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Open Access Original Research Article

Altitudinal Changes in Species Diversity and Stand Structure of Tropical Forest, Vietnam

Tran Van Do, Osamu Kozan, Tran Minh Tuan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 156-165
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14867

Ba Vi National Park (BNP) is known as one of the first parks established in Vietnam and has been well preserved against human disturbances. A study was conducted to understand altitudinal changes and aspect differences of species diversity and stand structure in evergreen broadleaf forest in BNP. Twenty plots (40 m x 50 m), distributing between 130 and 1,195 m above sea level were used for stem census, which were equally established in both eastern and western aspects. All stems with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm were identified to species and measured for DBH. Results indicated significant linear relationships between elevation and basal area (G), top canopy height, species density, Shannon diversity index, and Evenness. Elevation zone of > 1,000 m above sea level had highest species density, Shannon diversity index, Evenness, stem density, G, and top canopy height, which were significant higher than that in 500-1,000 m and < 500 m elevational zones. Species composition in BNP was different between eastern aspect and western aspect, and both aspects shared 86 species in total 219 species found. While, stand structure and species diversity were not significant different between two aspects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Salinity Stress Effect on Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Ecotypes in Kerman, Iran

Mahla Samareh Saliani, Alireza Bahraminejad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 166-175
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14878

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is one of the most important Medicinal plants. Since many semi arid and arid areas of Iran are affected by salinity and accessing water resources has been decreased. Proper measures need to be taken for water efficiency and efficient use of salt area in agriculture. Resources can be used in an optimum way by changing the planting pattern and using proper of cumin under salt stress. This research was conducted to determine the highest rate yield and tolerance against salinity stress of different ecotypes of cumin. The experiment was executed in the triple lattice with three repetitions in Kerman, Iran. The results showed that salinity stress has significant deference on traits such as seed index, seed yield, dry weight and harvest index, while it has non-significant result on other yield components such as plant height, number of umbel per plant, number of seeds per umbel and number of seeds per plant. The studied ecotypes had a significant difference regarding all of the characteristics. Therefore, the ecotype of Sepidan from Pars province was identified as the most tolerating and the ecotype of Qaen from Southern-Khorasan province was identified as the most sensitive ecotype under salinity stress regarding seed yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Revamp Studies on Morpho-Histology of the Male Reproductive System of Halys dentatus Fabricious (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

Gangurde Jyoti, Nikam Santosh, Desai Ashok

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 176-183
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14941

Aim: Revamp studies on the morphology and histology of plant bug Halys dentatus F. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).
Study Design: Halys dentatus Fab. is acting as pest of many plants, multivoltine in nature, therefore their reproductive cycle observed throughout the year. Hence, the number of reproductive cycles increased the population of H. dentatus to cause harm to plants, therefore there is need to study the male reproductive system of H. dentatus as a part of fundamental studies.
Place and Duration of Study: Entomology Research Laboratory; P.G. Department of zoology,
K.T.H.M. College, Nashik. (MS, India).
Methodology: Adults of H. dentatus (Fab.) were collected, anesthetized with anesthetic ether & embedded in dissecting paraffin wax plate, dissected in insect saline solution (Lum, [13]) using stereoscopic research binocular microscope. The male reproductive system exposed and isolated, fixed in Debocqui’s Bouin’s fixative for 18 hrs., dehydrated (acetone grades), Cleared (xylene; acetone), blocks were prepared, sections were cut on Leica microtome, stained & micro photographed.
Results and Observation:
Morphology: The male reproductive system of H. dentatus (Fab.) constitute a pair of testis, pair of vas deferens, seminal vesicles, accessory glands (ectodermal & endodermal) & ejaculatory duct (bulbus & ductus).
Histology: Histology of testis of H. dentatus showed the six numbers of testicular follicles with different development zones; the growth zone, the maturation zone and the zone of differentiation. The inner layer of vas deferens and seminal vesicle was composed of cuboidal epithelial cells. The accessory glands are both ectodermal and endodermal in origin. The ectodermal accessory glands are triplate, milky white in colour while mesodermal accessory glands are convoluted bunch of fine tubular structure.
Conclusion: The male reproductive system was studied with reference to revamp morpho-histology; during the year 2009-2011. The anatomy resemble with other pentatomid bug with little difference in vas deference, investing sac and major difference is the testicular follicles are six in number not seven.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Compositions of Essential Oils of Flower, Leaf, Stem and Root of Phlomis cancellata Bunge. from Mazandaran, Iran

