Open Access Original Research Article

Cypermethrin-Induces Oxidative Stress to the Freshwater Ciliate Model: Paramecium tetraurelia

Ryma Amamra, Mohamed Reda Djebar, Nedjoud Grara, Ouissem Moumeni, Hadjer Otmani, Amel Alayat, Houria Berrebbah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 385-399
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/10852

Synthetic Pyrethroids are considered to be safe over other insecticides; however, data indicate that their use may pose risk to environmental biota, especially, aquatic organisms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cypermethrin, a widely used insecticide and one of the most common contaminants in freshwater aquatic system on the oxidative stress biomarkers of the freshwater ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.
After the treatment of paramecium cells with increasing concentrations of cypermethrin (0.05, 0.5,1, 2μg/l), we followed up the growth kinetics, generation time and the response percentage. Also, we studied the variation in biomarkers of stress such as: Proteins, GSH content, GST and CAT activities.
Our results showed a significant decrease in the proliferation of cell, we denote a difference of nearly 1,900 cells between the control cells and those treated with (2μg/l) at the fourth day of treatment. This finding is correlated by the decrease in generation number and velocity and the increase in generation time. Also, we noted an inhibition in the response percentage: It varies from (20%) to (54%) for 0.5μg/l and 2μg/l respectively.
The rate of total proteins increased in dose dependent manner and very highly significant for the tow highest concentrations (1 and 2μg/l).
The monitoring of biomarkers revealed a depletion in GSH content in a proportional and dose dependent manner (it is 7.34188758μmol/mg Pro for the control whereas it is 2.41682134μmol/mg Pro for 2μg/l ) accompanied by an increase in the GST activity (we note an increase of the order of 1.62932472μM/min/mg Pro for the highest concentration compared to the control which is of the order of 0.59883133μM/min/mg Pro) .In parallel, a strong induction of the CAT activity was noted specially for the highest dose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacognostic and Wound Healing Studies of the Leaves of Bassia eriophora (Family: Chenopodiaceae) on Albino Rats

Hasan Soliman Yusufoglu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 400-408
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13069

Objective: To study the pharmacognostic profile and wound healing effect of aerial parts of Bassia eriophora (Family: Chenopodiaceae), a wild plant in Saudi Arabia, on albino rats.
Methods: The microscopy, phytochemical and physiochemical evaluation of the Bassia eriophora aerial parts were carried out according to the standard procedure based on WHO guidelines. Toxicity and wound healing effects of this plant was performed to explore the medicinal values.
Results: Microscopically aerial parts of Bassia eriophora contains paracytics stomata, Long covering trichome, phloem fibers in a groups, spiny pollen grain, tannin containing cells, rosette crystals of calcium oxalate, spiral vessels, xylem vessels and fibers which serve as useful pharmacopoeial parameters for identifications. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins terpens, tannins and flavonoids in alcohol extract. Physiochemical parameters such as total ash (20.62±0.30), moisture content (6.56±0.04) were revealed while distilled water extractive values was found more when compared with methanol extracts. The gel of Bassia eriophora was prepared and doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg were applied on excision wound. Significant reduction (p≤0.001) in wound size was observed.
Conclusion: In the present studies pharmacognostics parameters of Bassia plants was established and pharmacologically it showed a non toxic and the use of gel containing Bassia eriophora extract as a wound-healing agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Opioid System (β-endorphin) and Stress Hormones Profiling in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

F. Z. Zangeneh, M. M. Naghizadeh, A. Abdollahi, N. Abedinia

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 409-418
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12932

Aims: In this study, we investigated serumβ-endorphin and its feedback system in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO). Experimental and clinical studies show that there is an over activity of sympathetic nervous system in PCOS. It affects quality of life and can worsen anxiety and depression either due to the features of PCOS or due to the diagnosis of a chronic disease.
Study Area and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Vali-e-Asr Clinic, a Reproductive Health Research Center, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences between February 2012 and April 2013.
Methodology: 77 women with PCO were studied with diagnose criteria and within the age range of 20-40 years without special disease. Stress neurohormones, beta-endorphine and melatonin serum levels were measured in study group and were compared with healthy women as control group. A questionnaire with items related to pieces of information about stress was used for data collection. Stress symptoms were assessed using the Understanding Yourself questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Ver. 13.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, ILL, USA). The data are presented as mean ± SD or as frequency with percentages. A p-value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.
Results: Data of serum levels of neurohormones showed, beta endorphin decreased (P<0.001) and adrenaline increased (P<0.001) in women with PCO. Significantly inhibited the opioid system may be one of the main reasons of the hyperactivity in two super systems: HPA and sympathetic nervous system.
Conclusion: Earlier reports stated that opioid system decreases sympathetic tone in the brain in normal condition, our results in this study confirm the over activity of sympathetic nervous system which was due to decreasing opioid system activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrom (PCO).

