Open Access Short communication

In vitro Development of Chimeric Bovine Embryos Created by Combining a Single Blastomere of SCNT Embryos with an IVF Embryo

Daisaku Iwamoto, Chiaki Takahashi, Tatsuya Nakano, Ahmad. R. Al Himaidi, Masao Kishi, Kazuhiro Saeki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 79-84
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14839

In this study, we produced chimeric embryos from a single blastomere of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) bovine embryo and in-vitro fertilized (IVF) bovine embryo, and examined the rate of blastocyst development and the contribution of the SCNT blastomere to the blastocyst in order to improve cloning efficiency. We produced SCNT embryos from bovine fibroblasts carrying a luciferase gene under the control of the β-actin promoter. At 96 hours post fusion, chimeric embryos were produced by transferring a single blastomere of a 16-cell SCNT embryo to the perivitelline space of an IVF embryo. At 4 days after production of the chimeric embryos, half of the embryos reached the blastocyst stage, which is the same as that of IVF embryos. Furthermore, luciferase activity in blastocysts from the chimeric embryos was detected in both the inner cell mass and trophectoderm. These results indicate that single blastomeres of SCNT embryos contributed to both the inner cell mass and trophectoderm in blastocysts from chimeric embryos.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microscopic Analysis of Mustelus schmitti´s Uteri During Reproductive Cycle

Fernanda Gabriela Elías

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 20-32
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13940

Aims: It was analysed with light and electron microscopy the different zones of the Mustelus schmitti`suteri along the reproductive cycle.
Study Design: Histological routine techniques were used.
Place and Duration of Study: Specimens of Mustelus schmitti were collected from the Bahia Blanca estuary, each month, from 2002 to 2006. They were caught by longlines. The fishing was made at the top of the tide during the day.
Methologogy: A total of 24 animals were collected and processed; 11 were immature, 6 were maturing and 7 mature females; 4 of this last group were pregnant. Each animal was humanely sacrificed. A longitudinal ventral incision was made in each animal so as to remove the reproductive organs. The pieces were stored in Bouin solution for light microscopy and in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate with 12% saccarose for transmission.
Results: In immature animals, the simple columnar epithelium shows small and numerous folds, PAS (-) and AB (-). Beneath this epithelium, muscular fibers in longitudinal disposition alternate with connective tissue, finishing in a simple serosa.
The uterine epithelium of the anterior portion in mature females, between the isthmus and the cervix, is stratified, PAS (+) and AB (+). Three muscle layers continue and the first one displays a disposition like a net. The second layer has longitudinal fibers divided into two by vascularized connective tissue and the third, is very thin. A typical serosa encloses the organ. In the posterior portion of the uterus in mature females, the epithelium is also stratified but with more secretive cells.
The presence of sperm was detected in the cervix and in the posterior portion of the uterus suggesting a special uterine epithelial-sperm interaction.
Conclusion: The uteri suffer a cyclic remodelation not only in the epithelia but in the muscle layers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Time-kill Study of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Stinging Nettle on Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC CRM-6633 Strain NRS 231

Amir Modarresi Chahardehi, Darah Ibrahim, Shaida Fariza Sulaiman, Leila Mousavi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13571

Aims: This work investigated the antibacterial activity of selected ethyl acetate extract of Urtica dioica against Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC® CRM-6633™ Strain NRS 231 (subtilin producer) based on the time-kill approach. Also for further study, the effects of the ethyl acetate extract on B. subtilis cells was studied by performing Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
Study Design: Prospective
Methodology: According to our previous result, ethyl acetate extract was selected to be more potent against Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC® CRM-6633™ Strain NRS 231 based on its inhibition zone diameter. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of ethyl acetate extract against tested bacteria were performed and time-kill study as well as using SEM for further study on structural degeneration of the selected bacterial cells were performed.
Results: The MIC and MBC of the ethyl acetate extract against tested bacteria were found at 8.33 and 16.67 mg/mL from broth micro-dilution assay, respectively. The SEM observations gave ideas on the effects of ethyl acetate extract of U. dioica on the growth of B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC® CRM-6633™ Strain NRS 231. However, the results from SEM suggested that the antibacterial action was due to the internal shrinkage of the cells which collapsed finally. The time-kill approach, determined the kill rate of ethyl acetate extract of U. dioica against B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii ATCC® CRM-6633™ Strain NRS 231 and significantly inhibited the cell growth and possessed bacteriostatic activity at lower concentration (8.33 mg/mL).
Conclusion: This study showed the potential of U. dioica extract as alternative therapy against bacterial infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Appraisal of Introduced African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) in India: Invasion and Risks

A. K. Singh, Abubakar Ansari, Sharad C. Srivastava, Vinoy Kumar Shrivastava

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 41-58
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13375

Production trend, food and feeding, reproduction and distribution of clandestinely introduced African catfish Clarias gariepinus was studied in 419 grow out ponds. Hybrid African catfish was found more popular owing to its fast growth and because of recycling it with chicken and slaughterhouse wastes. The growth, survival and production of the fish was found to vary largely due to variations in stocking density, pond sizes, feeding types, level of cannibalism, predation, genetic lineage. The calculated growth of the fish ranged 23.52±2.8 g month-1 (minimum) in some grow-out farms while it was 223.14±18.8 g month-1 (maximum) in others. The computation of the grow-out farms as per the feed types revealed that 7% grow-out farms subsisted on naturally available pond food; while 29% farms, the fish was fed with slaughterhouse waste; in 32% farms, chicken waste was used as feed while in 11% cases fish waste material was provided and 21% ponds, the farmers used improvised convention feed or commercial pellet feed. The fish was found to possess human health risk as assessed for heavy metal contamination of lead (Pb) in chicken waste fed cultures. C. gariepinus was assessed as generalised piscivore, and invasive species therefore, we have attempted to understand the impacts associated with unauthorised introduction and spread of the fish in India. The highly carnivorous habit, tolerance to wide habitat and harsh environment and natural breeding of the fish warranted for its invasiveness which were attributable to the biodiversity loss. The issues associated with the culture and spread of the fish is discussed in this paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Threats to Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus murghi) in Deva Vatala National Park, District Bhimber, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

Faraz Akrim, Muhammad Siddique Awan, Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad Zubair Anjum, Siddiqa Qasim, Jehanzeb Khalid, Durr-e-Shahwar ., Shaista Andleeb

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 59-65
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/9596

Aim: The aim of this study was to document threats to Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus murghi).

