out at the feed analysis laboratory, Elobeid Research Station of Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), Elobeid, Sudan.
Methodology: The selected accessions (42 rainy sown and 38 winter sown) for proximate chemical entities were from 100 pearl millet accessions evaluated for dry matter yield in two field trials. Prior to the proximate quality analysis, the dried samples were ground and oven dried once again. The dried samples were used in 3 replicates for the proximate analysis to determine crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF) and Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE).
Results: Among the studied accessions, nine (in both rainy and winter seasons) had Crude protein (CP%) more than 9%. Nineteen accessions (in rainy) and 36 (in winter) had Crude fiber (CF%) less than 40%, whereas 25 (in rainy) and 32 (in winter) had Nitrogen free extract (NFE%) more than 40%. Among the CP-based top ranking 10 accessions, some combined high crude protein yield (CPY) with high quality attributes across both seasons. For instance, HSD 2243 was associated with highest CP (16.2%), high CPY (1.72 t/ha) and low CF (30.6%). HSD 2146 was associated with adequately high CP (11.1%), high CPY (1.07 t/ha), low CF (35.2 %) and high NFE (50.5%) and HSD 2231 was associated with comparatively lower CP (9.7%), but with high CPY (0.9 t/ha), low CF (29.2 %) and high NFE (49.2%).
Conclusion: Some accessions of pearl millet viz, HSD 2231, HSD 2243 and HSD 2146 with high forage yield and high forage quality across both seasons were identified. These accessions with their high CP% and high crude protein yield in both seasons could further be evaluated for multiple cutting over both seasons.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Helicobacter pylori IgG Antibody with Microvascular Complications in Type II Diabetic Patients

Jamshid Vafaeimanesh, Mohammad Bagherzadeh, Vahid Damanpak, Mahmoud Parham

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 299-306
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/11148

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HP infection and microvascular complications of type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Qom, Iran, between March 2012 and March 2013.
Methodology: In this cross-sectional study 211 T2DM patients have been examined. Subjects were divided into two groups (HP+ and HP-) based on HP infection (diagnosed with IgG serology), and the association between these groups and microvascular complications of T2DM including nephropathy (based on protein excretion in 24-hour urine collection), retinopathy (based on examination by an ophthalmologist) and neuropathy (diapason and monofilament examination) has been evaluated.
Results: Of the 211 subjects studied, 125 (59.24%) were HP+. The mean diabetes duration was not significantly different in both groups. A significant association was found between HP infection and diabetic neuropathy (p=0.04), but there was no correlation between HP infection and diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy (p=0.2 and p=0.43, respectively). Conclusion: Infection with H. pylori increases the risk of diabetic neuropathy and is considered as a possible risk factor diabetic neuropathy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gingival Crevicular Fluid Levels of Interleukin – 18 in Chronic Periodontitis and Aggressive Periodontitis – A Comparative Study

S. Thirumalai, Sheeja Varghese

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 321-329
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13367

Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the levels of IL-18 in gingival crevicular fluid of chronic periodontitis patients, aggressive periodontitis patients and healthy controls and to correlate them with clinical parameters of the disease.
Materials and Methods: The study populations include chronic periodontitis (20), aggressive periodontitis (20) and healthy subjects (20). The clinical parameters such as PI, GI, PPD, and CAL were assessed. GCF samples were collected from the site with the deepest probing depth. The levels of IL-18 were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: The mean levels of IL-18 in GCF for healthy controls were 441.5+1434.2, for chronic periodontitis group it was 1160.4+3096.9, and for aggressive periodontitis group it was 784.3+1834.3. There was no statistically significant difference observed between the three groups (p=0.205). The correlations obtained between clinical parameters and IL-18 levels were found to be statistically insignificant.
Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the levels of IL-18 in GCF between healthy controls, chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis groups. There is no significant correlation between the levels of IL-18 and clinical parameters such as PI, GI, PPD, and CAL in chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Generalized Estimating Equations to Compare the Effect of Two Methods in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis

Afshar Shahmohammadi, Akbar Biglarian, Enayatollah Bakhshi, Khosro Khademi Kalantari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 330-334
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12068

Background: We aimed to compare the effect of two different treatment methods on severity pain in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 female patients with severe knee OA were randomly assigned into two parallel groups: An intervention group received standard physiotherapy treatment accompanied by knee traction, and a control group received only standard physiotherapy treatment. Both groups were subjected to a follow-up period of 5 weeks (10 times). Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to estimate the odds of a pain as a function of the groups adjusted for potential confounders.
Results: Using intervention as the reference group, the pain odds ratios was 3.17 (95% CI: 1.24—8.09) for control group.
Conclusion: We would recommend using of the common physiotherapy treatment accompanied by knee traction instead of common physiotherapy procedure in patients with severe knee OA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of the Various Solvents on the In vitro Permeability of Indomethacin through Whole Abdominal Rat Skin

Anayatollah Salimi, Eskandar Moghimipour, Faride Rahmani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 335-346
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13410

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of some solvents on in vitro dermal absorption of indomethacin.
Methods: The effects of different solvents such as Plurololeique, Labrasol, Tween 80, Isopropyl myristate and PEG 400 on indomethacin permeation through pretreated rat skin were evaluated. A specially designed Franz diffusion cell was used and the data were compared to the results of hydrated abdominal rat skin as a common control. The measured permeability parameters included permeability coefficient (Kp), diffusion coefficient (D) and flux (Jss). Enhancement mechanisms were studied by comparing changes in peak wave number position and their intensities of asymmetric (Asy) and symmetric (Sym) C-H stretching, lipid ester carbonyl stretching in SC, C=O stretching (Amide I) and C-N stretching of keratin (Amide II) absorbance using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), their mean transition temperature (Tm) and enthalpies (ΔH) were also compared.
Results: All the solvent materials significantly increased flux (Jss) (p<0.05), with isopropyl myristate showing the greatest enhancement ratio (ERflux) based on flux followed by Tween 80, plurololeique, polyethylene glycol 400 and labrasol. The ERflux for all the solvents was higher than ERD. Plurololeique, isopropyl myristate and Tween 80 significantly increased diffusion coefficient (p<0.05) compared to hydrated rat skin. Lipid fluidization, lipid disruption structure and the irreversible denaturation of proteins in the SC layer of skin by isopropyl myristate, Tween 80 and plurololeique, as indicated by FT-IR and DSC, is the main factor for higher ERflux and ERD ratios compared to control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Osmotic Stress Effect on Different Cytological Characters of Roots and Growth Parameters in Different Wheat Species

N. V. Terletskaya, N. A. Khailenko

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 347-356
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/11825

Aims: To show how and why seedling growth parameters and different cytological characters of the roots of different wheat species may vary during osmotic stress conditions. To identify species that are tolerant to a lack of moisture in the early stages of ontogenesis.
Study Design: The experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology at 26°C±2°Ð¡ and at 3000 lux illumination. All experiments were performed in three biological replicates. At least 25 plants were studied in replication.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Laboratory of Cell engineering, Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2014.
Methodology: Plantlets of different species of wheat were grown for 7 days in culture water; then, for 72 hours, they were exposed to stress (a 17.6% sucrose solution). Control plantlets were grown in water. Growth, biomass accumulation, and parameters of root security were measured. Cytological examination of the root cells was carried out with squash preparation.
Results: The differences between the types of growth parameters and cytological characteristics of the root cells under stress are shown. The species identified that are tolerant to a lack of moisture in the early stages of ontogenesis are T. dicoccum Schuebl. and T. aethiopicum Jakubz.
Conclusion: Ðs a result of the experiments shows a clearly expressed common nonspecific cytological responses of cells of the root system of cereals to osmotic stress - reduction of linear growth parameters, plasmolysis. At the same time are marked a variety of specific changes, which depend on the genotype of the test forms. Nonspecific response processes of cells in the root systems studied in various species of wheat to osmotic stress can offer recommendations as to which methods can be used to assess drought resistance among any species or varieties of wheat in the early stages of ontogenesis. The degree of species specificity studied in response to osmotic stress renders it possible to identify forms that are tolerant to a lack of moisture in the early stages of ontogenesis. Wheat species such as T. dicoccum Schuebl. and T. aethiopicum Jakubz, have the most stable indicators of the development of the root system of seedlings under osmotic stress; they can serve as valuable sources of these parameters when crossing them with cultivated varieties of wheat to improve drought resistance in modern varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary In-vitro Assessment of Some Phytochemical Constituents and Radical Scavenging Activity of Methanol Extracts of Five Flowers Varieties

