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Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Citrus Peel Amendment on the Mobility of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soil

B. Lorestani, M. Cheraghi, H. Merrikhpour

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 490-500
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/11512

To estimate the effect of aging on the mobility of heavy metals in soil, relationships between mobility of metals in soil and time after contamination were investigated. Copper, nickel and zinc were added as chloride solution to soil sample. Citrus peel as soil amendments was used at the rate of 5% to immobilize copper, nickel and zinc in contaminated soil. The soils were incubated at field capacity for 3 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at 25°C.
Mobility of copper, nickel and zinc from control soils and soils amended with citrus peel were studied with the aid of reduction of metals concentration in the exchangeable fraction.
Results indicated that the citrus peel reduced the exchangeable fraction of metals in contaminated soil after 28 days. Application of citrus peel amendment with acidic pH value showed the low immobilizing efficiency of copper, nickel and zinc in the beginning of incubation time in this study due to decrease in soil pH.
Batch adsorption of copper, nickel and zinc was conducted to evaluate the effect of contact time, from aqueous solution to understand the mechanism of sorption involved. Fit of the sorption experimental data was tested on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics mathematical equations, which was noted to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics better, with coefficient of correlation ≥0.99.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Status, Organ Integrity and Lipid Profile of Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Rats Following Pre-treatment with Methanolic Extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga Benth Leaf

Sunday Ene-Ojo Atawodi, Samson Yusufu, Emmanuel Onoja, Precious Idakwo, Mercy Olubodun, Haruna Yaya, Sakina Dewu Muhammad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 501-511
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13286

Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and organ protective activities Crossopteryx febrifuga Benth, in male albino rats.
Methods: Animals were intraperitoneally pretreated with the methanolic extract of the leaf at 10mg/kg dose before intoxication with CCl4 (0.6mL/Kg). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed by measuring levels of aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb), while the antioxidant status was monitored by levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and kidney function was evaluated by levels of urea and creatinine. Total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were determined spectrophotometrically at 540nm.
Results: Compared to the CCl4 control group, pre-treatment with methanolic extract of C. febrifuga leaves or vitamin E caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the levels of AST, ALT, urea, creatinine and total cholesterol with a concomitant boosting in the levels of SOD, catalase, HDL-cholesterol, PCV and hemoglobin concentrations.
Conclusion: These results suggest that C. febrifuga leaf contain substances that possess significant antioxidant, organ protective and hypolipidemic effects to justify its use in traditional medicine and further evaluation of its pharmacological properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Need for Cosmetic Rhinoplasty in A Nigerian Population

Babatunde O. Akinbami

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 529-534
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14137

Background: Many individuals are affected psychologically either when they perceive a real or imagined deviation of any part of their face or when they desire the morphology of such parts to be like others. The purposes of our study were to determine tribal and sexual dimorphism of nasal indices of subjects in Nigerian population and to assess the satisfaction with the morphology of their nostrils.
Method: Two hundred subjects were recruited from the four tribes. Subjects were taken by random collection. Direct measurement technique was employed using a tape. Nasal height was measured from the frontonasal suture superiorly to the nasal sill inferiorly. The nasal width (maximum breadth of the nose) was measured between the two lateral crura of the ala base. All measurements were taken with the subject sitting in a chair in a relaxed condition and the head in a neutral anatomical position.
Result: There was a sexual dimorphism between the male and female whereby the female has a smaller nose than the male when compared. There were also differences in the nasal indices amongst the four groups, 95% were satisfied with their nose and 4.5% were not satisfied with their nose (5 females and 4 males).
Conclusion: Few subjects were not very satisfied with the form of their nostril and would have preferred the long, narrower and elevated nostrils but they did not desire cosmetic surgery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioformulations in Pest Control – A Review

Ana Paula Almeida Portela Silva, Roberto Teixeira Alves, Elza Aurea Luna Alves Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes Lima

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 535-543
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12395

Biotic and abiotic factors limit the action of entomopathogens and interfer for reaching the expected results. Moreover, the requirement of import and export markets for good quality foods with low content of toxic waste has increased. In this sense, new organic products have been developed in order to improve the stability, virulence and efficacy of entomopathogenic agent in the field. The aim of this paper is to report on the use of formulations with entomopathogenic fungi to control pests. About 12 species or varieties of fungi have been used as active ingredients in formulations of mycopesticides. A formulation can be defined as the combination of an active ingredient (such as entomopathogen), an inert carrier and an adjuvant which will improve the performance of the product, and also will be ease for handling and application. The Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are the most used fungi in formulations worldwide. The synergistic effect of fungal interactions with the phytosanitary product has attracted the attention of several researchers due to their potential to cause high mortality of the target insect, becoming a tool for deployment in integrated pest management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microsatellite Analysis of Six Populations of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Nigeria

S. A. Nwafili, Ren Guijing, Gao Tian Xiang

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 544-552
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/9638