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Deva Vatala National Park, Bhimber Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan from May 2010 to June 2011.
Methodology: The data on threats to Red Junglefowl were collected by using a combination of methods which included semi-structured interviews, participatory observations and group discussions with local community.
Results: Major threats faced by Red Junglefowl in the study area were egg picking (88%) followed by hunting (16.40%), disturbance (12%), chick capturing (9.60%) and habitat degradation (9.20%). Majority of local people (44.80%) believed that they see Red Junglefowl less frequently as compared to past whereas, (32.40%) believe that its sighting has been increased during past few years while (22.80%) had no idea about increase or decrease of sightings. Shepherds were major group responsible for causing threats to Red Junglefowl (70.40%) followed by hunters (20.40%) and farmers (9.20%). According to our findings (89.20%) people liked Red Junglefowl whereas, (19.60%) people neither like or dislike it while a little proportion of people (1.60%) dislike Red Junglefowl. Majority of people (54.40%) thought that Red Junglefowl should be conserved whereas, (36%) believed that it should not be conserved while (9.60%) did not supported either conservation or exploitation.
Conclusion: Red Junglefowl is facing many threats in the study area among them egg picking followed by hunting are major threats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Stress Responsive Genes in Capsicum for Salinity Responses

Vaibhav Kumar Maurya, R. Srinivasan, E. Nalini, N. Ramesh, K. M. Gothandam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 66-78
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14107

Aims: This study is an endeavor to gain proper understanding about salt tolerance mechanism in plants; an attempt was made to characterize the differential expression of stress responsive genes, sodium potassium content proline content in three capsicum cultivars having different salt sensitivity level.
Place and Duration of Study: School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore of India between June 2013 to May 2014.
Methodology: Capsicum cultivars (salt tolerant, salt moderate sensitive and salt susceptible) were treated with different concentration of NaCl such as 25mM, 50mM, 100mM, 150mM and 200mM. Gene expression studies under different salt treatment were done for the following genes: osmotic adjustment (CaPROX1), osmotin like protein (CaOSM1), aquaporin (CaPIP2), dehydrin responsive gene (CaDREBLP1), ring domain zinc finger protein gene (CaKR1), membrane protein (CaChi2), endoplasmic reticulum ubiquitine ligase (CaRMa1H1) and cell death repressor (CaBI1). Proline content and sodium and potassium ion content also measured.
Results: The result indicated that genes CaDREBLP1, CaRMa1H1, CaKR1, CaOSM1 were up regulated while CaPROX1, CaPIP2 genes were down regulated under salt stress. But no significant difference was noticed in gene expression level of CaBI1 and CaChi 2 gene.
Conclusion: The higher gene expression level of stress responsive genes viz. CaDREBLP1, CaRMa1H1, CaKR1, CaOSM1 may involved in different level of salt tolerance among selected cultivars. Thus differential transcript modulation of these genes in capsicum cultivars indicates their role lending the salt tolerance in salt tolerant cultivar than sensitive.

Open Access Review Article

The Brain Cholinergic System in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Giancarlo Pepeu, Cristina Grossi, Fiorella Casamenti

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14623

The neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a progressive process of neuronal and myelin breakdown resulting in changes in the morphology and function of neurons and their death. The damage and death of the neurons is associated with an inflammatory response which involves an extensive glia activation and, through the release of inflammatory products, contributes to the neurodegenerative process. The neurodegeneration may spread throughout the brain or affect prevalently specific types of neurons such as the cholinergic neurons. Aims of this review are: 1) to describe which cholinergic nuclei degenerate in different neurodegenerative diseases, namely Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Lewy Bodies dementia, atypical Parkinsonian diseases and alcoholic dementia; 2) to discuss the mechanisms responsible for the degeneration of the cholinergic neurons; 3) to summarize the functional consequences of the cholinergic denervation. A feature of Alzheimer’s disease is the loss of the forebrain cholinergic neurons leading to a cortical cholinergic denervation. A similar loss is found in Alzheimer’s disease with Lewy bodies, Parkinson disease with dementia, together with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, in Lewy bodies dementia and alcoholic dementia. In Lewy bodies dementia and in multiple system atrophy a loss of cholinergic neurons has been also detected in the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei, which are spared in Alzheimer’s disease and results in a cholinergic denervation of the thalamus. The degeneration of the forebrain cholinergic neurons expressing NGF receptors is attributed to a dysfunction of NGF metabolism leading to a loss of its trophic action on which those neurons depend. Whereas the direct and indirect role of β amyloid in NGF metabolism disruption has been clearly envisaged, the mechanisms through which tau fibrils, synuclein and ethanol exert their toxic effects on the cholinergic neurons are multiple and still matter of investigations. Finally, much evidence indicate that the loss of forebrain cholinergic neurons is largely responsible for the cognitive deficits of dementias.