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Water-Yield Functions of Dry-Season Fadama-Grown Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Under Differential Irrigation in a Rainforest Zone of Nigeria

S. O. Agele, I. A. Agbona, I. B. Famuwagun, S. K. Ogundare

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 419-432
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/9449

Field experiments were conducted to assess the effects of differential irrigation on the growth, stress development and water- yield functions of dry season fadama-grown pepper in a humid rainforest zone of Nigeria. The aims were to characterize water productivity of pepper (crop yield production functions) and develop the drought response factor Ky in relation to irrigation (Ir) and total crop water-use (ETc). Four irrigation treatments were studied based on the restoration of depleted soil moisture (the levels of cumulative pan evaporation: Epan). These were 100%, 80%, 60%, and 40% of EPan which indicate relative water deficit of 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 respectively in order to attain maximum and minimum plant water stress conditions. Irrigation was fixed at 5 days-interval at EPan coefficient (Kcp) of 0.70 and accumulated pan evaporation. The amount at each irrigation and seasonal sum of irrigation were 4.82 l/day; 127500 mm and 1.93 l/day; 20400 mm for the respective well irrigated control (DI1) and the more stressfull (DI4) treatment. Fruit yields of pepper plants declined with increasing soil moisture deficits. Highest fruit yields were obtained under the well watered control (DI1; 11.2 t/ha) and lowest under the highest deficit irrigation (DI4; 7.1 t.ha−1). Maximum water use efficiencies (IWUE and WUE) were observed in D11 (0.88 and 1.52 kg. m−3) and minimum in D14 treatments (2.73 and 1.33 kg. m−3). The values of irrigation and crop water use (evapotranspiration) efficiencies were (IWUE; 0.80, 1.12, 1.81 and 2.73; WUE (ETE;); 1.34, 1.54, 1.56 and 1.61 mm of water per ton dry matter respectively. The moisture stress sensitivity indices (drought response factor, ky) were computed from a: the relative yield (Ya/Ym) and the relative evapotranspiration (ETa/ETm) and b: relative yield (Ya/Ym) and soil moisture deficit (SAWa/SAWm) relationships of the water production models. The mean ky were 0.92 and 2.25 for the respective a and b models and 1.79 and 2.30 for the respective D/2 and D/4 treatments. The results indicated that the adopted models (a and b) are valid to be used to predict pepper yield under different irrigation applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

P. E. Eme, O. N. Onuoha

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 433-438
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/9919

Aims: The study determined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in secondary schools in Abia State, Nigeria.
Study Design: A cross-sectional school based survey was conducted among adolescents of Aba South L.G.A to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity.
Sample: A probability proportional to size was used to select 600 participants, aged 10-19 years from 10 schools. Place and duration of the study: Aba South LGA, study done between September and October, 2012.
Methodology: Their weight, height, waist, hip, body mass index and triceps skinfold were assessed. Overweight and obesity was defined using IOTF, CDC and NHANES III cutoff points. Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) was compared with the WHO standards. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Chi-square analysis was used to test the categorical variables at P<0.05.
Results: The prevalence of overweight seems high in both genders (3.0% and 6.7% in males and females respectively) (p=0.005) while obesity prevalence was low (1.0% and 2.5% in males and females respectively) (0.085). More female adolescents (1.2%) than males (0.3%) were classified as obese when triceps skinfold was used as a measure of obesity. About 36.0% of the adolescents were at high health risk when WHR was used as measure of classification.
Conclusion: Based on the findings, it was concluded that there is need for individualized dietary education among adolescents in secondary schools in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Somatic Embryogenesis in Ferula assa-foetida L. (a Rare Medicinal Plant)

Mahmoud Otroshy, Shirin Roozbeh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 439-448
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12110

Experiments was carried out to examine the effect of abscisic acid (ABA), source of carbon and temperature on secondary somatic embryogenesis and somatic embryo germination of Ferula assa-foetida L. Cotyledonary somatic embryos were cultured on MS (Murashig and Skoog, 1962) medium supplemented with 0, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mg/l ABA and on MS medium with 3% mannitol, sorbitol or sources. The highest number of secondary somatic embryos (35.94) was observed on MS medium devoid of ABA at 25°C, but the addition of abscisic acid, sorbitol or manitol to the MS basal medium significantly reduced the formation of secondary somatic embryos at 5°C. The concentration of abscisic acid had a significant effect on the rate of secondary somatic embryogenesis. Among the carbon source studied, mannitol significantly suppressed the induction of secondary somatic embryos. Abscisic acid had a positive effect on the percentage of somatic embryo germination. Higher germination was observed with1.0 or 1.5 mg/l ABA, but it was not significantly affected by sorbitol or manitol. Abscisic acid increased germination at 15°C and 25°C while sorbitol and manitol enhanced it at 5°C.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiology and Biochemistry Effects of Herbicides Sekator and Zoom on Two Varieties of Wheat (Waha and HD) in Semi-Arid Region