Mohammad Mahdavi, Mohanna Deylamsalehi, Alireza Motavalizadehkakhky

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 184-190
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/9642

Aims: Phlomis cancellata is an aromatic and native plant that is a member of Labiatae. Not only a traditional medicine but also the plant is considered in modern medicine and different industries because of its essential oil characteristics. The features of essential oils in aromatic plants are based on the part of plant from which they are extracted. In the present study the chemical composition of the essential oils of different parts of the Phlomis cancellata were evaluated.
Place and Duration of Study: Plant was collected from its natural habitat in Mazandaran province, Iran, in July 2012, its parts were separated and then dried in laboratory (Nour Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran) and essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation.
Methodology: The essential oil of P. cancellata obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS.
Results: The chemical analysis has resulted in identification of 25, 20, 11 and 2 constituents, comprising about 99.8, 97.6, 99.8 and 99.0% of the total constituents in oils of flower, leaf, stem and root, respectively; additionally sesquiterpenes hydrocarbones components (82.3, 82.6 and 89.8%, respectively) were the major components in oils of flower, leaf and stem, whereas nonterpene component (99.0%) was dominant in the oil of the plant root. The major constituents in the oil of flower of P. cancellata were tetradecane, β-(E)-caryophyllene, (E)-farnesene, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene D, and germacrene B; while leaf’s oil predominantly contained germacrene D, β-(E)-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-Pentadecanone. Also germacrene D, β-Elemene, β-(E)-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene B and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-Pentadecanone were identified as the major compounds in stem’s oil; while only two nonterpene constituents’ were identified in the root oil: linoleic acid and bicyclo [10.1.0] tridec-1-ene.
Conclusion: According to high outputting, presence of valued compounds and sesquiterpenes the most portion extracted essential oil from flowers and leaves have the best quality and are used in different industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Research on the Effect of Pigments Rate on Quality and Quantity of Secondary Metabolites in Camellia sinensis L. in 13 Experimental Clones and Comparison in Two Times of Spring and Summer

Parvaneh Rahdari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 191-201
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/11784

The present study was conducted in 2009 in order to investigate the effects of chlorophyll and carotenoid on determining the quality and quantity of dry tea that was obtained from the selective tea clones and was available in research bases supervised by the National Tea Research Center. To carry out the experiment, random blocks were selected and 13 treatments with 3 repetitions were applied twice (once in the spring and another in the summer). Samples were transferred to the laboratories of the national tea research center in order to measure chlorophyll and carotenoid amounts and qualitative and quantitative characteristics such as caffeine, tannin, Theaflavin (TF), Thearobigin (TR), transparency, function, and total colour. Assessing the amount of chlorophyll and carotenoid was carried out by extracting green tea leaves with methanol and reading it with spectrophotometer; wavelengths of 666 nm, 653 nm, and 470 nm were respectively applied for chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS and MSTAT-C.
The results of variance analysis showed that there was a significant relation between genotypes and Isolation time. They also indicated that genotype and sampling time had mutual effect on each other. Moreover, mean comparison was conducted through Duncan and Sheffe method, the results of which showed that genotype means place in different groups based on different features. Also, assessing correlation of features indicated that pigments rate had a negative correlation with quality factors such as Theaflavin (polyphenol), Thearobigin (Alkaloid), and tannin (polyphenol). It was also concluded that, pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid had a significant positive relation with tea quality. According to the results of the study, it seems that colon 100 with higher amount of product, lower rate of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, and more polyphenols and alkaloids had better performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Ichthyofauna of Gediz River (Turkey): Taxonomic and Zoogeographic Features