Aim: To investigate the patterns and levels of genetic polymorphism and population structures of wild C. nigrodigitatus using the microsatellite DNA in Nigeria.
Place and Duration of Study: in Nigeria between 2008 and 2009, and Laboratory of Mariculture, Ocean University of China, 2009-2010.
Methodology: A total of 93 individuals of Chryscichthys nigrodigitatus obtained from 6 sites in Nigeria were used for the study. DNA extracted from alcohol preserved muscle tissue was amplified by PCR. Amplified products were detected using the silver staining technique to visualize bands.
Results: The four microsatellite loci indicate high genetic variation in all 6 populations of the species with the number of alleles and HO varying from 2-10 and 0.800-1.00 per locus, respectively. The NJ tree revealed a marginal genetic differentiation between two clades, which were not well supported. Significant genetic differences were detected between most samples. Freshwater or brackishwater habitat, limited long-distance dispersal of the adult and juveniles may account for breakdown of gene flow.
Conclusion: C. nigrodigitatus maintains sufficient intra population genetic variability and moderate inter population differentiation in the studied area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathologic Patterns of Adipocytic Tumours in University of Benin Teaching Hospital; A Twenty Year Retrospective Study

E. I. Odokuma, V. J. Ekanem, O.E. Osemeke

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 553-562
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13431

Introduction: Adipocytic (lipomatous) tumours have been described as soft tissue neoplasms composed of adipocytes at different stages of maturity. The predominant benign varieties are usually managed by surgical excision and therefore have much better prognosis than the malignant forms which have been associated with high fatality ratio. A detailed study of these lesions is therefore of enormous significance especially with the malignant varieties.
Materials and Method: The records of consultations during the 20-year period in the Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Benin Teaching Hospital were utilized for the study. Relevant clinical information was obtained from the available surgical pathology records. Approval for this study was obtained from University of Benin Teaching Hospital ethics committee; (Protocol number ADM/E22/VOLVII/742).
Results: A total of three hundred and twenty-five lesions (325) were recorded. Female cases (169; 52%) were observed to be more than in their male counterparts (156; 48%) but their frequencies were strongly correlated (p<0.001; r = 0.95). Benign tumours constituted the bulk of the tumours (312; 96%) while only 4% (13) were malignant. Most malignant adipocytic tumours were observed to occur in males 68% (8) and these were distributed within the second to ninth decade unlike in females where the lesions peaked in the fifth decade of life. Lipomas were the most common type of benign adipocytic tumours 99% (308). In this study, thirteen cases of liposarcomas were recorded.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that lipoma’s were the most common adipocytic soft tissue tumours. Generally, adipocytic tumours were commoner in females in the fourth decade of life, especially on the skin of the back and head amongst others and were majorly benign.

Open Access Review Article

Immunostimulants and Fish Culture: An Overview

Elsayed E. Mehana, Arshad H. Rahmani, Salah M. Aly

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 477-489
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/9558

Aquaculture is one of the fast growing foods producing sector worldwide. Cultured marine, freshwater fish as well as shellfish species are major contributors to fish production and also increase the annual production. Fish farming constitutes unique and significant berth in industrial scale production worldwide. Due to intensive fish farming practices, infectious disease pose a major problem in aquaculture industry globally especially causing heavy loss to farmers. Fish disease is rarely a simple association between pathogen, a host fish and environmental problems, such as poor water quality or others stressors often contribute to the outbreak of disease. Various types of antibiotics, chemotherapeutic and vaccines are in use to control or prevent viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal diseases. Unfortunately, vaccines are usually not able to confer protection on their own; especially those vaccines based on recombinant antigens or inactivated pathogens. Therefore, an alternative inexpensive and effective substitute is needed to enhance the activity of drugs. In this vista, use of adjuvants or immunostimulants is good remedy to increase the vaccine efficacy to control fish and shrimp diseases. Immunostimulants (IS) is a naturally occurring compound that modulates the pathogens via facilitate the function of phagocytic cells and also stimulate the natural killer cells (NK), complement, lysozyme and antibody responses of fish. The activation of the immunological functions by IS is associated with increased protection against both infectious and non-infectious diseases. In this review, we summarized the therapeutics importance of immunostimulants in fish culture and control of diseases development and progression.

Open Access Review Article

Derivatives of Ferulic Acid: Structure, Preparation and Biological Activities

Kehan Pei, Juanying Ou, Caihuan Huang, Shiyi Ou

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 512-528
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14104

Ferulic acid is a natural compound that possesses multiple physiological and pharmaceutical functions. The chemical, physical, and pharmaceutical properties of this phenolic acid can be improved by derivatives with other active compounds. This sentence (Hence, such improvements can widen the applications of ferulic acid in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.) has been deleted. This article reviewed the identification, preparation, and biological activities of feruloyl derivatives of carbohydrates, glycerol and glycerides, amide, fatty alcohol, myo-inositol, and nitric oxide. It also briefly discussed other derivatives. Researchers are encouraged to carry out toxicological, pharmacokinetic, and clinical investigation of potent active feruloyl derivatives and to develop other derivatives.