Souahi Hana, Meksem Amara Leila, Grara Nedjoud, Djebar Mohamed Reda

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 449-459
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/9349

Aims: Herbicides are the most effective tool against the major weeds of cultivated plants, and are necessary in maintaining or increasing crop yields. However, most of these molecules are highly toxic for crop. Their massive and repeatly use can cause adverse effects on all components of the environment. The purpose of this study was to test the toxicity of two herbicides (Sekator and Zoom) on the physiology and biochemistry of hard wheat: Triticum durum Desf and common wheat: Triticum aestivum L in Tebessa. Both of the areas are considered as semi-arid zone of eastern Algeria.
Methodology: The herbicides were applied at tillering stage in the dose full recommended doses (150 ml /ha of Sekator and 120 g/ ha of Zoom). After eight days of treatment leaves were collected to determine different physiological and biochemical parameters (chlorophyll, soluble sugar and proline).
Results: The results validated by statistical analysis revealed that the levels of chlorophyll b and soluble sugars in plants subjected to the effect of two herbicides (Sekator and Zoom ) were significantly lower compared to untreated plants and the chlorophyll a were higher in the variety Waha treated with herbicide Zoom. There was a significant increase in proline content in plant samples treated with the herbicide Zoom in Hidhab variety.
Conclusion: Finally, the determination of herbicide in the leaves of wheat shows a greater diminution in chlorophyll b and soluble sugar for HD variety.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Microrhizome Formation in Kaempferia parviflora

A. R. Zuraida, K. Fatin Liyana Izzati, O. Ayu Nazreena, Nurnadhira Omar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 460-467
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13950

Plantlets produced in vitro from rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora were used as the source of explants for microrhizome development. Sixty percent of the plantlets formed microrhizomes in liquid medium supplemented with1 mg/L BAP+1 mg/L NAA, with 60 g/L sucrose. The treatment gave the highest fresh weight of microrhizomes, at 265 mg/plantlet. This optimized protocol is suitable for the commercial production of disease-free Kaempferia microrhizomes that can be stored and transported easily.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Soil Amendment Materials on Some of the Physicochemical Properties of Soil and Wheat Yield

Farzad Jalili

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 468-476
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/11113

Aims: This research was performed for investigating the effect of two kinds of soil amendment materials on physicochemical properties of soil and wheat yield.
Study Design: Experimental design was factorial experiments based on randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in private field in Khoy, (Latitude 38° 46' 09" N, Longitude 45° 02' 07" E) West Azerbaijan of Iran in 2013.
Methodology: The factors included sulfur at 4 levels (0, 200, 400, 600 kg.ha-1) and organic matters (from decomposed cow manure) at three levels (0, 20, 40 t.ha-1).
Results: The results showed that main effect sulfur was significant on grain and biological yield and pH of soil. Effect of OM was significant on all of studied traits, while interaction effect of two factors was significant statistically on grain yield. Comparison of mean of traits also showed that levels of experimental factors lead to improvement in studied traits and in terms of grain yield, maximum of 5249 kg.ha-1 was related to application of 600 kg.ha-1 sulfur along with application of 20 t.ha-1 OM that showed 1625 kg.ha-1increase compared to that of the control treatment of both of experimental factors. Among different levels of sulfur the application of 600 kg.ha-1 was related to application of 20 t.ha-1 OM, which caused improvement in studied traits of soil so that when application amount of OM increased, pH, bulk density and particle density decreased, while EC, OC and soil porosity increased.
Conclusion: Considering other studied traits in this research, we can conclude that application of 600 kg.ha-1 sulfur and 20 t.ha-1 OM is appropriate for increasing or promoting of quality and quantity yield of wheat and improving of physicochemical properties soil.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Host-Parasite Relationships

N. Ukibe Solomon, I. Mbanugo James, N. Obi-Okaro Alphonsus, R. Ukibe Nkiruka

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 372-384
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/10263

Host parasite relationships result from prolonged associations between organisms living in a given environment. The nature and extent of the association will determine the type of relationship existing between the co-habiting organisms. Host-parasite associations usually give rise to four main relationships namely parasitism, mutualism, commensalism and phoresis.Host