Ogugua N. Victor, Anaduaka G. Emeka, Agba J. Chukwuka, Apeh O. Victor, Egba I. Simeon, Agu C. Victor, Ogbu N. Patience

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 357-365
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/11188

This work evaluated some phytochemical constituents and radical scavenging activity of the flower samples of Allamanda carthica, Delonix regia, Hibiscus rosasinensis, Plumeria rubra and Tercoma stans. Methanol extracts of different flower samples were used for the phytochemical analysis. The result obtained showed that Tercoma stans has the highest yield (14.45%) followed by Hibiscus rosasinensis (12.36%), Delonix regia(11.36%), Allamanda Cathartica (10.11%) and Plumeria rubra (8.99%) while the preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening showed that alkaloid was absent in all the extracts. The methanol extracts of the five flower samples indicated the presence of flavonoids and saponins in significant quantities. With the exception of Allamanda Cathartica and Delonix regia all other extracts dictates the presence of protein. Glycosides were not detected in Allamanda carthica and Tercoma stans, but were found in other samples. Tannins were detected in small quantities in the five flower samples. Methanol extract of Allamanda Cathartica, Delonix regia, Hibiscus rosasinensis, Plumeria rubra and Tercoma stans were prepared for the assessment of the antioxidant scavenging properties using the DPPH model and ascorbic acid as standard. The result obtained from the antioxidant activity was used to plot a graph of absorbance against time. The ascorbic acid standard showed the highest activity at 0.8 mg/dl. The methanol extracts of the flower samples showed varying degree of antioxidant activity in the decreasing order, as follows: Plumeria rubra>Tercoma stans>Allamanda Cathartica>Hibiscus rosasinensis>Delonix regia. The result suggests that the phytochemical and antioxidant properties of the flowers could be used for medicinal purposes since some insects and birds depend on the nectar produced from these flowers for survival.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytology of Morphological Mutants of Vicia faba L. var. vikrant

Shahnawaz khursheed, Samiullah khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 366-371
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13765

Mutation breeding is an important tool in bringing genetic variability in plants. Different physical and chemical mutagens are used in mutation breeding to enhance variability. The present experiment was conducted to induce genetic variability in Vicia faba L. var. Vikrant, an autogamous crop, by gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) used singly or in combinations. Some mutants were identified in M2 generation which differed morphologically from the control plants. These mutants showed various chromosomal abnormalities. Higher combination treatment plants showed more frequency of meiotic abnormalities than individual doses/concentrations treated plants. Most of the desired mutants viz., bushy mutants, opposite leaves mutant and mutant with four flowers at a node were obtained in lower doses/concentrations of individual treatments whereas the higher combination treatments produced undesired mutants viz., unbranched mutant and one sided branched mutant.

Open Access Review Article

Molecules of Interest – Mangiferin – A Review

Mahendran Sekar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 307-320
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12669

Mangiferin is a 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside that has been reported to occur naturally in several genera. It exhibits a wide array of biological activities and also in several cases is responsible for the traditional use of its natural sources. It has been shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities, and thus has several possible applications in clinical research. This review presents a comprehensive literature search of different studies carried out on this secondary metabolite, especially its antidiabetic, anticancer, and antioxidant effects as well as, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of mangiferin and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale. Therefore, further investigations may help in exploiting its properties and developing phyto-pharmaceuticals based on it.