Open Access Case study

Robert’s Syndrome in an 8 Month Infant

Ahmadipour Shokoufeh, Mohsenzadeh Azam, Shahkarami Kourosh, Mohamadzadeh Sajad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 142-146
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/13555

Background: Robert’s syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder. The Gene of this syndrome is located on chromosome 8 and it is characterized by craniofacial anomalies and deformity in the limbs. Upper limbs are more involved compared to lower parts. In many cases thumb is involved. This syndrome is also called pseudo-thalidomide syndrome. The affected individuals are smaller pre and post natally, compared to others.
Case Presentation: Here an 8-month-old infant is introduced by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation accompanied by craniofacial and limb anomalies. For whom Robert’s syndrome was diagnosed based on clinical and genetic findings.
Discussion: in infants born with craniofacial anomalies and limb deformities, Robert’s syndrome is one of the options, which is extremely rare and only 150 cases are reported to now. Half of these are mentally retarded and they die in their childhood and their main death cause is not yet described.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multiple Shoot Regeneration from Nodal Explants of Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr

Z. Alizah, Y. Nurulaishah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 85-88
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15099

Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. is an important medicinal plants and used to treat various ailments such as diabetes, hypertension and urinary tract infection. Multiple shoot formation was induced from nodal segment of G. procumbens cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing various concentrations 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The MS medium with 3 mg/l BAP gave the highest number of shoots per explant. All the micro-shoots produced normal roots within two weeks of culture on basic MS medium without any plant growth regulators. Regenerated plants were aclimatised before transferred to field condition and showed similar morphology to field grown plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Distribution of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae) Natural Stands in the Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean Zones of West Africa: Gradient Distribution and Productivity Variation across the Five Ecological Zones of Togo

Segla Kossi Novinyo, Adjonou Kossi, Rabiou Habou, Radji Abdou Raoufou, Kokutse Adzo Dzifa, Bationo Babou André, Mahamane Ali, Nestor Sokpon, Kokou Kouami

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 89-102
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14771

Aims: This study aims to analyze the structure of some populations and the natural regeneration potentials of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. According to the environmental conditions, taking into account the 5 ecological zones of Togo. Especially, it aims to: (i) Describe the geographical distribution of the species in Togo, (ii) Analyze the influence of environmental variables (climates, soils and type of vegetation) on the structural characteristics of natural stands and (iii) Determine the natural regeneration potentialities of the species.
Place and Duration of Study: Fieldworks were done from 10 October to 15 December 2013 throughout Togo.
Methodology: Forestry inventory was carried out on 200 plots of 1000 m² randomly set up in P. erinaceus natural stands in the 5 ecological zones of Togo. In each plot, total height, the merchantable height and diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm were measured. The regeneration was studied in sub-parcels of 25 m² set up in the previous parcels of 1000 m². In these sub-parcels, the natural seedlings, coppices, sucker which the DBH is less or equal to 10 cm were counted. The geographic coordinates of each tree are registered with the GPS.
Results: The results show that P. erinaceus had a wide distribution and tolerance range in Togo. Trees populations' average density is between 57±23 N/Ha and 76.5±42 N/Ha. The average diameter, the average total height, the basal area are significantly different for the stands of the 5 ecological zones (P= 0, 00). Diameter distribution indicates a reversed-J in ecological zones 2, 4 and 5 i.e. dominated by small diameters structure of P. erinaceus (Poir.); and unimodal distribution in zones 1 and 3. The study shows that a seedling which is the main strategy of regeneration is not significantly different between the stands studied. Results also show a good natural regeneration capacity of P. erinaceus by a coppice.
Conclusion: This study enables to describe the main characteristics of the natural stands of P. erinaceus in Togo and constitute therefore a useful source of information for the management of natural stands notably that of P. erinaceus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Woody Species Diversity and Structure of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. Dong Parklands in the Sudanian Zone of Togo (West Africa)

Essotèbèmime Padakale, Wouyo Atakpama, Marra Dourma, Kangbéni Dimobe, Kpérkouma Wala, Kudzo A. Guelly, Koffi Akpagana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 103-114
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14105