Salim Serkan Güçlü, Fahrettin Küçük

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 202-214
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14889

Aims: This study was carried out to determine the fish fauna in the Gediz River and by comparing the fish fauna with that of neighboring basins from a zoogeographical point of view.
Place and Duration of Study: In order to establish the taxonomic and zoogeographic features of the fish fauna of the Gediz River Basin (Turkey), fish samples were collected using elektrofishing equipment gill nets trammel nets, seine nets and cast nets from June 2010 to July 2012.
Methodology: The fish were collected using electrofishing equipment, gill nets (mesh size of 9x9 mm and 12x12 mm), trammel nets (various mesh seize), seine nets (2 mm) and cast nets. The samples were fixed and preserved in a 4% formalin solution. Meristic characters such as number of gill rakers, pharyngeal teeth, dorsal and anal fin rays, total lateral line scales were counted under a stereomicroscope. The last two branched dorsal and anal fin rays are counted “1/2”. The number of vertebrae in the Cyprinidae and Nemacheilidae was determined by radiography.
Results: Among the samples, 19 (Anguillidae (1), Cyprinidae (10), Siluridae (1), Nemacheilidae (1), Cobitidae (2), Poeciliidae (1), Gobiidae (1), Percidae (1) and Salmonidae (1)) species belonging to 9 families were identified. Determination of the species; Alburnus battalgilae, Barbus pergamonensis, Luciobarbus lydianus, Capoeta bergamae, Squalius fellowesii, Chondrostoma holmwoodii, Ladigesocypris mermere, Cobitis kurui, Cobitis fahireae, Oxynoemacheilus simavicus and Knipowtischia mermere are endemic; Gambusia holbrooki and Oncorhynchus mykiss are non-native species.
Conclusion: As a result, in the Gediz River where there were 19 fish taxa, 44% of taxa were endemic. The endemic species on the basis of the IUCN criteria must be especially protected.

Open Access Review Article

Current Status of Glossina Population Ecology

Samuel N. Okiwelu, M. Aline E. Noutcha, Nwamaka O. Akpodiete

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 147-155
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14314

Background: Vector control remains the most visible method for large scale control of trypanosomiasis; there is a lack of suitable prophylactic drugs and vaccines against trypanosomiases and chemotherapeutic agents remain too expensive and dangerous for most people in endemic areas. Glossina populations are the target units and therefore an in-depth understanding of their ecology is a pre-requisite to the development of effective control measures.
Sampling Methods: Refers to methods of catching tsetse flies in the field. Earlier Researchers utilized walking parties to catch flies or standing catch with hand nets. Studies in the 1970s highlighted the shortcomings of these methods. A variety of traps has since been developed for diverse species.
Population Dynamics: Refers to changes in population abundance over time. Three processes (dispersal, natality, mortality) are involved in determining population levels. Geographic structure is the distribution and abundance within and among populations. Based on direct observations, mark-recapture protocols or radio-tracking, earlier view was that Glossina dispersal was random. Currently, the best available description is a diffusion process; flies at the margins of the distributional range begin the process, which gradually moves inwards. Calculation of growth rates is easier for small closed Glossina populations. There is a consensus among tsetse ecologists that both density-dependent and density-independent factors are important in the regulation of tsetse numbers.
Population Genetics: It encompasses two distinct but related components: demographic and genetic distribution of genetic variation and the result of migration, selection mutation, genetic drift and related factors: New molecular genetics techniques have allowed insights into many fields.
Conclusion: There have been significant advances in Glossina ecology over the past 3 decades. These have been possible because of the availability of comprehensive data from long-term field studies and the introduction of new molecular genetics techniques that have allowed insights into many fields. Glossina population genetics and manipulation of prokaryotic symbiont species may provide avenues for management innovations to confront the intractable problem of trypanosomiasis in Africa.