Aims: This study aims at assessing the impact of land use on woody species diversity and the structure of Parkia biglobosa parklands in the Sudanian zone of Togo.
Place and Duration of Study: Fieldworks were carried out in April 2013 and data analysis were realized in August 2014.
Methodology: Data were collected within four type of P. biglobosa parklands: young fields (one to three years), old fields (aged more than three years), young fallows (one to three years), and old fallows (aged more than three years). In each type of parkland, the total height and girth of all woody species with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 10 cm were measured within twenty sample plots of 2500 m² (50 m x 50 m).Furthermore, P. biglobosa individual with dbh < 10 cm considered as potential regeneration were counted in the same plots.
Results: Thirty eight (38) woody species belonging to 34 genera and 18 families were identified. The most representative families were Fabaceae (8 species), Malvaceae (6 species), Moraceae (5 species), and Anacardiaceae (4 species). The highest species richness was recorded in old fallows (27 species), followed by young fallows (18 species) and young fields (17 species). The species Important Value Index (IVI) showed that the most important species apart from P. biglobosa was Vitellaria paradoxa. Added to V. paradoxa, the most represented species were Diospyros mespiliformis, Blighia sapida, Adansonia digitata and Vitex doniana respectively in young fields, old fields, young fallows and old fallows. The diameter structure of P. biglobosa showed a left dissymmetric bell-shape curve with Weibull distribution shape parameter c, 1 <c<3 indicating a predominance of small diameter individuals within the overall stands. However, the overall rate of regeneration was weak with a nearest absence in old fields. Fisher test showed a significant difference between all dendrometric parameters. The species richness and density decline from young fields to old fields, and increase from young fallows to old fallows.
Conclusion: In spite of the predominance of young individuals, the weak regeneration of P. biglobosa will threaten its population in the future and consequently lowering its productivity. The introduction of juvenile individuals into farmlands may be needed to ensure its conservation in agroforestry systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Estradiol Valerate on Serum Biochemical Profiles in Aged Female Albino Rats

A. Lalithamma, C. Changamma

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 115-120
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14749

Estradiol valerate is used for hormone replacement therapy because it contains the principal oestrogen hormone that is lost during the change of life. Progynova contains estradiol valerate, an ester of the endogenous female estrogen. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the serum profiles in estradiol valerate administered aged female rats. In the present study estradiol valerate (progynova tablets) administered orally at the dose of 8mg/Kg body weight/day to aged female rats for one week through oral gavages method. Significant decrease in serum lipids by administration alters lipid profiles favorably. The elevated levels of serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in aged rats, indicates the necrosis in liver due to the lowered estrogens, which were reversed by estradiol valerate administration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methane Cycling Microbial Communities in Natural and Drained Sites of Taldom Peatland, Moscow Region, Russia

Irina Kravchenko, Anna Kizilova, Ekaterina Menko, Andrey Sirin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 121-132
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14978

Aims: Drainage of peatlands is known to decrease overall CH4 emission, but the effect on methane cycling microbes is poorly described. For this reason we aimed to reveal the differences in methanogenic and methanotrophic communities between pristine peatlands and its counterpart that was drained in 1979.
Study Design: Comparative molecular analysis of microbial communities involved in methane cycling.
Place and Duration of Study: Peat samples were collected in July 2012 in Taldom natural and drained sites of Dubnensky peatland massif.
Methodology: Total DNA was extracted from fresh peat samples and analyzed by PCR-DGGE technique in order to evaluate diversify of key functional genes for methanotrophy (pmoA) and methanogenesis (mcrA) as well as the phylogenetic archeal16S rRNA genes. FISH method was applied to count Bacteria and Archea.
Results: Our results demonstrated that in natural peatlands hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated, but in the drained peats both hydrogenotrophic and acetothrophic methanogens were found. It was revealed striking difference between methanotrophs of natural and drained peatlands. Sequence analysis of marker pmoA gene, suggested that Methylocystis –like methanotrophic Alphaproteobacteria were dominants in natural peatlands. Conversely Methylobacter was found to be actively involved in CH4 oxidation in the drained peats.
Conclusion: This study indicates drastic changes in structure of CH4-cycling microbial communities, affected by drainage and can be applied as environmental indicators in monitoring of anthropogenic influence on peatland ecosystems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Free Radicals Scavenging and Neuroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Combretum zenkeri Leaf

C. O. Ujowundu, C. U. Ogbonna, G. N. Okwu, C. S. AIisi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 133-141
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14039

Combretum zenkeri is a small tree found in the tropical West Africa that has been applied by locals in the treatment of arthritic and other inflammatory diseases. This study investigated the free radical scavenging activities of ethanolic leaf extract of C. zenkeri against nitric oxide NOË™and hydroxyl OHË™ radicals and reducing power (Fe3+–Fe2+ transformation ability). Inhibition of lipid peroxidation through determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in brain homogenates (neuro-protective potentials) was also studied. The plant extract demonstrated the ability to scavenge nitric oxide and hydroxyl radicals in a dose-response manner. In the reducing power assay, the ethanolic extracts gave the optical density in a logistic dose response curve with the concentration of 581.46 µg/ml at optical density of 0.5. The neuroprotective ability of the plant extract indicated good antioxidant capacity. These results provide basis to regard C. zenkeri as an asset in the quest to ameliorate oxidative diseases with naturally occuring secondary metabolites in plants.